名词性从句 noun clause
? Who will go makes no difference.
? What he said is not true . ? Whether he comes or not is uncertain. ? Whether we will go for a picnic tomorrow depends on the weather. ? That the wooded soldier is still alive is a wonder.
? 2.引导主语从句的词： ? 连词：that, whether
? 连接代词：what(ever),who(ever), which(ever)，whose,
? 连接副词：when, where, how ,why
连接副词：when, where, how ,why引导的主语从句
? When your uncle will arrive was not mentioned in his letter. ? Where the painter is from is unknown to us all. ? How we’ll solve the problem should be discussed again ? Why you went there alone must be explained to us.
? 3. it 做形式主语
? That we should master English well is important. ? It is important that we should master English well. ? Who will be sent to the front hasn’t been decided yet. ? It hasn’t been decided yet who will be sent to the front. ? 常见的固定句型：
It 的用法: (形式主语) It’ possible/important/necessary/clear… that ……很可能/重要的是…/必要的是…/很清楚… It’s said/ reported… that...据说/据报道… It’s been announced/declared that...已经通知/ 宣布… It seems/appears/happens.. that… 看似/显然/ 碰巧.. It’s no wonder that… 并不奇怪/无疑… It’s a pity/a fact /a common knowledge (众所周知)/ a common saying that… (俗话说)
A. It +be+adj (important/ essential/ natural/ necessary)+ that sb. should do sth. ? It +be+adj (amazing/ clear/certain…) +that从句 ? It is certain that we will do a good job. ? It is very clear that we should leave. B. It +be + n ( a pity/ a fact/ a good idea/ an honor/ a mystery/ a pleasure/ a shame/ a wonder/ a challenge…) + that从句 ? It is still a mystery how the prisoner escaped. ? It is still a question whether we can go there. ? It’s no wonder that he win the game.
? C. it + be + p.p ( known/ said/reported/ believed/ suggested/ stressed …) + that/ wh-从句 ? It is known to all that heart attack is terrible. ? It is reported that he has won the bet.
? 以上三种句型表建议，要求，责任，义务，或愿 望从句谓语常用should + do, should 可以省略。
? It is suggested that you (should) take it. ? It is necessary that you should stop.
D. It +happened( occur to / seem/ matter/ appear…)+ that / wh-clause ? It happened that I was late for school. ? It matters whether he will accept our invitation.
二、宾语从句 The Object Clause
1、宾语从句 宾语从句的引导词 宾语从句在复合句中起宾语作用，可以作动词的 宾语，也可以作介词的宾语。 引导宾语从句词有连词that，if，whether 连接代词who，whose，what，which, whoever, whomever, whatever, whichever 连接副词when，where，how(以及how构成的词 组)， why等。
1.I hear (that)___________.(一小时后会回来)
2.He said (that)___________.(他非常想我们) 3.The teacher told us (that)_____________. (地球围绕太阳转）
宾语从句中的连接词that 在以下三种情况下不能省略： ①当that 从句与另一名词性从句并列作宾语时, 第二个从句起that引导词不能省； ②当that作介词宾语时, that不可省掉。 ③用it做形式宾语的宾语从句。 1.Everyone knew what happened and that she was worried. 2.The reason lies in that she works harder than the others do. 3.I think it necessary that you should read English aloud.
2.由从属连词if / whether 引导的宾从
if / wether he will go to the ? I want to know _____________________ park with us （他是否和我们一起去公园） if / wether he can come Ask him _______________ （他是否能来） I don’t knowWether it is going to ______________（是否要下雨） rain or not whether or not 连在一起引导宾语从句时不用if
练一练: if / whether if / whether 1. I asked her __________ she had a bike.
whether 2. We’re worried about ________ he is safe. whether 3. I don’t know ___________ he is well or
not. 4. I don’t know whether to go. _______
if 5. He doesn’t care ________ it isn’t a fine day.
注：1.表示“是否”后接动词不定式时用whethe (whether to do sth.) 2.宾语从句是否定句时一般用if 引导
3.由连接代词(what, who, whom, which,whose) 连接副词(when, where, how, why)引导的宾从 ? He asked _________________？ who could answer the question （谁能回答这个问题） whom they are waiting ? Doyou know _________________ ？for （他们在等谁） whose handwriting was the ? He asked _____________________？ best in the class （谁的书法是班上最好的） when we’ll have a meeting? ? Please tell___________________. （我们什么时候开会）
? Can you tell me ______________ where he is （ 他在哪儿） ? Could you tell me ______________station? how I can get to the （怎样到达车站） why the train was late? ? Would you tell me _______________ （火车为什么晚点）
注：因为连接代词或连接副词在从句中担 任一定的句子成分, 具有一定的意义, 所以 不可以省略。
1.Could you tell us how much it costs to fly to Hainan? 2.Could you tell us how often you go abroad for a holiday? 3.Could you tell us how long the meeting will last? 4. I don’t know how far it is to the cinema. 5.Please tell us how many students there are in your school. 6. Please tell us how soon you will be ready. Can you tell us how old his brother is?
5. “疑问词+ever” whatever, whichever, whoever, whomever 引导宾语从句 I’ll show you whatever you want to see. He likes to makes friends with whoever shares his interest.
1. 如果主句是一般现在时、一般将来时或祈使句时，宾 语从句时态不受限制 I hear he is here today/ he was here yesterday/ he will be here tomorrow. 2. 如果主句是一般过去时，宾语从句应与主句保持一致， 即使用过去时态的某种形式。 He said he was watching TV/ he had swept the floor/ he would play football after school. 3. 如果宾语从句所叙述的是客观事实、自然现象、科学 真理等时，从句不受主句限制，用一般现在时。 Everyone answered there are sixty minutes in an hour.
1. The radio says it _______ cloudy tomorrow. will be
goes 2. The headmaster hopes everything ______ well.
were playing 3. Tom says that they ____________ (play). basketball at six o’clock yesterday evening. 4. I hear they ______________ (return) it already. have returned had been 5. He said that they _________ members of the Party since 1948. (be)
主语谓语动词为think, consider, suppose,believe,
expect, guess, imagine等, 其后的宾语从句若含
I don’t think that this dress fits you well. 我认为这件衣服不适合你穿。 I don’t suppose that it is true. ? ? ? ? ? 我认为那不是真的。 一Do you believe it will clear up? 一I believe so. 我认为会这样。 I don't believe so.(或I believe not.) 我认为不会这样。
1. I doubt if / whether he will pass the exam.
2. I don’t doubt that we will win the match. 3. Do you doubt that he did it on his own?
肯定句中用 if / whether
if / whether ? 1.I doubt _________he is telling the truth. that ? 2.We never doubt _________ the plan will be carried out . that ? 3.Does he doubt _________ you are from Australia? if / whether ? 4.I’m doubtful _________ he will agree to this.
三、Predicative Clauses 表语从句
1.表语从句放在连系动词之后，充 当复合句中的表语。 The question is who will do it.
What I want to say is that I am tired.
连接词: that / whether ( if 不引导表语从句) /as if /as though 连接代词: who / whom / whose / which / what 连接副词: when / where / why / how / because The question is whether we can rely on him. That’s because we were in need of money at that time. He looked as if he was going to cry.
It sounds as if someone is knocking at the door.
That’s why I was late.
1.在表语从句中, 表“是否” 时, 只能用 “whethe 不能用“if”。 2. 一般情况下，“that”不能省。 3. It is /was because … It is /was why… 4. The reason (why…/for…)is /was that… that …. 5. The reason is because /why…
? 1) 可接表从的连系动词有be（is, am, are, was, were ）, look, seem, sound, appear等。 ? China is no longer what it used to be.
The question remains whether they will be able to help us.
At that time, it seemed as if I couldn't think of the right word. It seems that he was late for the train.
It appears that she was wrong.
? 2) because, why引导的表语从句
? That‘s because he didn’t understand me. (That's because...强调原因) ? That's why he got angry with me. (That's why...强调结果) ? The reason why I was sad was that he didn't understand me.
My question is who left. What I wonder is when he left. That's what he wants.
This is where they once lived.
That is why he didn't come here.
使用虚拟语气的表语从句 在表示建议、命令、要求、计划等含义的名词 （常见的词有：advice, suggestion, order, request,plan, idea等）后的表语从句，谓语动 词需用“should+动词原形”表示，should 可 以省略。 My suggestion is that we (should) start early tomorrow. 我的建议是我们明天一早就出发。 My idea is that we should think it over before accepting it.
观察下列句子划红线的部分。 1. The news that we won the game is The news exciting. 2. I have no idea when he will come back home. 3. Word came to him that Mary had Word probably fallen ill. 4. They are investigating the question the question whether the man is trustworthy.
1. 概念: 在复合句中作名词的同位语的名词性 从句。 2. 功能:
常跟的抽象名词有: fact/ idea/reason/
problem/evidence/opinion… 4. 连接词 that/whether/who/ which/ what /when/ where/why/how
that在从句中不充当成分,只起连接作用, 不可省略. 他告诉我一个消息,他马上要从国外回国. He told me the news that he would come home from aboard soon. There is no doubt that the prices of cars will go down.
只用whether引导,不用if，而且whether 不充当成分。 这个问题是否正确还未被证实.
The problem whether is right ________ hasn’t been proved.
在从句中充当成分 1.谁会出国这个问题还未决定. 2.我不知道该选哪个. (主) 1.The questionwho should go _____ abroad hasn’t been decided yet. which one I 2. I have no idea ______ should choose. (定语)
1.我了解他们为什么离开得那么早. 2. 我们还没决定好去哪儿. 1.I’ve got a good ideawhy they _____ left early. where 2.The question _______ we should go has not been decided.
1. We were excited at the news. Our football team had won a third match . We were excited at the news that our football team had won a third match. 2. They have made a new plan. Another experiment building will be put up beside the library. They have made a new plan that another experiment building will be put up beside the library.
3. They had the question. Could he pass the final exam? They had the question whether he could pass the final exam. 4. Who did the damaged computer belong to? No one had any idea.
No one had any idea who the damaged computer belonged to.
5. The problem has been solved. Why
were so many areas flooded during
the heavy storm?
The problem why so many areas were flooded during the heavy storm has been solved.
6.Two thirds of all girls in Britain are on a diet./ The fact worries their parents and teachers a lot.
The fact that two thirds of all girls are on a diet worries their parents and teachers a lot.
7. The Queen of England was on a three-day visit in China./ We heard the news last night.
We heard the news last night that the Queen of England was on a three-day visit in China.
8. Time travel is possible./ There is no scientific proof for the idea. There is no scientific proof for the idea that time travel is possible.
9. Chinese students should be given more free time./The suggestion is welcomed by many people, especially kids in school. The suggestion that Chinese students should be given more free time is welcomed by many people, especially kids in school.
news, hope, belief, suggestion, proposal, word, thought, doubt, truth, possibility, promise, order等表抽象意
He told me the news that he would come home from aboard soon. Word came that he had been abroad. 据说他已经出国了。 (同位语从句) Our team has won the game, which made us very happy. (定语从句) 我们的队赢了, 这让我们很高兴。
2.从性质上区别 定语从句是从句对其先行词的修饰或 限制，属于形容词性从句的范畴；而同 位语从句是从句对前面抽象名词的进
The news that our team has won the game is true. 我们队赢了那场比赛的消息是真的。 (同位语从句, 补充说明news到底是一个什 么消息) The news that he told me yesterday was true. 昨天他告诉我的那个消息是真的。 (定语从句, news在从句中作told的宾语)
3. 从引导词及其在句子中的成分上区别 有些引导词如how, whether, what 可以 引导同位语从句, 但不能引导定语从句。 如: That question whether we need it has not been considered. 我们是否需要它这个问题还没有考虑。 (同位语从句)
引导词that引导定语从句时，在从句中 一般作主语或宾语 (指物时还可以用
The order that we should send a few
people to help the other groups was received yesterday. 我们应派几个人去帮别的几个小组的 命令昨天收到了。 (同位语从句, 是对order的具体解释 that虽不作成分, 但不能省略)
The order that we received yesterday was that we should send a few people to help the other groups.
(定语从句, 是名词order的修饰语, that
判断下列哪些含有同位语从句，哪些含有 定语从句。 1. The news that we had successfully sent up another communication satellite spread throughout the world. 同位语从句 2. That’s the best piece of news I’ve heard.
定语从句 3. I’ve no hope that my parents have been expecting to me. 定语从句
4. Is there any hope that he will be home at 7:30? 同位语从句 5. The possibility that you referred to doesn’t exist at all. 定语从句 6. The fact that we talked about is very important. 定语从句 7. There is a strong possibility that we may be in France for the next week. 同位语从句
1. ____made the school proud was ____more than B 90%of the students had been admitted to key universities . A What / because B What / that
C That / what
D That / because
A 2.___she couldn’t understand was ___ fewer and fewer students showed interest in her lessons . A What / why B That / what C What / because D Why / that B 3. He is absent from school . It is __ he is seriously
ill. A. why B. because C. that D. the reason
4 ___has helped to save the drowning girl is D worth praising . A Who B The one C Anyone D Whoever
A 5. Information has been put forward __ more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities .
A that B how C where D what A 6. ___ is no possibility ___ Bob can win the first prize in the match. A. There, that C. There, whether B. It, that D. It, which
7 – I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week . A -- Is that ___you had a few days off ? A why B when C what D where
8 Are you still thinking about yesterday’s game ? A --- Oh ,that’s ___.
A what makes me feel excited B whatever I feel excited about C how I feel about it D when I feel excited
9 .__ fashion differs from country to country may B reflect the cultural differences from one aspect . A What B That C This D Which
10. When you answer questions in a job interview ,please remember the golden rule :Always give the monkey exactly __ he A wants .
A what B which C when D that
11. We made the suggestion that he ___ his work . B A continues C continued B continue D had continued
12.There will be a special price for ____ buys things in large number here. A. who B. whom C. whoever D. Whomever
13. Mary wrote an article on ____ the team had failed to win the game .
14.The poor young man is ready to accept __ help he can get. (05) A. whichever C. whatever B. however D.whenever
15.Many newspaper printed the governor’s statement _____ would support a tax cut.
A.and he B. was that he C which he D that he
16._____ man must fear when traveling in space is radiation from the sun.
17.It is generally considered unwise to give a child ____ he or she wants. A. However C. whichever B. whatever D. whenever
18. Can you make sure ___ the gold rings?
A. where she had put C. where she has put B. where had she put D. where has she put
19.The reason that has been such a success ___ he never gives up. A. is B. is because C. is that D. is what
20. ______ breaks the law should be punished.
? A Whoever c. anyone. b. No matter who d. who
21. That is ___ I had to take the risk of being washed away.
A. why B. reason why C. how D. what
22. Do ___ you think is right ___ difficulties you may have. A. what ;however
C. whatever ; whoever
B. that ;whatever
D. what; whatever
23.The workers considered it important ___ the boss would agree to give them a rise. A. whether B. how C. where D. which
24. Along with the letter was his promise ____ he would visit me this coming Christmas. A. which B. that C. what D. whether 25. You are saying that everyone should be equal, and this is ___ I disagree. A. why B. where C. what D. how
26. Difficulty lies ___ we have no money. A. that B. in that C. in the fact D. in the fact that 27. I don’t think the question of ___ they are old or young is important.
B. whether C. how D. why
28. It makes no difference ___ you will go today or tomorrow. A. if B. whether C. that D. what
29. _____ should be sent to work there? A. Who do you suggest B. Who do you suggest that should
C. Do you suggest who should
D. Do you suggest whom should
30. The news ____ Lincoln was murdered filled the American people’s hearts with deep sorrow.
A. which B. when C. that D. how 31. ____ he said at the meeting astonished everyone present.
B. That C. The fact D. The matter
32. I don’t trust his promise ___ he will buy me a new car. A. which B. what C. when D. that
33. She received the message ___ he would come by plane.
C. what D. when
34. Energy is ___ makes things work. A. what B. something C. anything D. that
35.Our city has changed a lot ,and now it is quite different from __ a few years ago.
A. what it used to be
C.which it used to be
B. that it used to be
D. what was it
36. We all know the truth ___ there are air ,water and sunlight,there are living things. A. wherever B. where C. that D. that wherever
37.The true value of life is not in ___ , but____.
A. how you get ;that you give B.which you get;what you give C.what you get ;what you give D. what do you get ;what do you give 38.___ is a fact that English is being accepted as an international language.