Unit 2 English around the world
Ｉ． 单元教学目标 技能目标 Goals Talk about English language，its development and different kinds of English Practice expressing language difficulties in communication
Learn to use reported requests and commands Learn the steps of preparing a composition and write a passage about experience of English learning II． 目标语言 Dealing with language difficulties in communication Please... Could you please...? Would you please...? Pardon? I beg your pardon? I don’t understand. 功 能 句 式 Could you say that again, please? Could you repeat that, please? Can you speak more slowly, please? Sorry, I can’t follow you. How do you spell it, please? 1. 四会词汇 include, role, international, native, elevator, flat, apartment, rubber, petrol, gas modern, culture, AD, actually, present, rule, identity, government, vocabulary, usage,
Singapore, Malaysia, rapidly, phrase, candy, lorry, standard, eastern, Spanish,
command, request，retell, polite boss, 词 汇
midwestern, southeastern, northwestern, accent, recognize, lightning, direction, ma’am, subway, block
2. 认读词汇 Shakespeare，Noah Webster, Lori, dialect, Houston, Texas, Buford, Lester, catfish 3. 词组 play a role in, because of, come up, such as, play a part (in)，in the 1600’s, give commands 4. 重点词汇 actually, elevator, native, apartment, vocabulary, include, usage, present, international, rapidly, block Direct and Indirect Speech(2)——Requests 语 法 and Commands He / she asked ... (not) to do ... He / she ordered / told ...(not) to do ... 1. World Englishes come from those countries where English plays an important role as a first or second language, either because of foreign rule or because of its special role as an international language. P9 2. Native English speakers can understand each other even if they don’t speak 重 点 句 子 the same kind of English. However, they may not be able to understand everything. P9 3. It became less like German, and more like French because those who ruled England at that time spoke French. P10 4. Today the number of people learning English in China is increasing rapidly. P10 5. Believe it or not, there is no such a thing as standard English. P13 6. The US is a large country in which many different dialects are spoken. P13 7. In fact, an English dictionary like the kind you use today wasn’t made until the time of the Qing Dynasty. P51 8. There men spent nearly all of their lives trying to collect words for their dictionaries. P51
9. At the age of fourteen, he left his village school in Scotland and taught himself while working in a bank. P52 10. We know that languages develop and change over time and that is why we have new dictionaries from time to time. P52 III. 教材分析与教材重组 1. 教材分析 本单元以“世界英语”为中心话题，旨在通过本单元的学习让学生粗略了解世界 英语的发展状况,认识各种各样具有民族,地域特色的英语以及它们的出现原因和 不同之处。同时让学生学会语言障碍的表达法，能够区分、转述命令或请求语气 的祈使句，并让学生能用所学构思方法写一篇关于英语学习经验的作文。 1.1 Warming Up 介绍世界英语，要求学生区分英美语单词。此部分的目的是丰 富学生有关世界英语的知识。激发学生对英语发展历史的兴趣。 1.2 Per-reading 部分设置了两个与主题相关的问题。在激活学生已有知识的同
时引导学生为下一步阅读做好准备。 1.3 Reading 是一篇介绍英语发展史的文章。 文章首先以英语在分布范围上的扩 展来陈述英语的发展。第二段提出英语已发展为多个分支，并举例说明。第三， 四段以时间为顺序， 描述英语在不同时期与不同文化的交融，说明世界英语的形 成原因,并对中国英语提出设想。 1.4 Comprehending 设计了两个习题。第一部分以选择题的形式检测学生对课
文的理解。 第二部分设置了两个开放性思考问题。引导学生在掌握课文的基础上 联系实际，对英语学习现状陈述自己的观点。培养学生的思辨能力。 1.5 Learning about Language 分词汇和语法两个部分。词汇部分设置连线、填空
等形式的习题，在运用让中学生巩固所学单词及词组，体会英美语言差异。第二 部分讲解了本单元的语法项目（1）学会区分、感悟“命令”与“请求”的语言 结构和语气； （2）学习转述他人的“请求”和“命令”的 间接引语。同时给出 直接引语和间接引语的用法训练，包括单句的练习和情景语法练习。培养学生的 转述能力。 1.6 Using Language 包括四个部分。以语言实践为目的。 (1) Reading and talking 是一篇阅读材料介绍了英语方言。 要求学生在阅读的基础
上讨论中国的方言。贴近生活有利于调动学生的积极性并使学生感受不同文化， 认识到不同化之间亦有相似之处。 (2) Listening and writing 是一位美国男孩所的讲述的故事及他的老师对故事的转 述。 学生可通过听来体会南方方言与标准英语的不同。并强化学生通过听来获取 有关说话人信息的能力。 (3) Speaking 以问路的一段对话将英美语差异与间接引语结合起来，要求学生运 用所学知识编一段对话，将间接引语运用于实际生活。 (4) Writing 共有四部分。 第一二部分示范主题作文写作步骤。 三四部分设置任务， 要求学生写一篇关于英语学习的文章。培养学生就所给话题进行构思的能力。 2. 教材重组 从教材内容与单元目标分析，本单元可分为六课时。 2.1 将 Discovering useful words and expressions 的 1，2，3，4 作为预习部分。为 阅读作铺垫。可将 Warming Up, Pre-reading， Reading, 与 Comprehending 四部 分整合在一起上一节阅读课。 2.2 将 Using language 中的 Reading and talking 与 Workbook 中的 READING TASK 两篇阅读材料结合为一节泛读课。 2.3 Using language 中的 Listening and writing 与 Workbook 中的 LISTENING, LISTENING TASK 部分可以放在一节课中处理。 2.4 Discovering useful structure 与 Using language 中的 speaking, Workbook 中的 LISTING STRUCTURES 整合为语法课。 2.5 Workbook 中的 TALKING 涉及到本单元的两项内容，即语言交际困难的表 达法和间接引语，可以和 Speaking task 整合在一起上一堂口语课。 2.6 Using language 中的 Writing 与 Workbook 中的 WRITING TASK 和 PROJECT 组成一节写作课。 3. 课型设计与课时分配 1st period 2nd period 3rd period 4th period 5th period Reading Extensive Reading Listening Grammar Speaking
6th period Ⅳ.
分课时教案 The First Period Reading
Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 a. 重点词汇和短语 include, play a role, because of, international, native, come up, culture, actually, present, vocabulary, usage, identity, such as, rapidly b. 重点句子 World Englishes come from those countries... P9 Native English speakers can understand each other... P9 It became less like German, and more like French... P10 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the Ss to describe the history of English and know of the differences between American English and Britain English. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the students learn how to analyze the way the author describes the history of English. Teaching important points 教学重点 Retell the history of English according to the chart. Teaching difficult point 教学难点 Work together with partners and express one’s opinion on which kind of English one should learn. Teaching methods 教学方法 Discussion. Reading. Listening. Cooperative learning. Teaching aids 教具准备 A recorder, a projector and some slides.
Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step I Greeting and revision T: Good morning / afternoon, boys and girls! First I will check the words and expressions you have previewed. (P11-12 Discovering useful words and phrases part 1, 2, 3, and 4) Teacher shows answers on the screen. T: Please look at the screen and check your answer. Do you have any question? S： Are “such as” and “for example” the same? T: OK, I’ll give you two examples: 1. He knows five languages, such as Russian, French and Spanish. 2. The differences in the spoken language are greater. S: Oh, I see. “Such as” is used to list similar things, while “for example” is used to prove the speakers words. Ss ask any questions and Teacher explains to them in class. Step II Warming up Arouse the Ss’ interests in reading. Let the students know of world English. T: So much for the words. Can you name some countries in which English is spoken? Ss: Of course. America, Britain, Canada, Australia... Teacher writes American, British, Canadian, and Australian on the Bb. Then add English to these words. T: Are these Englishes the same? S: I think they are the same. They are all called English. S: I don’t think so. As I know BE and AE are different in spelling, pronunciation and so on. T: Well, turn to page 9. Read the warming up. Please answer the questions below. Ss: (scanning) There is more than one kind of English. T: Please go on reading and try to tell AE words from BE words below. After reading the students give their answers. T: Who will show your answer? S: I think “mum, in a team, rubber, petrol” are BE words. And “mom, on a team,
eraser, gas” are AE words. T: Can you give them a name? Ss: World English. T: Very good. Step III Pre-reading Activate the Ss’ background knowledge of English. T: From Warming up we know many people speak English in the world. How many people speak English and why do so many people speak English? Please discuss with your partners and answer the questions. A few minutes later. S: Maybe 1000 million people speak English today. Because many countries were colonies of England so English is spoken as a first or second language in many countries. S: We can’t get the exact number. More and more people begin to learn English because English is the working language in the United Nations. Everywhere children go to school to learn English. T: Excellent! About 1500 million people speak English as their first, second or foreign language. But they don’t speak the same kind of English. Step IV Reading Get the students to know the history of English and help the Ss to form a good habit of reading. Point to the Bb. T: How did different kinds of English come about? Please read the text “The Road to Modern English” quickly and pick out the answer. Ss read quickly to find the answer. T: Any volunteer to answer the question? S: I will. English has changed over time. All languages change when cultures communicated with one another. T: Any different ideas? Well, you all have the same answer.
Task1 Reading and choose correct answers.
T: Turn to page 10. Please read the questions and multiple answers first to know what information we should get, and then read the passage to find the answer. T: Now who would like to tell us your answer? S: I will. English has the most speakers now. T: Good. What’s the answer to the second? S: Languages change when cultures change. T: Right. How do you know？ S: I judge it, according to the second sentence in the third paragraph. T: Good. Can you choose the right answer to question 3？ S: Yes. From AD 450 to1150 English sounds more like German. T: Excellent. What about question 4? S: Around 1600’s. T: Very good. The last one? Let’s answer it together. Ss: China. T: You are quite right. Task2 Read and summarize the main idea of each paragraph. Work in groups of four. T: Read the text and tell the main idea of each paragraph. After reading, discuss your answer in groups of four. After a few minutes. T: What’s the main idea of the first paragraph? S1: The first paragraph tells us that more and more people speak English. S2: I don’t think so. It describes the extension of English in the world. T: Right. The first paragraph describes the extensive of English in the world. What is the main idea of paragraph 2？ S: It tells us native speakers can understand each other but not everything. Let the Ss give an example to prove this point. T: Can you tell me what the third paragraph is about? S: All languages change when cultures communicate with one another. It’s the key sentence of the last two paragraphs. This paragraph tells the development of English as native language. Any volunteer? The first one?
T: Quite right. What about the last paragraph? S: English is spoken as a foreign or second language in many countries. T: How many parts can we divide the text into？ S: Two parts. The first paragraph is the first part, and paragraph 2, 3 and 4 can be part 2. Task3 Analyze the text. T: Please read the text again to tell the main idea of each part and the function of each paragraph. After reading please fill in the chart below. Discussion S1: The first part describes the history of English in chronological order: 16th century-the next century —today. S2: It describes the development of English from the angle of its extension in region. Look, England — many other countries — more people than before (China). S3: I agree with S2. S4: In part two, the author first raises the fact: English has changed over time. Then analyze how English has changed into world English. T: Are you ready? Which group would like to fill the chart? Group 1 please writes down the main idea of each part. Group 2 please write the function of paragraph 1and2. Group3, the last two paragraphs. The other students check their answers. Sample chart (slide) Part Part1: 1 2 Part2: 3 4 Suggested answers Part Part1:The extension Paragraph of 1 Function Describe the development of English from the angle Paragraph Function
English in the world
of its extension in region. England—many countries—more than before (China). Part2:English when its changes 2 culture Raise the fact: English has developed English 3 Describe the development of English in English into world other people
communicate with others
speaking countries. 4 Describe the development of English in countries where it is spoken as a foreign language. Step V Post-reading Check the Ss’ understanding of the text, help the Ss deal with new language points. Task Express one’s own opinion. Work in groups of four. T: There are many kinds of English. Which kind of English are we learning? Ss: Both AE and BE. Show questions on the screen and ask a student to read them. T: Please discuss these questions and tell us your answers. 1. Do you think it matters what kind of English you learn? Why? 2. Why do you think people all over the world want to learn English? 3. Will Chinese English become one of the world English? After a few minutes. T: OK, I’ll ask some groups to report their opinions. Group 1, can you tell us your opinion? S: Yes. I think we should learn BE because other kinds of English came from it. or second
T: Any different ideas? S: In my opinion, we can learn any kind of English because people can understand each other even if they don’t speak the same kind of English. T: Wonderful! What about the second question? S: With the development of economy, it is necessary for people from different countries to communicate with each other. So we need a language to be work language, while English is the most widely used language. So people all over the world want to learn English. T: Very good! What’s your opinion? S: I think because of the wide use of computer, people have to learn English. Computer plays an important part in the popularity of English. T: OK. Question 3.Yes or no？ S: My answer is “yes”. A large number of Chinese especially young people are learning English. English is communicating with Chinese culture. There will be Chinese English. T: Only time will tell. Now we know English is spoken in so many countries and it plays an important part in the world. If we learn English well, we can listen to English song, read English novels, travel in English speaking countries comfortably and communicate with foreigners easily. Also, it is of great help not only to our own development but also to the development of our country. The Olympic Games will be held in Beijing. Let’s work hard and welcome its coming. Question time T: It’s time for you to ask any questions or let me explain the sentences that hinder your understanding of the text. Ss ask questions freely. T: Now let’s deal with some language points. Turn to page 9. Let’s look at the sentence: However, they may not understand everything. This sentence means that sometimes they can understand each other, but sometimes they have difficulty understanding each other. The English spoken between about AD 450 and 1150 was very different from the English spoken today. In this sentence, “spoken between about
AD 450 and 1150” and “spoken today” are used to describe the English. Homework Retell the text according to the chart. Finish exercises1, 2, 3 (Using words and expressions) P49-50. The Second Period Extensive Reading Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 a. 重点词汇和短语 standard, midwestern, Spanish, eastern, southeastern, northwestern, recognize, play a part (in) b. 重点句型 Believe it or not, there is no such a thing... P13 The US is a large country in which... P13 Geography also plays a part in... P51 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the students to gain the knowledge about dialects and how the editors of The Oxford English Dictionary work on it. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the Ss learn to make notes about Murray’s life. Teaching important points 教学重点 Make notes about Murray’s life. Talk about dialects in China after reading. Teaching difficult points 教学难点 After reading the text, summarize the good qualities needed for success. Teaching methods 教学方法 Listening and fast reading. Discussion and cooperative learning. Teaching aids 教具准备 A recorder and a projector.
Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方法 Step I Greeting and Revision Check the Ss’ homework by asking some of the students to retell the text. T: Good morning/afternoon, boys and girls. Who can retell the text? S: Let me have a try. At first, only people in England spoke English. Later, people from England moved to other parts, so English began to be spoken in many countries. Today, more people speak English as their first, second, or foreign language. Native English speakers can understand each other but not everything. All languages change when cultures communicate with one another. So there are British English, American English, Australian English and so on. They all have their own identity. English is also spoken as a foreign or second language in many other countries. Maybe one day Chinese English will become one of the world English. Task Listen and find the British and American words which are different but have the same meaning. Work in pairs. T: Turn to P12.part5. Listen to the dialogues one by one. Then tell your partner which words are different but have the same meaning. Let’s listen to the first one. After listening, the Ss give their answer: sweet-candy, lorry-truck, autumn-fall. Step II Pre-reading Task Introduce their dictionaries. T: If we meet a new word, we will turn to our dictionaries. Who would like to introduce dictionary to us? S1: My dictionary is the Oxford English dictionary. It can help me find new words, phrases, examples and so on. S2: This is my dictionary. With its help, I can tell the difference between similar words. What’s more, pictures in it make it easy for me to understand and master new words. Step III Reading Task1 Listen and answer questions. T: The Oxford English dictionary is the largest dictionary. Who is the editor? How many years did it take to complete the dictionary? Now please listen to the tape and
answer questions. Ss listen to the tape carefully and answer questions. T: Who is the editor? S: James Murray and some others. T: Excellent! Next question? Ss: Forty-four years. Task2 Read the passage and fill in the table. Work in pairs. T: Please turn to page 52 .Read the table first. Make sure the Ss know what they are expected to do. T: When you fill in “its difficulties” and “Qualities needed”, please discuss with your partner. Ss read the passage and fill in the table. Discussion S: It’s the biggest dictionary so it is very difficult to complete. S: And there was no computer at that time, so he had to write with pen and paper.... T: OK, I’ll ask some groups to report their opinions. Ss show their answers. Country Education Job Most important task Scotland Village school then taught himself. Work in a bank, teacher. Its difficulties: the biggest dictionary, work in a place where it is too hot or to cold, work alone at first, only used pen and paper. Qualities needed: hard work, interest in the job, patience. Who worked on it Murray, his two daughters and other editors. Date of completion Other information 1928 Ideas for this dictionary from a meeting
in Britain in 1857.Begin to do it in 1895.Hoped to finish it in ten years. Step IV Reading and talking (Page 13) Task1 Read and answer questions. Write “dialects” on the Bb. T: Please explain it in English. Ss: Look it up in the dictionary. Ss: Dialect means a form of a language that people speak in a particular part of a country. T: You are quite right. There are many dialects in American English. Do you know why? Please turn to Page 13 and find the answer in the text. One minute later. T: Who would tell me why? S3: Let me try. That is because people come from all over the world. And geography plays a part in making dialects. Task 2 New words. T: Very good. Now, look at the screen and try to guess the meaning of these words and put them in the right places in the map. Bb: southeast, northeast, southwest, northwest, south, west, east Ask one student fill in the map. Show more words on the screen. T: What’s the difference between these two groups? Bb: southeastern, northeastern, southwestern, northwestern, southern, western, eastern, northern Ss watch and look up their dictionary. Ss: The first group in Noun. The second is adjective. T: Please try to memory these words. Task 3 Games. Work in groups of four. The teacher plays the recorder. Ss listen and recognize different dialects in China. T: Which dialect is it?
Ss: Dongbei .… T: Who will tell an interesting story that shows great difference between dialects in China? Ss tell their partner an interesting story. Discussion “Why do we learn putonghua?” T: Please discuss with your partner “Why do we learn putonghua?” Ss: Dialects are so different that people from different places cannot understand each other, while Putonghua is the very way to solve the problem. Homework Preview Listening and writing on Page 14. Describe the picture and the three boys and answer first four questions. The Third Period Listening Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 重点词汇和短语 lightning, subway, underground, British, western, Europe, southeast 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Get the Ss to know more about world English and dialects by listening. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the students learn how to get detailed ideas of English programs. Teaching important points 教学重点 Listen to materials and grasp the information needed. Teaching difficult points 教学难点 Guess the name of speaker ’s country by listening. Teaching methods 教学方法 Listening. Discussion. Notes-making. Teaching aids 教具准备 A recorder.
Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step I Revision Describe the picture and the boys. T: Any volunteers to describe the picture? S1: There is a river in the picture. At the bank, there is a tall tree. We can see a very big fish in the river. S2: The two boys laughing are Buford and Big Billy Bob. A boy was frightened and fleeing. He is little Lester. T: Could you find the answers to the four questions? Ss: Yes. T: Good. Why does Buford think of Texas? How do you know it？ S: He believes it’s almost a different country from the US. The text tells us so. T: How large was the catfish？ S: The catfish was almost the size of a house. T: Why did Lester get out of the water very quickly? S: He thought the catfish would eat him. T: Why did Buford and Big Billy Bob laugh? S: Because the fish is harmless but Lester is so frightened and flee so fast. Step II Listening and writing (Page 14) Task Listen and answer questions. T: Another two persons will describe this story. One is Buford, who is from Texas and believes bigger is always better. He is speaking with one kind of Southern dialects. The other is his teacher, Jane, who speaks standard British English. First, listen and know of standard British English and Southern dialects. Ss listen to the tape and try to understand. T: Now listen for a second time and answer the last two questions. Make notes while listening. A few minutes later, check their answers. T: A, can you answer question 5? S: Yes. Jane is the second speaker, Buford’s teacher. She is from Britain.
T: Well done! Buford says “Hey, say to greet you? S: She says “Hello”. Step III Listening
y’all”to greet you. What does the second speaker
Task1 Listen and write the AE words. T: Last lesson we separate some AE words from BE words. Today, let’s go on listening and write down the AE words which have the same meanings as the BE words. Turn to page 48. Listening. The BE words have been written down. Read it. Then listen to the dialogue. In the conversation, “rush hour” is the name of a popular Hollywood film. After listening. T: Please read your answer together. (Write down the answers. Ss: picture- movie, lorry- truck, autumn- fall, underground- subway, sweets- candy Task2 Listen and write down answers to questions. Ss read the questions to find out the listening point first, and then listen to the tape to get the answers. T: Now the recorder will introduce a new way of English learning. Before listen to the tape, please read the questions to find out the listening point. Make notes of the answers while listening. Play the tape for the first time so that the students can get a general idea. The second and third time, the Ss write and check their answers. Pause and repeat the key sentences. T: Can you answer questions now? Ss: Yes. T: Good. What programme is Zhao Li watching? S: CCTV-9 World wide watch. T: Excellent! Who would like to answer the next questions? S: 2. Zhao Li thinks that watching TV programs will improve her English. 3. She thinks that Cao Ri is a good speaker. 4. The more listening practice you have, the better your listening skills will get,
especially if you hear variety of speakers. 5. You should be patient and keep trying. Soon you will understand more and more. Teacher checks the answers and explains some difficult listening points if necessary. Step IV Listening Task Task 1 Read the map and listen and find where the students come from. T: Please turn to page 51 and read the map. What does it tell us? S: It marks the places where English is spoken as a first or second language. Maybe it is about world English. T: Very clever! Now six foreign students come to our class to learn Chinese, and they are introducing themselves. Please listen carefully, and then write their names on the proper places on the map. It is a little difficult to finish the task individually. The teacher may do the first one with the Ss. While listening, repeat the key sentences. T: Let’s guess the first one together. Play the tape. T: From the first sentences and “British rulers”, we know S1 comes from India. Go on listening and write down your answer on the map. Ss listen to the tape and write down their answers. Teacher plays the tape twice. A few minutes later. T：Check your answers with your partner. Listen to the tape again. T: OK, where is S2 from? S: S2 is from Louisiana in the US. T: What about the others? Ss: S3 is from Jamaica, S4 Ireland, S5 the Philippines, and S6 Singapore. T: Very good. Step V Homework Make a short list of reasons why English is spoken in so many places around the world. Preview Page 15 Speaking. List the words that were confusing to Amy. Sample
Why English is spoken in so many places around the world？ English is the language most widely spoken and used in the world. Why? Industrial revolution impelled the development of England and it colonized much of the world. English began to be spoken in many other countries. America’s development also contributes to the extension of English. With the development of economy, countries communicate with each other more frequently. English is widely used and is one of the official languages of the Olympic Games and the United Nation. People realize the importance of English learning. Everywhere in the world children go to school to learn English. More people speak English as their first, second or foreign language. The Forth Period Grammar Teaching Goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 a. 重点词汇和短语 command, request, politely, direct, indirect, approach, subway, underground, block, b. 重点句型 Direct speech Commands: Do/Don’t... Requests: Do..., please./ Can you...? Could you...?/ Will you...? Would you...? Indirect speech Commands: sb. told/ordered sb. else (not) to do sth. Requests: sb. asked sb. else (not) to do sth. 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Focus on training the Ss to think in reported requests and commands. Enable the students to make dialogues with the target language.
3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the students to recognize different moods and pass on other ’s words correctly. Teaching important and difficult points 教学重点 How to express one’s command or request in the Indirect Speech. Master the features of commands-tell or order sb. to do sth. And the feature of request—ask sb. to do sth. Teaching difficult points 教学难点 How to tell the difference between a command and a request. How to change the pronouns when turning the direct speech into the indirect speech. Teaching methods 教学方法 Study individually, practice, role play. Teaching aids 教具准备 A projector and slides. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step I Greeting T: Good morning boys and girls. Step II Grammar (1) Task 1 Summarize the difference between commands and requests. Work in pairs. T: First, listen to me carefully. (Speak to three Ss)S1, open the window. S2, pass on the book to Lucy. S3, will you please close the door. Write the three sentences on the Bb. T: What is the difference among the sentences I spoke to them just now? S4: The first sentence is not polite, while the last sentence is very polite. T: Excellent! How did I show my polite? S5: You use “Please... Will you please...?” T: Speaking the first sentence, I give a command. Using “Please... Will you please...?”, I make requests. Show the following on the Bb. Direct speech Commands: Do/Don’t... Requests
Do..., please./ Can you...? Could you...?/ Will you...? Would you...? T: Please turn to Page 13. Ss work in pairs. Sa: Close the door! Sb: Could you please close the door? Task 2 Make dialogues. Work in pairs. T: There are three situations. Would you please make dialogues using commons or requests with your partner? Students are encouraged to imagine interesting dialogues. After a few minutes. T: Let’s see which pair completes the task well. Group1, come here, and play your dialogue. Situation A A: Excuse me. Who would do me a favor to close the door? Change the commands into requests.
B: Speak louder, please. A: Will you please close the door. B: OK. I will. A: Thank you very much. B: My pleasure. Situation B A: Excuse me. It time for me to get off. Would you please make way for me? B: Of course. I’ll be happy to make way for you. Go ahead. A: Thank you. B: You’re welcome. Oh, my God, I need to lose my weight. Situation C A: Lie down and hold your breath.
Task 3 Read the replies and write a request or a command. (Page 50 Listing structures 2) T: How wonderful your plays are! Now, please turn to Page50, Part2. Finish the exercise according to the request of the exercise. Ss read the exercise to know what they are expected to do, then do it individually. T: S6 Read your answer, please. S: The sentences are: 1. Go and collect the wood right now. 2. Will you please collect my shopping? 3. Shut the door at once. 4. Go and get my coat. 5. Would you please get that book for me? Step 3 Grammars (2) Task1 Summary the rules of turning Direct speech into Indirect speech. Work in pairs. Show some examples on the screen. T: Look at the screen, please. Discuss with your partner: What do I want you to learn? “Make sure the door is open.” the teacher said to me. The teacher told me to make sure the door is open. “Don’t play games in the classroom.” the monitor said to us. The monitor told us not to play games in the classroom. “Can you lend me ten yuan?” Tom said. Tom asked me to lend him ten yuan. “Will you please not smoke here?” she said. She asked me not to smoke here. A few minutes later. T: Who would come and write your answers on the Bb? S: I’d like to. Ask one student to write his answer on the Bb. sb. told sb. (not) to do sth.
Sb. asked sb. (not) to do sth. T: If you don’t agree with them, you can change their answers. After discussion, the correct answer is shown on the Bb. The Ss can see: Direct speech Commands: Do/Don’t... Requests: Do...,please./ Can you...? Could you...?/ Will you...? Would you...? Indirect speech Commands: sb. told/ordered sb. else (not) to do sth. Requests: sb. asked sb. else (not) to do sth. T: Now who can tell us how to change commands and requests into reported orders and requests? S: If we change commands, we may use the pattern: sb. told/ordered sb. else (not) to do sth. If we change requests, we can use “sb. asked sb. else (not) to do sth.” Task 2 Make dialogues with reported commands and requests (Page50). T: Turn to Page 50. Work in groups of three. Read the example to know what you should do. The teacher makes a dialogue with two students. T: Please turn on the recorder. S1: What did our teacher tell us? S2: She told us to turn on the recorder. Ss work in groups of three. Step IV Speaking T: Please turn to Page 15. Check your homework. Read aloud the words that were confusing to Amy. Show it on the screen. Teacher may give more words.
AE subway keep going straight right left two blocks movie bar the first floor Task Make a dialogue.
BE underground go straight on right-hand side left-hand side two streets film pub ground floor
Chinese 地铁 一直向前走 右 左 街区 电影 酒吧 一楼
T: Now work in groups of three. You are in London. A is from America. B, A’s friend, is a speaker of British English. You don’t know the directions, so you ask C for help. Then B retells C’s words to A. Please make a dialogue, using given words and this map. Be sure to use indirect and direct speech and requests. If time is limited, it can be done as homework.
Homework Make a dialogue using target language and the map. Preview Speaking task (Page52) Read the passage and list things that cause languages to change.
Sample At the gate of the hotel. A: A wonderful night. Why not go to the cinema? B: Good idea! But where is the nearest cinema? A: I don’t know. We can ask the lady for help .Excuse me, ma’am. Could you please tell me where the nearest cinema is? I’d like to see a movie. C: Er ... a film? Go round the corner on your right-hand side, straight on and cross one street. It’s on your left -hand side. B: Thank you very much. A: What did she say, B? B: She told us to go round the corner on the right and keep going straight for one block. The cinema will be on our left. The Fifth Period Speaking Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 a. 重点词汇和短语 try to do, look around, confuse, offer b. 重点句子 We know that languages develop and change over time and that is why we have new dictionaries from time to time. P52 Pardon? I beg your pardon? I don’t understand. Could you say that again, please? Could you repeat that, please? Can you speak more slowly, please? Sorry, I can’t follow you. How do you spell it, please? 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the students to express language difficulties in communication.
3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the students learn how to manage to communicate with others avoiding language difficulties. Teaching important points 教学重点 How to use different sentence patterns avoiding language difficulties in communication. Teaching difficult points 教学难点 How to make a dialogue using commands or requests. Teaching methods 教学方法 Pair works to make a dialogue. Co-operative learning. Teaching aids 教具准备 A projector and a blackboard. Teaching procedures & ways 过程与方式 Step I Revision Check students’ homework. Ask some students to play their dialogues in class and give some comments. Step II Lead in Task 1 Revise patterns for language difficulties in communication. T: A (loudly), can you lend me your dictionary (lowly)? Sa: Pardon? T: Can you tell some similar expressions? Sa: I beg your pardon? / I don’t understand. / Could you say that again, please?/ Could you repeat that, please? / Can you speak more slowly, please? Sorry, I can’t follow you. / How do you spell it, please? T: Great! Turn to Page 48. Read the expressions loudly and try to memory them. Task 2 Make a dialogue, using the expressions. Work in pairs. T: Turn to Page 49. There are three situations. Read them carefully to know the situations. Ss read the three situations to decide which one they would like to choose.
T: Make a dialogue with your partner, using the expressions above. A few minutes later. T: Which group will come and act you dialogue in class? Ss: We will. Sample dialogue for Situation1 A-foreigner B-you A: Excuse me, but I can’t find my friends. Can you help me? B: Could say that again ,please？ A: Oh, sorry. I said that I need to find my friends. B: Oh, I see. Where are they? A: They are waiting for me at the Science Museum. But I can’t find it. B: Sorry, I can’t follow you. Can you speak more slowly, please? A: Sorry. I said I want to go to the Science Museum. B: Well, wale along this street and take the first left turn on your left. Walk on until you reach the gate. Sample dialogue for Situation2 A—your father B—your mother C—you D—waitress A: Excuse me, but I can’t find the toilet. Can you help me? D: Er? toilet? It’s over there. B: Restroom? But we don’t need to have a rest. C: Oh, sorry. But where is the WC? D: Pardon? C: W-C. D: Sorry. There is no WC. Oh, I see. I know what you want. It is on the second floor. C: Thank you very much. Go up two floors. AB: No toilet but empty rooms. Where is the toilet? C: We are in the USA. The second floor? Let’s go downstairs. It’s on the first floor. Sample dialogue for Situation3 A-your teacher B-you A: Now for homework, you must write a dialogue about difficult language problems. Is that clear? B: Sorry, Miss Li, but Li Lin can’t follow you.
A: Pardon? B: Li Lin doesn’t understand what you said. A: Oh, I see. Well let me say it in a different way. Step III Speaking task T: Well done! The second floor in British English is the third floor in American English. How great change in English! Travel plays an important part in the change of English. Please turn to Page 52 tell me other things that cause languages to change. Ss have previewed it. Answers Teenagers, movies, radio, and TV. Task Give advice on how to teach English to beginners. Work in groups of four. T: Well done! The government would like to get some advice on how to teach English to beginners. Can you help them? Please work in groups of four and list your ideas together. Ss discuss and write down their suggestions. S1: I think it will make the textbook interesting to use cartoons in it. S2: Why not design some games? Students like games, which will make the words easy to memory. S3: In my opinion, English songs are of great help. S4: We can draw some interesting characters like Mickey mouse to teach English to beginners. T: Wonderful ideas! I believe the government will take your advice. Step IV Project Task1 Fast-reading T: Turn to Page 53. Please read the text quickly to find the answer to question 1. Ss read the text to find the answer to question 1. T: According to the reading passage, what is the use of a code? S: It can help people to communicate secrets easily. Task 2 Discussion. Work in pairs. T: Read the text again and then discuss the last two questions with your partners. What other uses can a code have? List one or two here. Describe a situation where
codes may not help the people who use them. Discussion S1: A code can mark the directions or ways when we are traveling in a forest. S2: It can also help to make notes if a speaker speaks too fast. S3: But sometimes codes may not help the people who use them. S4: I can give an example. In a war, if the enemies know the meaning of the codes, they may not help the people who use them. Task 3 Make a code to make notes. T: What does it mean? S: Something. T: What about “e.g.” Ss: Example. T: Please make a code to write to your partner and guess the meaning of others’ code. Homework Make a code to write to your partner. Memorize the new words and phrases. The Sixth Period Writing Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 重点词汇和短语 brainstorming, share, experience, make use of 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the Ss to master the way of preparing oneself before writing a composition-Brainstorming. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Learn how to prepare oneself before writing. Teaching important points 教学重点 Know the way to make a brainstorming map. Teaching difficult points 教学难点 Write a passage about one’s experience of English learning.
Teaching methods 教学方法 Task-based learning. Teaching aids 教具准备 A recorder, a projector and a computer. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step I Revision Check the homework. Ask some students to write their codes on the Bb. The others guess what the codes stand for. Sample AFAIK (as far as I know), BBYE (bye bye), BTW (by the way) Step II Presentation Task1 Summarize the way of preparing oneself before writing. Write “Why should I learn English?” on the Bb. T: Please tell me why. Hands up. S1: I learn English to talk to native speakers. S2: To go to university, I learn English hard. Some other answers to use for business, to read English books, to listen to English music and movies or to go abroad. T: Well, let’s show your ideas on a map. Show the map on the screen. T: We can see the ideas easily. This map can help you write an excellent composition. Now, do you know how to prepare yourself before writing?
To use for business
To use in school
To talk to native speakers
Why should I learn English?
To read books
To write pen friend
To listen to English music and movies
Ss: Yes. T: Turn to Page 15. Read the steps. A, please read the steps aloud to us. Task 2 Make a brainstorming map. T: Why not make a brainstorming map by ourselves? Write down “How can learning English help China in the future?” T: For example, in economy. Please work in groups of four and make a brainstorming map. A few minutes later. T: Which group will show your map on the Bb? A student draws the map on the Bb. Sample
Speed development economy. Easy to learn advanced technology of other countries. the of
How can learning English help China in the future?
Make Chinese culture popular all over the world.
Step III Writing task Task1 Make notes about the paragraphs for the writing. Work in groups of four. T: Turn to Page 53. Read the Writing task and tell what you are expected to do. T: What can you learn? S: We are asked to write a passage about “My Experience of Learning English”. We can write it on four aspects. What we need to do is to make a list of ideas for each paragraph. T: Good! Work in groups of four to make notes.
for Why I like English
Writing Listen to BBC.Get Listen to music and Help me realize my an e-pal.Memorize movies. new words every Enjoy morning. works. Travel. original dream.
Task2 Write an article. After their discussion. T: Now, write an article according to your notes in twenty minutes and hand it in. Sample I have made great progress in English learning. But at first, I had many difficulties in learning English. I found listening really hard. Sometimes, it’s just impossible to understand. Besides, my written English was not very good. And it was hard for me to memory new words. How could I improve my English? Take listening as example. I bought a radio and listen to BBC English every morning. The more you listen to English, the easier it becomes. At the same time, I got an English e-pal and my written English improved quickly. Meanwhile, I made a plan to memory new words. Every evening memory twenty new words and review them the next morning. Then put them up on the wall to review in my spare time. English is my good friend. With the help of English I can listen to English music and movies. I’m very interested in English novels. Thanks to English I can enjoy original work. Also it will make my journey comfortable, if I travel in English speaking countries. My dream is to be a doctor. It’s necessary for a doctor to be good at English. I love English. It will help me realize my dream. Homework Write an article on “Our English teacher”.
Sample Mr. Li is our English teacher. He cares for not only his students but also his work. He devotes all his life to English teaching. The lessons he has taught are lively and interesting, He does all he could to help us students to improve our listening, speaking, reading and writing ability. We all make great progress in English learning. He is very strict with himself and not satisfied with his achievement. He never give up learning and has translated a lot of books. We all like Mr. Li-our English.
I. 课文注释与疑难解析 1. However, they may not be able to understand everything. 然而，他们可能不是什 么都懂。 however 的用法： 副词或连词，意为"无论，不管"，可用于修饰一个形容词或副 词，并引导一个从句。 e.g. However hard it is, I’ll have a try. However 也可表示"可是，但是，"用作插入语，常放在句中，也可置于句首或句 末。常用逗号与句子分开。 e.g. His first response was to say "no". Later, however, he changed his mind. but 与 however 辨析 but 连接的是两个并列分句。 However 则不能。 它可以放在另外一个句子的句首， 句中或句尾，要用逗号与句子隔开。 2. Today the number of people learning English in China is increasing rapidly. 目前 在中国学习英语的人数正在迅速增长。 Learning English 是现在分词短语，做后置定语，修饰 people,它与被修饰的词之 间有一种逻辑上的主动关系。也可以说 who are learning English. e.g. The boy crying in the bed is my son. (2)The number of 意为“??的数目” ，后加可数名词复数形式，做主语时，谓 语动词用单数。 A number of 意为 “许多” ， 后加可数名词复数， 谓语动词用复数。 e.g. The number of students in our class is thirty- nine. A number of students are playing games.
3. This is because in the early days of radio, those who reported the news were expected to speak excellent English. 这是因为在早期的电台节目里， 人们期望新闻 播音员所说的英语是最好的英语。 Those 指代 people, 从句 who reported the news 作定语来修饰 those。Who 为引 导词，在从句中做主语。 Expect: think that sth. will happen; look forward to; hope for 可跟名词，代词不定 式，带不定式的复合宾语和从句。 e.g. I’m expecting a letter. I hardly expected to find you here. We expected that you would stay here. II. 文化背景知识 New Zealand English New Zealand English is the dialect of English spoken in New Zealand. In most respects, New Zealand English is very similar to Australian English. Both favour British spelling and choices between words have been given differences between American and British English. Many local words, largely borrowed from the indigenous Maori population, have arisen to describe the local flora, fauna, and the natural environment, and some other Maori words have made their way into the language. In 1998 Oxford University Press produced a Dictionary of New Zealand English that it claimed was based on over 40 years of research. This research started with Harry Orsman’s 1951 thesis and continued with his publishing this dictionary as the editor. To assist with and maintain this work, the New Zealand Dictionary Centre was founded in 1997. Indian English Indian English is a catch-all phrase for dialects or varieties of English spoken widely in India. The language of Indians taught in schools is essentially British English and in particular spellings followed British conventions. However, the British left India in 1947, and as a result many phrases that the British may consider antique are still popular in India. Official letters continue to include phrases like “please do the
needful”, “you will be intimated shortly” and “your obedient servant”. Older writers who made creative (and comical) use of now obsolete forms of colloquial English, like P. G. Wodehouse, are immensely popular too, as is cricket terminology like “googly” and “bouncer”. In addition, Indian English mixes in various words from Indian languages: “bandh” or “hartal” for strikes, “challan” for a monetary receipt or a traffic ticket, and so on. Several such words have been regularly entering the Oxford English Dictionary; indeed, some (“jungle”, “bungalow”, “pyjama”) became mainstream generations ago. The book Hobson-Jobson by Henry Yule and A.C. Burnell first published in 1886 gives a glossary of colloquial Anglo-Indian words. While Indian English is often the butt of jokes by the “educated” British (eg, various works of literature from the colonial era, or Peter Sellers’ brilliant portrayal of a socially-challenged Indian in The Party), recently Indian writers and writers of Indian origin, notably Salman Rushdie and Booker Prize winner Arundhati Roy, have been making more creative use of it in their works. The distinct evolution of regional variations in contemporary usage has led to terminologies such as Hinglish (Hindi + English) and Tanglish (Tamil + English). These terminologies are often referred to in a humorous, self- deprecating way, but at times they also have a derogatory connotation with each region or strata of society having fun at the expense of others! Hinglish, Tanglish and other unnamed variations are particularly capitalised and made popular in the field of advertising. Here the aim of reaching a large cross- section of society is fulfilled by such double-coding. South African English South African English is the dialect of English spoken in South Africa and surrounding countries, notably Namibia and Zimbabwe. South African English is not unified in its pronunciation: this can be attributed to the fact that English is the mother tongue for only 40% of the Caucasian (white) inhabitants (the remainder having Afrikaans as their mother tongue) and only a tiny minority of black inhabitants of the region. The dialect can be, however, identified by many loanwords, mostly from Afrikaans, but increasingly also from isiZulu and other
African languages. Some of these words, like "trek", have seeped into general English usage. Traditionally, South African English has been spoken by white South Africans, but a distinct Indian South African form of English has long existed, and an equally distinctive black South African English is developing very rapidly. Convergence between these sub-dialects can be observed, but it is a slow process. Late-Modern English (1800-Present) The principal distinction between early- and late-modern English is vocabulary. Pronunciation, grammar, and spelling are largely the same, but Late-Modern English has many more words. These words are the result of two historical factors. The first is the Industrial Revolution and the rise of the technological society. This necessitated new words for things and ideas that had not previously existed. The second was the British Empire. At its height, Britain ruled one quarter of the earth’s surface, and English adopted many foreign words and made them its own. The industrial and scientific revolutions created a need for neologisms to describe the new creations and discoveries. For this, English relied heavily on Latin and Greek. Words like oxygen, protein, nuclear, and vaccine did not exist in the classical languages, but they were created from Latin and Greek roots. Such neologisms were not exclusively created from classical roots though; English roots were used for such terms as horsepower, airplane, and typewriter. This burst of neologisms continues today, perhaps most visible in the field of electronics and computers. Byte, cyber-, bios, hard-drive, and microchip are good examples. Also, the rise of the British Empire and the growth of global trade served not only to introduce English to the world, but also to introduce words into English. Hindi, and the other languages of the Indian subcontinent, provided many words, such as pundit, shampoo, pajamas, and juggernaut. Virtually every language on Earth has contributed to the development of English, from Finnish (sauna) and Japanese (tycoon) to the vast contributions of French and Latin. The British Empire was a maritime empire, and the influence of nautical terms on the
English language has been great. Words and phrases like three sheets to the wind and scuttlebutt have their origins onboard ships. Finally, the 20th century saw two world wars, and the military influence on the language during the latter half of this century has been great. Before the Great War, military service for English-speaking persons was rare; both Britain and the United States maintained small, volunteer militaries. Military slang existed, but with the exception of nautical terms, rarely influenced standard English. During the mid-20th century, however, virtually all British and American men served in the military. Military slang entered the language like never before. Blockbuster, nose dive, camouflage, radar, roadblock, spearhead, and landing strip are all military terms that made their way into standard English. American English Also significant beginning around 1600 AD was the English colonization of North America and the subsequent creation of a distinct American dialect. Some pronunciations and usages “froze” when they reached the American shore. In certain respects, American English is closer to the English of Shakespeare than modern British English is. Some “Americanisms” that the British decry are actually originally British expressions that were preserved in the colonies while lost at home (e.g., fall as a synonym for autumn, trash for rubbish, frame-up which was reintroduced to Britain through Hollywood gangster movies and loan as a verb instead of lend). The American dialect also served as the route of introduction for many native American words into the English language. Most often, these were place names like Mississippi, Roanoke, and Iowa. Indian-sounding names like Idaho were sometimes created that had no native-American roots. But, names for other things besides places were also common. Raccoon, tomato, canoe, barbecue, savanna, and hickory have native American roots, although in many cases the original Indian words were mangled almost beyond recognition. Spanish has also been great influence on American English. Armadillo, mustang, canyon, ranch, stampede, and vigilante are all examples of Spanish words that made their way into English through the settlement of the American West.
To a lesser extent French, mainly via Louisiana, and West African, through the importation of slaves, words have influenced American English. Armoire, bayou, and jambalaya came into the language via New Orleans. Goober, gumbo, and tote are West African borrowings first used in America by slaves.