一、人称代词 it 的最基本用法是作代词，主要指刚提到的事物，想法，以避免重复;也可以指性别不明或性别被认 为是不重要的人或动物；未指明但谈话双方都明白的事情或情况。 ①They watched the train until it disappeared in the distance. ②Is this your dog？ No, it
isn’t. ③I hate it when people talk with a full mouth.． 二、.非人称代词.it 有时并不指具体的东西而泛指天气、时间、日期、距离、价值、度量、温度、环境等： It is a lovely day, isn’t it? // It was nearly midnight when she came back. It is April First today. // It is some 3000 kilometers from A to B. It is three dollars. // Today it is 30 degrees centigrade. 三、作形式主语，替代主语从句，动词不定式，或动名词短语 1.作形式主语替代主语从句 ⑴It is clear ( obvious， true， possible， certain....) that ＂┅清楚的（显然的，真的，可能的,肯定的．． ．）＂ ⑵It is important ( necessary， right， strange， natural...) that + (should ) do (虚拟语气) ┅是重要的(必要的,对的,奇怪的,自然的┅) ⑶It is said (reported/ learned/believed/thought/known/told/hoped.....) that = sb / sth is said (reported/ believed /thought…) to do( to be doing/ to have done) sth ＂据说（据报道，据悉．． ．）＂。 ⑷It is suggested ( advised/ ordered / demanded/ insisted/ commanded... ) that +(should ) do ＂据建议；有命令． ． ⑸It is a pity ( a shame /an honour/a good thing/a fact,/a surprise/... ) that that 后的从句一般用虚拟语气（should + 动词原形） ，should 可省去．表示出乎意料，常译为＂竟然＂。没有这 种意义时，则不用虚拟语气。 小练一下： It is very clear that he’s round and tall like a tree. = It is important that we (learn) English well. It is necessary that he (remember) these words. It is said that he has come to Beijing. = It is reported that another earth satellite has been put into orbit. = It is suggested that the meeting ( put off). It was ordered that we (arrive) there in two hours. It is a pity that such a thing ( happen) in your class. It is a pity that he (be) ill. 2.作形式主语替代不定式 . ⑴ It is kind ( of sb. ) to do sth.= sb be kind to do sth.一般都是表示人的特性的形容词。如： bad /brave /careless/ clever /cruel / foolish / good （好心的）/ honest/ kind / lazy / modest/ naughty/ nice（有教养的） /polite/ rude / silly / stupid / wise ，等。 Eg. It is kind of you to give me a hand. = ⑵It is necessary ( for sb. ) to do sth. .不定式的逻辑主语是由 for 引起。 常见的形容词有： Important/ necessary/ natural/ easy / safe / common / normal / hard / difficult / dangerous/ unusual/ rare / impossible / pleasant Eg. It is important for her to come to the party.
= It is important that she to the party. ⑶It takes sb. ... to do sth. 常译为＂做．．要花费某人．．＂。 ． ． Eg It took thousands of people many years to build the Great Wall. (4)it’s up to sb to do sth 做某事由某人决定 Eg It is up to us to live a green life. 3.作形式主语替代动名词短语 It is no good / no use / useless doing sth. “┅有好处或没有用” Eg It is dangerous walking on thin ice. It won't be any help my going with you. It is no good (learn) English without speaking English. It's useless (try) to argue with Shylock. It is a waste of time (you talk) to him. 四、作形式宾语，代替不定式，动名词短语或宾语从句。 1. Sb+ think（feel/find/ consider/ take/ make/believe）+ it +necessary(important… )+( for sb. ) to do sth. /that 从句 Eg. The chairman thought ___ necessary to invite Professor Smith to speak at the meeting. A. that B. it C. this D. him 翻译：她发现很难回答这个问题。 2. S+ V + it + one’s duty(an honor/ a rule…) + ( for sb. ) to do sth. /that 从句 Eg. I think it his duty to clean the blackboard 西方国家的人们习惯为他们的亲戚朋友买圣诞礼物。 People in the west to buy Christmas presents for their relatives and friends. They want to make it clear to the public that they do an important and necessary job. 3.S+ V + it + no good / no use + doing sth. 我认为告诉他们没用。 We think it a waste (argue) with him 4. it 用在不能够直接跟宾语从句的动词后，尤其是表示好恶的动词。如：enjoy/like/love/dislike/hate/depend on/ be fond of /see to 后 句型：I like (enjoy, hate…) it when…. I would appreciate it if… …see to(depend on/depend on/be fond of…) it that Eg I like ___ in the autumn when the weather is clear and bright. A. this B. that C. it D. one 译：如果你能帮我，我将不胜感激 I can’t help if he is always late. Please see to that you bring enough money when you go out. 五、it/one/ that 三者均可用作代词，指代前面提到的名词 It 指代同名同物，表示特指= the+名词； one 与 that 则指代同名异物。 One 只能替代可数名词单数，表泛指= a/ an+名词； ones 代替可数名词复数，泛指。 That 可替代可数或不可数名词，表示特指=the+名词，多与 of 连用 Those 代替可数名词复数 = the ones， 多与 of 连用 练：I have lost my umbrella; I am looking for . I haven’t a pencil. Can you lend me I prefer the red ones to the white Mary’s handwriting is far better than of Peter. The boys in our class are more active than in your class. 六、常考句型 1.强调句型: It is/was + 被强调部分 + that (被强调的主语如果是人，that 可以由 who 换用
被强调的宾语是人时，用 whom 换用) It was Mary picked up the wallet. It was one of my old schoolmates I visited yesterday. In which play is ___ your brother appears? A. that where B. this when C. it that D. it where It was in the lab ___ was taken charge of by Professor Zhang ___ they did the experiment. A. where; that B. which ; where C. that ; where D. which; that 2. It is/was not until+被强调部分+that 其中 that 从句中的谓语动词用肯定式。 It was ___ back home after the experiment. A. not until midnight did he go B. until midnight that he didn’t go C. not until midnight that he went D. until midnight when he didn’t go 昨晚直到十二点我父亲才回家。 I didn’t recognize her until she took off her dark glasses. = （强调句） = （倒装句） 一般疑问句：是在 1969 年她出生在苏州的吗？ 特殊疑问句：你是在什么时候认识她的？ 3.it is (about /high) time that +sb did/ should do (should 不省) 该是…的时候了（虚拟定语从句） It is time that children （go）to bed. 4.it/ this /that is the first(second/third….) time that + have done 第几次做…….（定语从句） It /this /that was the first (second/ third….) time that + had done It is the first time that I (come )to visit the city. It was the second time that Mary (cheat) in the exam. 5.it is/has been +一段时间+since +sb did sth 从句动词为短暂动词，自从(短暂动词表示的动作开始)以来已经…..时间 了；从句动词为延续性动词，自从(延续性动词表示的动作结束)以来已经…..时间了 （时间状语从句） It’s 5 years since I left my hometown. It’s 2 years since my father smoked. It is (has been) 10 years _________ his father died. It is 10 years ago _____________ his father died. 6.it is + 时间名词+ when ….. 当…..的时候，是……点钟 (时间状语从句) It was 5 o’clock ___________ he arrived. It was 5 o’clock _________ he arrived. 7.it was /will be + 一段时间(long/not long/3 days /two weeks)+before…. 之后才，没过…就…（时间状语从句） It was three days before he went to BeiJing. 没过多久简妮就通过了驾驶测试。 8.it is +地点名词+where （定语从句） It is the city_________ he was born. It is in the city __________ he was born. 9. it happens (seems /appears/looks)+ that 碰巧 / 似乎/ 看来 It happened (so happened )that he met his teacher in the street. It seems that he will be back in a few days. 10. it looks (seems) as if… 看起来好像….. It looks as if it ______ (be) going to rain. It looks as if he ________ (be) ten years younger today.
一．单项选择 2011 山东卷 24 The two girls are so alike that strangers find_____ difficult to tell one from the other. A. it B. them C, her D. that 2011 北京卷,34 The employment rate has continued to rise in big cities thanks to the efforts of the local governments to increase . A. them B. those C. it D. that 2011 天津卷,1 We feel our duty to make our country a better place. A. it B. this C. that D. one 2011 山东卷,24 The two girls are so alike that strangers find ________ difficult to tell one from the other. A. it B. them C. her D. that 2011 福建卷,21 We have various summer camps for your holidays. You can choose ____ based on your own interests. A. either B. each C. one D. it 2011 重庆卷,27 ——Silly me! I forget what my luggage looks like. ——What do you think of over there? A. the one B. this C .it D .that 2011 江西卷 25 Why don’t you bring _____ to his attention that you’re too ill to work on? A. that B .it C .his D .him 8. 2011四川卷15 Was it on a lonely island ______ he was saved one month after the boat went down? A. where B. that C. which D. what 9. 2011陕西卷23 It is not how much we do but how much love we put into what we do ______benefits our work most. A. who B. which C. that D. what 10. 2011湖南卷35 It’s not what we do once in a while ______ shapes our lives, but what we do consistently A .which B. that C. how D. when 11. 〖10 全国Ⅱ〗The doctor thought ___________would be good for you to have a holiday. A. this B. that C. one D. it 12. 〖10 辽宁〗The fact that she was foreign made _____difficult for her to get a job in that country A so B. much C. that D. it 13. 〖10 山东〗Helping others is a habit, _______ you can learn even at an early age. A. it B. that C. what D. one 14. 〖10 陕西〗The cost of renting a house in central Xi’an is higher than ____ in any other area of the city. A. that B. this C. it D. one 15. 〖09 四川〗I like this house with a beautiful garden in front, but I don’t have enough money to buy__________. A. one B. it C. this D. that 16.〖09 浙江〗－I’ve read another book this week. －Well, maybe _____ is not how much you read but what you read that counts. A. this B. that C. there D. it 17. 〖08 湖南〗Our neighbors gave _____ a baby bird yesterday that hurt ______ when it fell from its nest. A. us, it B. us, itself C. ourselves, itself D. ourselves, it 18. 〖08 江西〗Isn’t it amazing how the human body heals _______after an injury? A. himself B. him C. itself D. it 19. 〖07 全国 II〗___ felt funny watching myself on TV. A. One B. This C. It D. That 20. 〖07 天津〗He didn’t make ________ clear when and where the meeting would be held. A. this B. that C. it D. these 21. 〖07 山东〗_______ worries me the way he keeps changing his mind.
A．This B．That C．What D．It 22. 〖07 江西〗I don’t mind her criticizing me, but is how she does it that I object to.? A. it B .that C. this D .which 23. 〖07 陕西〗—There is still a copy of the book in the library. Wall you go and borrow ? —No, I’d rather buy in the bookstore. A .it; one B .one; one C .one ;it D. it; it 24. 〖07 辽宁〗The information on the Internet gets around much more rapidly than ____ in the newspaper. A. it B. those C. one D. that 25. 〖07 浙江〗_______ is our belief that improvements in health care will lead to a stronger, more prosperous economy. A. As B. That C. This D. It .26. 〖07 浙江〗—He got his first book published. It turned out to be a bestseller. —When was _____? —_____ was in 2000 when he was still in college. A. that; This B. this; It C. it; This D. that; It 27. 〖06 全国 I〗If I can help_______, I don't like working late into the night. A. so B. that C. it D. them 28. 〖06 浙江〗 is our belief that improvements in health care will lead to a stronger, more prosperous economy.? A .As B .That C. This D .It 29. 〖06 湖南〗As the busiest woman in Norton, she made_________ her duty to look after all the other people’s affairs in that town. A .this B .that C .one D .it 30. 〖06 山东〗I’d appreciate ____ if you would like to teach me how to use the computer. A. that B. it C. this D. you 31. 〖06 安徽〗 Catherine bought a postcard of the place she was visiting, addressed ________ to ________ and then posted it at the nearby post office． A．it; her B．it; herself C．herself; her D．herself; herself 32. 〖05NMET〗It wasn’t until nearly a month later ______ I received the manager’s reply. A. since B. when C. as D. that 33. 〖05 全国 II〗The chairman thought_____ necessary to invite Professor Smith to speak at the meeting. A. that B. it C. this D. him 34. 〖05 全国Ⅲ〗The doctor advised Vera strongly that she should take a holiday, but _______ didn’t help. A．it B．she C．which D．he 35. 〖05 上海〗_______ in the regulations that you should not tell other people the password of your email account. A. What is required B. what requires C. It is required D. It required 36. 〖05 天津〗I prefer a flat in Inverness to ______in Perth, because I want to live near my Mom’ s. A. one B. that C. it D. this 37. 〖05 江西〗Cars do cause us some health problems —in fact far more serious _______ than mobile phones do. A．one B．ones C．it D．those 38. 〖05 浙江〗We’ve been looking at the houses but haven’t found _________ we like yet. A．one B．ones C．it D．them 39. 〖05 湖北〗He hasn’t slept at all for three days. _____ he is tired out. A. There is no point B. There is no need C. It is no wonder D. It is no way 40. 〖04 全国 I〗I like _______ in the autumn when the weather is clear and bright. A. this B. that C. it D. one 41. 〖04 全国 I〗—Do you like _____ here? —Oh, yes. The air, the weather, the way of life. Everything is so nice. A. this B. these C. that D. it 42. 〖04 全国 III〗We needed a new cupboard for the kitchen. So Peter made ___ from some wood. A. it B. one C. himself D. another
43. 〖04 湖北〗It was _____back home after the experiment. A. not until midnight did he go B. until midnight that he didn’t go C. not until midnight that he went D. until midnight when he didn’t go 44. 〖04 福建〗It was with great joy _____ he received the news that his lost daughter had been found. A. because B. which C. since D. that 45. 〖04 上海〗Why! I have nothing to confess. _____ you want me to say? A. What is it that B. What it is that C. How is it that D. How it is that 46. 〖04 北京〗The foreign minister said, “_____ our hope that the two sides will work towards peace.” A. This is B. There is C. That is D. It is 47. 〖04 江苏〗--- How long are you staying? --- I don’t know. _____. A. That’s OK B. Never mind C. It depends D. It doesn’t matter 48. 〖03 NMET〗—There’s coffee and tea; you can have _____. —Thanks. A. either B. each C. one D. it 49. 〖03 上海〗It is these poisonous products _____can cause the symptoms of the flu, such as headache and aching muscles. A. who B. that C. how D. what 50. 〖03 上海〗It is pretty well understood _____controls the flow of carbon dioxide in and out the atmosphere today. A. that B. when C. what D. how 51. 〖03 上海春〗It was because of bad weather _____the football match had to be put off. A. so B. so that C. why D. that 52. 〖02 上海〗Since you have repaired my TV set, ______ is no need for me to buy a new one. A. it B. there C. this D. that 53. 〖02 北京〗--- When shall we start? --- Let’s _____ it at 8:30. Is that all right? A. set B. meet C. make D. take 54. 〖02 北京春〗—He was nearly drowned once. —When was _____ ? —_____ was in 1998 when he was in middle school. A. that; It B. this; This C. this; It D. that; This 55. 〖01NMET〗The Parkers bought a new house but _____ will need a lot of work before they can move in. A. they B. it C. one D. which 56. 〖01 上海〗In fact _____is a hard job for the police to keep order in an important football match. A. this B. that C. there D. it 57. 〖2001 上海春〗It was for this reason _____her uncle moved out of New York and settled down in a small village. A. which B. why C. that D. how 58. 〖00NMET〗It is the ability to do the job _____ matters not where you come from or what you are. A .one B .that C. what D .it 59. 〖2000 上海〗Someone is ringing the doorbell. Go and see _____. A. who is he B. who he is C. who is it D. who it is 60. 〖2000 上海〗The news that they failed their driving test discouraged him, _____? A. did they B. didn’t they C. did it D. didn’t it 61. 〖2000 上海春〗It was how the young man had learned five foreign languages _____attracted the audience’s interest. A. so that B. that C. what D. in which