English Basic Tenses (时态) & Voices(语态）
1、考查在语境中判断动词时态的运用能力。常考的 时态为：一般现在时、现在进行时、现在完成时、 现在完成进行时、一般将来时、一般过去时、 过去进行时、、过去完成时、 过去将来时等。 2、时间、条件、让步等状语从句中动词的时态； 主从句时态呼应
问题。 3、延续性动词和终止性动词的用法区别。 4、及物动词（vt.)的被动语态。 5、某些以主动形式表被动意义的动词的用法。
动词的时态 （ Tenses)
Fill in the blanks.
I _____ study (study) hard abroad every day and I get (get) along well with my roommates, but _____ sometimes I _____ miss (miss) my families. . 一般现在时 ( The Present Indefinite )
usually/frequently, sometimes, every…, at …,on
Correct the sentence. The geography teacher told us that the earth moved around the sun. moves _______
注意：主语为第三人称单数（he/she/it或单个 的人名、单个的事物名称）谓语动词+s/es, 其余人称作主语谓语动词用原形.
The shop will close at 9:00 p.m. _____ closes
3) 表示已计划、安排好将要发生的动作或存在 的状态, 一般用于be, come, go, start, begin, leave, arrive, return等位移/终止性动词，常与 时间状语连用． The train starts at nine in the morning
现在进行时(The Present Continuous Tense)
1) 表示现在( 指说话时)正在发生的事情。
are having (have) English class now. We ___________ 2) 表示目前这段时间内正在进行的动作, 但说话时动作未必正在进行。 She ___________ is learning (learn) piano under Mr. Smith at present.
Translate the sentence. The girl is always talking loud in public.
这个女孩老是在公共场所高谈阔论。 ? He is always helping others .
进行时态与always, often/usually/frequently 等频度副词连用，表经常反复的行动或某种 感情色彩.
动作,多用于位移/终止性动词,如: come, go, arrive, leave, stay. I____________ am leaving (leave) tomorrow. _____ Are you _______ staying (stay) here till next week?
时的意义. ? Under construction ,under control, under repair, under discussion, on show, in print ? 5) 用进行时表示渐变的过程。 ? His health is improving each day. ? Computers are changing our life.
Correct the sentence.
All the students here is belonging to belong No.1 Middle School. ________ 【注意】 一般情况下，下面4类动词无进行时态：
(1)表心理状态、情感的动词：like, love, hate, care, remember, believe, want, mind, wish, agree, mean, need。 (2) 表存在的状态动词：appear, exist, lie, remain, seem, belong to, depend on。 (3) 瞬间动词：begin/start, allow, accept, permit, promise, admit, complete。 (4)感官动词：see, hear, notice, feel, smell, sound, taste, look。
现在完成时(The present Perfect Tense)
常与表一段时间的状语连用,如:so far, up to/till now, lately/recently, in/during/over the last/past …, since…, for … 等．
He __________ has lived (live) in Guiyang over the past 6 years.
2).表示过去的某一动作对现在造成的影响 或结果,常用的时间状语有: just ,already, yet, ever, never, once等.
have finished (finish) our lunch already. We ____________ ______ Have you ever ______ tried (try) this method?
非延续性/瞬间/终止性动词的否定形式可以 与表示一段时间的状语连用于完成时态中， 即动作不发生的状态是可以持续的。 如：begin/start, find, see, marry, buy， borrow, return, die, get等。 I have received his letter for a month. （错） I haven't received his letter for almost a month. （对）
时间点 , 用来说明动作起始时间 ? since +______
? for+_______ 时间段 , 用来说明动作延续时间。 ? I have lived here ____ for at least twenty years. I have lived here since ____ I was born.
? 在after，as soon as ，if ,till, when 引导 的状语从句中，常用现在完成时代替将来 完成时. ? Don’t get off until the bus has stopped. ? Until we have discussed all the details, no decision will be made about any new operations.
Multiple choice --- Hi, Tracy, you look tired. --- I am tired. I _____ the living room all day. C A. painted B. had painted C. have been painting D. have painted Now that she is out of a job, Lucy______ going back B to school, but she _______ yet. A had considered, hadn’t decided B has been considering, hasn’t decided C considered, didn’t decide D is going to consider, won’t decide
作一直持续到现在，而且还在进行当中。 强调的是“从过去到现在一直在进行”。 其时间的判定由具体的时间段或上下句的 语境决定。 I have finished my homework . I have been doing my homework.
表过去发生了的动作或存在的状态。 常与表过去的时间连用。如 yesterday, last …, … ago, in …等。 spent (spend) my childhood happily with I _______ my old friends in the countryside several years ago. 2）表示过去经常发生的动作。 During the vacation I often swam / would /used to swim in the sea.
1. --- Nancy is not coming tonight. B --- But she _____! A. promises B. promised C. will promise D. had promised
B 2. My uncle _____ until he was forty-five. A. married B. didn’t marry C. was not marrying D. would marry 说明：until 修饰的动词必须是延续性动词并且为肯定形式，
表示该动作一直持续到 until 后的时间为止；终止性动词 只能用在否定句中，表示直到此时该动作才开始。
3. --- You haven’t said a word about my new coat, Brenda. Do you like it? D --- I’m sorry I _______ anything about it sooner. I certainly think it’s pretty on you. A. wasn’t saying B. don’t say C. won’t say D. didn’t say 4. I think the film was interesting, but it isn’t. _________ thought
过去进行时 The past continous tense
规则1：过去某一时刻或某一阶段内正在进行或 频繁发生的动作. was traveling (1) During the summer of 2010 she ___________ (travel) in Europe.
规则 2 ： 某一动作发生时另一动作正在发生，常
用于由when/while, as引导的时间状语从句中. (2) I met Diana while I ____________ was shopping (shop) this morning. 规则3：过去进行时可以表示委婉语气. (3) I was ____________ wondering(wonder) if you could give me a lift.
B the newspaper, Granny ____ asleep. 5. As she ____ A. read … was falling B. was reading … fell C. was reading … was falling D. read … fell
说明：一般来说在复合句中的两个动作，延续性的动作大 都用进行时，短暂性的动作用一般时，表示在某个动作进 行的过程当中另一个动作发生了。
6. The manager had fallen asleep where he ______, B without undressing. A. was laying B. was lying C. had laid D. had lied
过去完成时 (The past perfect Tense)
B her heart out because she ____ her 7. The little girl ____ toy bear and believed she wasn’t ever going to find it. A. had cried, lost B. cried, had lost C. has cried, has lost D. cries, has lost 8. — Hurry up! Alice and Sue are waiting for you at the school gate. D without me. — Oh! I thought they ______ A．went B．are going C．have gone D．had gone
规则1：在by, by the end, by the time, until, before后接表示过去某一时间或动作，其（主句）谓语 动词则表示在这一时刻或动作之前 已经完成了的动作，即“过去的过去”,用过去完成时。
By the end of last month we have viewed scores of websites. _____ had
规则2：表示未曾实现的愿望、打算、意图、承诺等。 常用had hoped / planned / meant / intended / thought / wanted / expected(＋that…/to do)或用 上述动词的过去式接不定式完成式表示，即： hoped / planned… ＋ to (have done)。 had expected/expected (expect). to We arrived earlier than we_________________
The past perfect continous tense
结构：had been + v-ing
表示过去某个时间或动作之前一直进行的事情。 They had been learning abroad for 6 years till last month. had been serving ? Bob __________________(serve) in the army before he became a journalist.
1.will表示没有经过事先考虑,而是在说话的时候 才决定做某事,e.g. --You forget to close the door. --Oh, I’ll close it at once. will表意愿 Now if you will take off your clothes, we will fit the new clothes on you in front of the mirror.
2. be going to +不定式，表示将来。
主语的意图，即将做某事。 e.g. What are you going to do tomorrow? 明天打算作什么呢？ b. 计划，安排要发生的事。 e.g. The play is going to be produced next month。这出戏下月开播。 c. 有迹象要发生的事。 e.g. Look at the dark clouds; there is going to be a storm. 看那乌云，快要下 雨了。
3. be +不定式表将来，按计划或安排将发生的事;
命中注定的事; 命令。 e.g. We are to discuss the report next Saturday.我们下星期六讨论这份报告。 4. be about to +不定式，意为马上做某事。 e.g. He is about to leave for Beijing. 他马 上要去北京。 注意：be about to do 不能与tomorrow, next week 等表示明确将来的时间状语连用。 5. be due to与时间表,旅行计划等有关。 e.g.
The train is due to leave at 7:00.
1. --- Can I join the club, Dad? --- You can when you _____ a bit older. A ? A. get B. will get ? C. are getting D. will have got 2. In such dry weather, the flowers will have to be watered if they _____. B A. have survived B. are to survive C. would survive D. will survive
? ? ?
3. The WTO can’t live up to its name unless it will include a country that is home to one-fifth of mankind. ________ does ? 4. Japan will never be recovered/restored even if it will return Diaoyu Islands to China. _______ does 5. The harder you will study, the better results you will get. ____ will
主句为一般现在时，（宾语）从句可为任 何时态；主句为过去时，（宾语）从句跟 相应的过去时态。 ? 1. I don’t think he will pass (passed) the driving test ___________________________. 他（将）通过（了）驾驶测试。 ? 2. The Whites expected Tonny could study further abroad ___________________________ Tonny 能出国深造。
在make sure, see to it, mind, care, matter后的
宾语从句的谓语动词用一般现在时代替一般将来时。 3. See to it/Make sure that you _____ are (be) not
4. They don’t care who ______ takes (take) charge of such activity next time.
在祈使句＋and/or/…＋陈述句句型中， 陈述句中只能用will /情态动词＋动词原形。 1. Leave it with me and I _____ what I can do. D
A. see B. seeing C. am seeing D. will see
2. Please give blood if you can or some lives ______. B
A. scare away
C. scared away
B. could scare away
D. to scare away
It is(has been)/was ＋ 一段时间 ＋ since…(did/had done) This(That/It) is /was the first(second…)time that…＋ have(has) done/ had done
This(That/It)is/was the only…＋that…＋have(has) done/
had done This(That/It)is/was the best / finest / most interesting… ＋ that…＋have(has) done/ had done
Hardly/scarcely…过去完成时+ when …一般过去时 No sooner…过去完成时+than…一般过去时 We had no sooner been seated than the bus started. = Hardly/Scarcely _____ had we been seated when the bus started. ? = The bus started as soon as we were seated.
1. Since I won the big prize, my telephone hasn't stopped D to ask how I am going to spend ringing. People _____ the money. A. phone B. will phone C. were phoning D. are phoning
2. Selecting a mobile phone for personal use is no easy task because technology _____ A so rapidly. A. is changing B. has changed C. will have changed D. will change
3. _____ C my sister three times today but her line was
A. I’d phoned
B. I’ve been phoning
C. I’ve phoned D. I was phoning 4. He will have learned English for eight years by the time
he _____ C from the university next year.
A. will graduate C. graduates A. will not be, will know B. will have graduated D. is to graduate B. is, will know
5. It ____ C long before we ____ the result of the experiment. C. will not be, know D. is, know
C 6. By the time Jane gets home, her aunt _______for
London to attend a meeting.
A. will leave B. leaves
C. will have left
Remember: by…“到……为止，在……以前” 表时间其后句子用完成时态。
7. We were all surprised when he made it clear that he _____ B office soon. A. leaves B. would leave C. left D. had left
8. ---Oh, it’s you! I ____ A you.
---I’ve just had my hair cut and I’m wearing new glasses. A. didn’t recognize B. hadn’t recognized C. haven’t recognized D. don’t recognize 9. The reporter said that the UFO ___ A east to west when he saw it.
A. was travelling
C.had been travelling D. was to travel
10. When I was at college I ___three foreign languages,but I ___ B all except a few words of each. A. spoke; had forgotten B. spoke; have forgotten C. had spoken; had forgotten D. had spoken; have forgotten
11. --- I haven’t heard from Henry for a long time. --- What do you suppose ____ C to him? A. was happening B. to happen C. has happened D. had happened
D a postman for about six years. 12. Jack ___ A. has become B. has turned C. has changed D.has been
动词语态有两种：主动语态和被动语态。 主语是动作的发出者为主动语态； 主语是动作的接受者为被动语态。
动词谓语部分结构：be + v.pp
时态 一般现在时 现在完成时 一般过去时 过去完成时 一般将来时 主动 do/does have/has done did had done will do 被动
am/is/are being done have/has been done
现在进行时 am/is/are doing
was/were being done had been done will be done
过去进行时 was/were doing
will have done
will have been done
比较： rise是不及物动词；raise是及物动词。 The price has been risen. (错) The price has risen. (对)
The price has raised. (错 ) The price has been raised. (对) The accident was happened last week. (错) The accident happened last week. (对)
? 一、 get done ? The patient got treated once a week. ? He got injured while searching for the lost boy in the woods. getting hurt (受伤害） while ? Try to avoid _____________ being in love with others. ? Cleaning women in big cities usually get _____ C by the hour. A. pay B. paying C. paid D. to pay
? 二、 主动形式表被动意义 ? ?1. 连系动词look, sound, feel, smell, taste, appear, seem, go, prove, turn, stay, become, fall, get, grow, keep + adj. ? ?构成系表结构,主动表被动。 ? The steel feels cold. ? His plan proved (to be) practical. has gone bad ? The yogurt in the fridge ______________ ? (已经变质）.
? ? ? ? ? ?
2. 表示开始、结束、运动的动词。如:begin, finish, start, open, close, stop, end, shut, run, move 等主动表被动。 Work began at 7 o’clock this morning. The shop closes at 6 p.m. every day. 3. need / want / require doing, be worth doing, be to blame主动表被动。 requires repairing The equipment in the corner ________________ (需要修理).
C for the failure of Who do you think ____ their marriage? A. to blame B. to be blame C. is to blame D. is to be blamed ? I feel it is your husband who ______ A for the spoiled child. A. is to blame B. is going to blame C. is to be blamed D. should blame
? 4. 表示主语的某种属性特征的动词。 ?如read, write, act, iron, cut, draw, drive, sell, ?wash, clean, wear, open, cook, lock, shut, dry, ?eat, drink.这类动词一般不单独使用，常有一个修饰语。
? Nylon cleans easily. This material has worn thin. ? Your pen writes smoothly. The recorder won’t play. ? ?? ?
The cloth washes well.
His book does not sell.
A a national wildlife ? 1. This coastal area ______ reserve last year. ? A. was named B. named C. is named D. names D 2. I need one more stamp before my collection ____. A. has completed B. completes C. has been completed D. is completed
? 3. The new suspension bridge _____ B by the end of last month. ? A. has been designed B. had been designed ? C. was designed D. would be designed 说明：by the end of 短语一般都与完成时连用。
C and burned at such a speed 4. Rainforests _____ that they will disappear from the earth in the near future. A. cut B. are cut C. are being cut D. had been cut
Little attention was paid to this problem.
Group discussion should be encouraged in class.
It is reported that a new road will be built here.
Measures should be taken to stop the river from being polluted.