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SECONDARY BOULDER BREAKING 矿石二次爆破
Secondary breaking in surface mines and quarries occurs where oversize rocks are produced from a primary blast that need to be reduced to a manageable s

ize for loading and crushing. In practice most hard-rock surface mines and quarries would expect to re-blast or break up to 5% of their rock after effective primary blasting. 露天矿场和采石场的二次爆破,指的是发生在初次爆破后,那些体积过大的岩石需要再分解到可运输和压 制的状态。在实践中,大多数出产硬质岩石的矿场和采石场,希望能有再次爆破,或者更为有效的初次爆 破使他们出产的矿石体积分解至原体积的 5%。

There are hidden costs associated with ‘oversize resulting from a mass blast using conventional explosives: 以下是使用传统的爆炸物导致分解后的矿石体积过大所引起的潜在的成本: 以下是使用传统的爆炸物导致分解后的矿石体积过大所引起的潜在的成本:
the oversized rocks are an obstacle to productive load and haul activity 体积过大的岩石是生产过程中装卸和搬运的一大障碍 they cannot be dealt with cost effectively due to size and get in the way 体积过大使它们很难有效计算成本 are normally left to be charged in the next mass blast, which often creates new oversize, thus the obstacles are perpetuated 通常成本会延续到第二次爆破中,而这次爆破的结果经常是矿石仍然体积过大,这种障碍无疑将 具有持续性。 oversize impacts negatively upon production unless dealt with in the on-going production cycle 除非这样生产出来的矿石处于一个正在进行中的生产循环中,否则体积过大将对生产产生不利影 响 tramming equipment over distances out the pit in order to use conventional explosives must be avoided; Wear and tear on final drives and tracks is a significant hidden cost. 长距离的用来运输传统爆炸物的矿车类装置必须要被避免使用,因为车道和车辆的损耗将是一笔 巨大的隐性成本 Using Nonex cartridges for secondary breaking during load and haul activity is feasible, safe and productive; overall productivity is significantly enhanced.. Most open cast sites have large excavators, some of which have outlived their productive life, but make excellent support tools in the secondary breaking process. Material handling support for drilling, putting the oversize into manageable rows provides easy access to the rock and enhances safety. The same excavator loads the broken rock for removal 在二次爆破的装卸和运输过程中使用 Nonex 弹夹(雷管)是可行,安全且具有生产力的。整体的生产能力 将得到大幅提升。大多数露天矿都使用大型挖掘机,其中相当一部分已经超过了使用寿命,但仍能在二次

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爆破作业中发挥良好性能。那些用于钻孔和分解体积过大岩石的装置非常易于搬运装卸岩石,从而也提高 了安全性。而那些挖掘及同时也承担了把分解后的岩石运走的工作。

Secondary Breaking Options
Nonex offers a wide range, from 3-10g ‘rock poppers used for splitting oversize to fit the crusher jaws, drilled electrically, and from 20g up in steps of 20g to 250g drilling diameter 40mm using hand-held rock drills, using a rig to drill diameter 64-76mm holes charge weights in the diameter 60mm range from 200 – 500g charge weights, which also prove effective in the Nonex equivalent of a ‘mass’ breaking application. The common denominator provided by Nonex, non-explosive, non-detonating technology is controlled, precision breaking; no shockwave, minimal to 100% fly rock control and the capacity to produce the desired particle size for handling and crushing, which is what every pit manager wants. Nonex 提供了大范围的(装置供选择)。其中,“岩石爆破者”用于分解体积过大的 3-10 克的岩石到可以 适应碎石机钳口的尺寸,他们电动钻孔,20 克到 250 克的,深挖 40 毫米的采用手动岩石钻机,而对于深 挖 64-76 毫米 60 毫米直径孔洞,重量范围 200-500,Nonex 提供的装置也被证明有效。Nonex 产品的共 同特性,采用的是非爆炸非引爆技术,这样的爆破是可控及精确的。没有震波,100%的控制能力,以及生 产出处理和粉碎所需要的尺寸的能力,这是每一个矿场负责人梦寐以求的。 Frequently, the Nonex way is also the most cost effective way. Nonex is often used in combination with an excavator mounted hydraulic hammer. Nonex is used to drill and break large oversize >1m3 and particularly large ‘elastic’ rock, which resists hydraulic breaking. Rocks < 1m3 and brittle rock, (nonelastic) break easily, then an hydraulic hammer which doesn’t need drilled holes is more cost effective. The combination is usually ideal. 而且在通常情况下, Nonex 技术也是最能有效省钱的方法。 Nonex 经常和架设了液压锤的挖掘机一起使用。 Nonex 被用来钻孔,以及分解体积大于 1m3 的体积过大岩石,特别是那些具有“弹性”的,能抵抗液压锤 振捣的岩石。体积小于 1m3 的岩石和那些易碎的岩石能被轻易粉碎,所以一个不需要钻孔的液压锤则是最 经济有效的选择。这样的组合往往是最理想的。

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DEMOLITION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE 加固混凝土的清除

Reinforced Concrete (before) 加强的混凝土(之前 加强的混凝土 之前) 之前

Reinforced Concrete (after) 加强的混凝土(之后 加强的混凝土 之后) 之后

Experienced contractors worldwide know that it is a challenging task to drill through the reinforcing grid, which is designed to support the high Mpa concrete, which clings onto the reinforcing steel bars as the design intended. 世界范围内有经验的承包商都知道,钻破支撑高强度混凝土的铁丝网是一项非常有挑战性的任务。按照设 计,这些混凝土用于紧固钢筋条。 The task is further complicated by the fact that drilling is a hit-and-miss affair determining a pattern, not by choice, unless diamond core drills are used at very high cost, which cut and penetrate the steel reinforcing bars as well as the concrete. 让这个任务变得更复杂的是,钻孔需要依靠模具工作,以尽量避免偏差,而不是依靠偶然性,除非你是使 用金刚钻,这样才能切割和穿透钢筋条,但是这样的成本太高。 It’s a fact that cutting the reinforcing makes the task easier. The gas pressure then forces the concrete off the free face end where it was cut, easily. It is seldom possible to gain access and do that, however, so plan B is usually adhered to. 事实上,切割让整个任务变得容易。这样,气压能轻易地迫使混凝土脱离被切割的自由面。(然而,)很 少能得到这样的机会,所以,在通常情况下采用的是 B 计划。 Drill and charge as best possible, crack the concrete with Nonex, then use mechanical means such as an machine mounted hydraulic hammer or a heavy duty, pneumatic pavement breaker to remove the cracked concrete; an almost impossible task unless the concrete is first cracked. 尽全力钻孔,用 Nonex 粉碎混凝土,然后用机械方法,比如自带液压锤的机械装置或者一个高功率的气动 路面破碎机,来清除粉碎后的混凝土。(可以想见)这是一个几乎不可能完成的任务,除非混凝土事先就 已经被粉碎。

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Finally, professional demolition contractors will use non-explosive technology as one of their options. It is not intended to be an exclusive demolition solution. It would not be considered for hi-rise building or stack implosions and would feature along with other mechanical demolition tools of the trade. 最终,专业的承包商会使用非爆炸技术作为选择之一。虽然这不是唯一的解决方案,因为它很难被使用在 高层建筑的爆破和大面积爆炸中,但这个方案将会在和其他爆破工具共同使用中发挥重要作用。

BREAKING ROCKS GENERAL PRINCIPAL 碎石原则

Size , Nature of Rock, Competence, Jointing and site Sensitivity determines Number of holes, Charge weight.
大小,岩石自然属性,能力,填缝,以及现场的敏感性,决定了孔的数量和装入量。

The number of holes, the drilling pattern per rock, burdens and spacing used, and drilling depth, is fundamental to the rock breaking process in civil engineering and mining. Basically a hole or holes are drilled into the rock, which are then charged, effectively stemmed and initiated electrically using a shot firer. Large volumes of expanding gases (one litre by volume per gram of propellant) are produced in a split second, pressurize the rock which splits/shatters in tensile, thus alleviating the pressure to atmosphere; the process then stops., which is benign. The drilling pattern and choice of charge weights is based upon the objectives desired: 在土木工程和采矿业中,孔的数量,每块岩石的钻孔样式,荷载,占用的空间,以及钻孔深度,都对碎石 过程影响很大。通常,一个或多个空钻入岩石,然后因为爆破装置的使用而带电。体积巨大的扩展的气体 (每克推进燃料一升)瞬间产生,给了岩石巨大的压力使之粉碎,随后将压力扩散到大气中,过程由此结 束。这是一个良性的循环。钻孔式样以及装入量的选择取决于下列条件:

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particle size

颗粒大小 周围环境的敏感度

sensitivity of the surroundings fly rock control 飞石控制

Particle Size
颗粒大小 If less than 50cms particles are required, burdens and spacing must conform, but you must examine the natural jointing in the rock if applicable, because rocks will break at the joints, which are weak lines. 如果颗粒小于 50 厘米,荷载和间隔必须相协调,但是可行的话,你也必须检查岩石中的自然连接,因为岩 石会在连接处断裂,连接很弱。

Sensitivity Of The Surrounding

If the rocks are next to the highway, or a village, or sensitive installations, the drilling pattern and the charge weights selected per cartridge in the drilled hole must be balanced; if the cartridge is heavily weighted and the burden too small, it will fly; if the cartridge weight is light and the burden too big, it will not break, perhaps create a few cracks. The balanced approach requires understanding through experience how different rock types break.

环境敏感度 如果是靠近公路,村庄,或者敏感的装置旁的岩石,则每个炮孔的钻头模式选择和装药量必须 相平衡一致; 如果装药量大,而周围压力过小,则爆破物会飞落; 如果装药量少,而压力过大,那

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么很有可能不会爆破,或者只是小范围爆破. 对于这种平衡机制的选择需要通过经验了解不 同岩石碎裂的方式.

Fly Rock Control

Nonex non-explosive, non-detonating technology does not cause structural damage due shock wave and vibrations, but it can cause fly rock, which however is 100% controllable, by drill pattern design and additionally when very sensitive by effective covering methodology. Each application type requires different method statements, which are detailed per application. Suffice it to say that boulder breaking is the easiest of all applications; the rock is unconfined on all planes, and breaks effortlessly, broken rock moving without cover +- 10 metres on initiation, that is when using Nonex cartridges, all other variables being balanced.

Nonex 无爆破,无引爆技术在震荡波和颤动的情况下都不会造成结构性破坏,但是会造成飞 石。 不过通过钻头装置的设计和在敏感场合中有效的覆盖技术, 飞石也是 100%可以控制的。 每种应用类型都要求不同的方法。 具体的方法都是按不同的应用而定的。 只要说巨石破碎是 所有应用中最容易的就足够了; 这岩石在所有的层面上都是松散的并且很容易碎裂。 在无覆 盖的情况下,起爆时,碎石只会飞溅出+- 10 米。当使用 Nonex 装置的时候,其他所有的变 量都被配平了。

UNDERGROUND MINING

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Underground blasting (before)

Underground blasting (after)

Potentially, the application of non-explosive Nonex cartridges underground is excellent. 从某种程度来说,在地下施工中使用非爆炸性的 Nonex 弹夹效果相当好。 Pillar mining produces oversize for secondary breaking 留矿柱的采矿方式会造成二次破碎的过大化 Chrome and coal fines are wasteful. Nonex breaks on tensile, not on compression – produces ‘lumpy’ chrome and coal 铬和煤粉很浪费。Nonex 通过拉力而非压力破碎,可产出合矿石纹理的块状铬和煤 Mining in seismic conditions, such as extracting the gold from a Gold Mining Pillar 在地震情况下开矿,例如从黄金矿柱中分离黄金 Slipping out, widening haul roads, cubbies, footwall removal 运输道路拓宽,出入口拓宽,底盘清除。 Using a 50:50 mix of nitrocellulose and ammonium nitrate the toxicity is much reduced (co >.co2) 采用 50 比 50 混合的硝化纤维和硝酸铵可使毒性大幅下降 Mining precious stones (less damage) 开采珍贵的石头(更小的破坏) Safety greatly enhanced 安全性大幅增加

Data Base
Conventional explosives have been around for centuries globally, ‘blasting’ in every possible situation has taken place, been recorded, tabled, researched and been written about. All that data has been transcribed into manuals, which provide a basis for drilling design and methodology. Explosive technology has improved beyond recognition, with shock tube initiation and electronic delay detonators opening up a vast array of possibilities.

传统炸药已经在全球被使用数个世纪, 广泛使用于各种可能的场合。 传统炸药被记录, 分类, 研究并书写。所有的资料都被整理成册,被作为钻孔设计和方法的基础。随着激波管和延期 电子雷管将很多不可能变为可能,爆破技术的发展已经超过认知的范围。
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Nevertheless, conventional explosives retain a volatile and dangerous downside And will remain so. Non-explosive, non-detonating technology such as Nonex was designed specifically for application in sensitive situations, is relatively young, with a data base on a learning curve. As the world becomes more built-up, sensitive and regulatory, the application of rock breaking using this technology will grow exponentially. More and more research studies will be conducted. Universities in South Africa, Australia, Canada, the USA, and many others are using this avenue for doctorate theses.

然而,传统爆破始终有其危险性。因而,无爆破,无引爆的新技术(例如 Nonex)被设计应 用于各种敏感场合。这些技术还相当年轻。随着我们的世界变得愈加密集,敏感以及规整, 在岩石破碎的过程中使用该技术会大幅增长。越来越多的研究将被发起。南非,澳大利亚, 加拿大,美国以及其众多其他国家的大学都将在这条大道上从事研究。

Mass Breaking - Sinking Shafts
Nonex can be used to do mass breaking including shaft sinking through the application of a specific methodology 采矿-下沉式竖井

诺耐克斯玻璃可以用来进行大量采矿,包括应用特定方法进行下沉式竖井作业。

Guiding Principle
The pressure of expanding gasses breaks rock in tensile > the free face burden. A mass break is created when multiple holes are drilled vertically and charged with a large number of heavily charged cartridges such as 500g x 60mm diameter Nonex 50060 (drilled using a rig). The free face becomes the surface cap above the charged holes. Depending upon the nature of the rock, it is feasible to drill to a depth of 2m with spacing of 1m, charging up to 300 holes, on a bench 40m x 7,5m..300 x 500g cartridges initiated simultaneously produce 150,000 litres of gas, which must go somewhere. This combined volume of gas takes off the cap, shattering it into small particle sizes. Noise and fly rock is controlled by a layer of conveyor belting mats over the charged bench and up to 2m of earth cover on top of the mats. 指导原则 消耗气体的压力破坏岩石的拉伸强度>自由面载荷。多孔垂直钻井并由大量的 500g、直径为 60mm、诺耐

克斯玻璃制成的严格控制的机架完成作业的时候,即为大量采矿。自由面成为监控中的钻孔的表面封盖。
取决于岩石的自然特性,可以灵活地钻深为 1m 或 2m 的井,最多 300 口井,总作业范围 40m*7.5m。 300*500g 的接口可以同时产生 150000L 气体,这些气体必须排到一个地方。这些气体的总和会顶起封盖, 将其粉碎成颗粒大小的碎渣。噪声和飞起的碎石由一层传送带垫子覆盖着的监控中的作业区控制,垫子上 覆盖着 2m 厚的土壤。

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操作提示 Practical Hints 操作提示
A mass initiation of this size requires serious planning and attention to detail; the circuit resistance for 300 cartridges will be in excess of 150 ohms, measured on an ohmmeter, requires a high capacity shot firer like AECE 1224 (otherwise there will be misfires) 这种规模的大量开采需要严格的计划和对细节的关注;300 个套筒的电路电阻将达到 150 欧,由 电阻器测量得到,这需要高能力的爆破手,比如 AECE1224(否则将会无法发火) 。 Mass rock breaking requires the support of an excavator, preferably 30t +capacity, to dig out the broken rock, as well as to cover the charged bench from the edge. (reach 7,5m, unless covering from both sides) 大量岩石的爆破需要挖掘机的支持,最好是 30t 以上载荷能力的,以便挖出碎石,同时也能覆盖 整个作业范围。 (延伸 7.5m,除非两遍均覆盖) The covering process risks breaking the wiring. Use an ohmmeter with an alert charge hand in control. His job is to note exactly where and when continuity was broken, call a stop and point to the recovery spot; otherwise it is an almost impossible time-consuming task, like looking for a needle in a haystack. 覆盖的过程产生破坏电线的危险。使用带警报器的欧姆表可以控制。欧姆表的用途是准确而持续 地记录何时何地发生损坏,叫停并指出再次施工的位置;否则,这几乎是一项不可能实现的耗时 工作——就像在干草堆中寻针。 In shaft sinking however, the shaft diameter only permits access to small excavators with a small capacity bucket,, or to a grapple handled by a tower crane, so the drilling depth must be reduced to say 1,5m maximum and the spacing to about 0,5m in order to create smaller fragmentation for loading 然而在竖井下沉中,竖井的直径仅允许通过小铲斗的小型挖掘机,或者被塔式起重机控制,因此 钻井的深度必须减小到 1.5m,可以进一步减小到 0.5m 以产生更小的碎片方便装载。 As the shaft gets deeper, the use of earth cover becomes expensive and time consuming. The solution is to construct a steel deflector shaped like a saucer, designed to be held in place over the mouth of the shaft on initiation in order to deflect fly rock back into the shaft bottom 竖井越深,土壤层的使用会更昂贵和耗时。解决方法是建造碟子形状的钢制导向板,设计用来放 在竖井口上方,目的是让岩石重新倒入竖井底。 As the shaft descends, ground water will enter from the sides, requiring water-resistant cartridges. Waterproof connections in the wiring-up process are essential. High capacity shot firers deliver more than 1000 volts, which will short out due wet connections and cause massive misfires. 随着竖井下降,地下水将从四周渗入,这需要防水的套筒。对于铺设电路的工作,防水是永远必 要的。高性能爆破手传送大于 1000 伏的电压,如果线路潮湿将会引起短路,和造成点火失败。 Insulation tape with bitumen works but is dependant on the charge hands finger dexterity ; the best solution is to use 3M UY2 connectors designed for telecommunications;. a crimping tool designed to regulate pressure is essential. A very strong, waterproof connection is provided at 9

relatively low cost. Locating a break in a shaft containing water is challenging. The wires to be reconnected must first be dried to avoid shorting and resultant misfires

涂有沥青的胶布绝缘带可用, 但是它依赖于操作手的灵活程度; 最好的解决方法是用 3M UY2 连接器作为电力传送设备;压线工具用来调控压力是必需的。相对低廉的成本实现 强力防水连接。定位含水竖井是一项挑战性工作,重新连接的电线必须首先被烘干,以 防止短路和造成的点火失败。
Stemming materials and stemming techniques are crucial, otherwise the gas escapes through the drill holes by attacking the stemming. -5mm crusher dust is a benchmark in dry holes, a mix with 13mm aggregate works best in wet holes. Tamping with broken drill steels adds weight and speeds up compaction (is safe with Nonex cartridges) Pneumatic , stainless steel stemming loaders are available to blow crusher dust into horizontal holes; compacts automatically due speed of entry under pressure. 填塞物和填塞技术是关键,不然气体会冲毁填充物从钻井孔外泄。-5mm 碎石灰尘是干燥孔的基 本标准,在潮湿的孔最好使用混合型的 13mm 规格的 。用废旧钻井钢夯实增加重量,加速压紧 (对诺耐克斯玻璃是安全的) 。气胎、不锈钢填充物装载器可以用来吹散灰尘到洞孔内;被挤

压的余地的速度由自动入口压力决定。

UNDERWATER APPLICATION

水下应用设备

Underwater demolition (before)

Underwater demolition (after)

Nonex is manufactured to be ‘water resistant’ for application in wet holes.

Tug jetty Final Blast

Underwater cartridges designed for waterproofing to 3 bar pressure are available for harbour dredging, widening and deepening projects, successfully accomplished in combination with professional offshore specialist companies such as Durban’s Subtech, Cape Town’s Prodive Solutions, Namibia’s B4 Engineering, Gansbaai’s Gamco Services, and others.

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Nonex is suited to underwater application. The absence of detonating shockwave means that environmental damage is avoided; divers don’t need to retreat more than 20 metres. Harbour projects which are normally sensitive therefore have an additional rock and concrete breaking option. 水下支架的设计为了能够承受水下 3 bar 的压力,这样有利于海港的疏浚,拓宽和向下延伸。成功地结合 了专业的 offshore 公司的经验,例如 Durban’s Subtech, Cape Town’s Prodive Solutions, Namibia’s B4 Engineering, Gansbaai’s Gamco Services 等等。

诺耐克斯玻璃适合于水下应用。阻挡爆轰冲击波意味着避免了环境的破坏,潜水者撤退不需要超过 20 米。
容易遭到破坏的港口得到了一个混凝土的保护。

Nature of Rock
Rock varies in terms of hardness, elasticity, abrasiveness, competence, uniformity, and jointing, all of which impacts upon the way it breaks or resists breaking. Surface rock is frequently weathered and fractured, particularly where prior blasting with conventional explosives has taken place on the site. Fractured rock is more difficult to break than competent rock because it leaks gas. Rock is never too hard to break on tensile. Most hard rock will break at or before 250 Mpa, whilst expanding gas pressure is capable of rising to >1000Mpa. It is not the ‘hardness’ that counts, it is the size of the burden/spacing and depth of the hole drilled, (ie oversize) which resists breaking. An experienced Nonex initiator ‘reads’ the rock, observes the first initiation, fine tunes burdens, spacing, drill depth and charge weights. He successfully interprets what is happening and adjusts accordingly. Nature of Rock 岩石的特性 岩石的硬度,弹性,腐蚀性,承受力,均匀性以及接合性,以上的这些都会使它分裂或者承受住压力。岩 石表面经常暴露在空气中并且断裂,特别是当爆炸在这里发生的时候。Fractured rock 比 competent rock 更难以破坏,因为它会泄露气体。岩石很容易破裂。大部分的硬质岩石小于等于 250 Mpa,同时扩大气压 会上升到 1000Mpa 以上。这不是用硬度来计算的,而是它钻孔的尺寸/间距和深度来决定它是否能够承受 住压力。 一个极有相关经验的 Nonex 创始人对岩石做了解读,他对岩石的负重,间隔,钻孔深度以及装货重量做了 调整。他成功地解释了发生了什么以及做的相应的调整。 如有需要 请联系 QQ: 458500591 E-mail: zhouxianhui@hotmail.co.uk

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