Since the earliest civilizations，people have controlled rivers to meet society's demands.Today， rivers are controlled for many reasons， primarily to mainta
in reliable water supplies for daily，agricultural and industrial needs，for power generation，for navigation (航行)，and to prevent flooding. River control is achieved by channelization，a term that covers a range of river engineer in works，including widening，deepening，straightening and stabilization of banks，and by the construction of dams. An important period of channelization took place in Europe during the 19th century， when many large rivers were straightened and their beds deepened.One of the most dramatically changed was the Tisza River，a branch of the Danube that flows through Hungary.The controlling of the Tisza，designed to reduce flooding and make land for agriculture，included cutting off more than 100 meanders (河曲)，shortening the river's length by nearly 400 kilometers. One of the most common ways in which people control rivers is by damming them.The past 50 years or so has seen an increase in dam construction worldwide， and at the beginning of the 21st century，there were about 800,000 dams globally，some towering more than 200 meters in height. Despite their successes，many dams also cause significant environmental changes that prove harmful.Some particularly deep reservoirs ( 水 库 ) can bring about
earthquakes due to the stress on their bottom rocks caused by huge volumes of water.Downstream of a reservoir，the river is certainly influenced in many ways： water volume，speed and quality are all affected，leading to changes in the landscape and among plants and animals.
1.River control 7.stabilizing
8.shortening Passage 2
A professor of environmental health and his students began studying the idea of rooftop gardening for cities.“I think vertical farming is an idea that can work in a big way，”said Despommier. Why would we want to build skyscrapers filled with vegetables when we've been farming on the ground for 10,000 years? Because as the world's population grows—from 6.8 billion now to as much as 9 billion by 2050—we could run out of productive soil and water.Most of the population growth will occur in cities that can't easily feed themselves.And the fact that modern agriculture and everything associated with it—chemical fertilizers and transportation full of carbon—is a significant contributor to climate change，and suddenly vertical farming doesn't seem so magic one in the sky. “Vertical farming could allow food to be grown locally and sustainably，”says
Glen Kertz， CEO of Valcent.The result saves space—vital in urban areas—and allows farmers to irrigate and fertilize with far less waste. At Valcent's El Paso lab，crops grow in rows on conveyor belts.Moving them gives the plants the precise amount of light and nutrients needed， letting them grow 15 times as much vegetable as on a normal farm with 5% of the water that traditional agriculture does. Dedspommier plans to build a 30story，cityblocksize vertical farm that would have transparent walls to maximize sunlight and would produce enough food for 50,000 people.But it would cost hundreds of millions to build a fullscale skyscraper farm.That's the main drawback: construction and energy costs would probably make vertically raised food more costly than traditional crops.
2.Reasons/Causes/Contributions 6.vital space Passage 3 7.less water
3.in cities 8.light and
4.climate change nutrients
Young people are definitely less courageous (勇敢的) than they were three
decades ago.Why is this? It's because they are spoiled， and take for granted everything that they have or are given. Three decades ago，there wasn't nearly as much blatant (公然的) disrespect for elders，peers，or other people in general.At that time，young people were taught that to get anything or get anywhere in life，they'd have to work for it and earn it. If young people aren't being taught the basics of respecting others，and aren't being taught that they need to work to make a living，then where are they to learn courage. Courage isn't necessarily about risking your life，for whatever reason.It is about being able to face any kind of hardship，and to make decisions and face the consequences of those decisions. Courage means being able to learn from hard times， and to take those lessons with you through life.It means having the resourcefulness (足智多谋) to find ways to deal with your problems yourself，and not being afraid to do so. Too many young people now rely on parents， siblings， older relatives and others to get them through life.Too often they turn to these figures whenever they get into trouble，and expect to have their problems solved for them. If we are to help our young people become more courageous，we should stop spoiling them，stop doing everything for them，and teach them the skills necessary to make basic life decisions on their own. Once these basic principles are instilled (灌输) in our young people，I think we'll find that they are more courageous than we could have dreamed，and more like the young people of three decades ago than we had ever imagined. It's time to go back to older values and ideas，and to bring courage back into our young people and society. Theme __1__ young people 30 year ago，those are less courageous.
They generally show __2__ for elders and other people. The behavior of young people today They take for granted whatever they have or receive. Many of them are too __3__ their parents or other relatives to get them through life. They are not __5__ of the basics of respecting others. They are not taught to work hard to make their dreams __6__. They don't have the __7__ to make wise __4__ decisions and overcome difficulties independently. They tend to expect others，such as their parents or siblings， to help them out when they are __8__. Never __9__ them; only help them when Tips necessary. Teach them the skills they need to make basic life decisions by themselves. It's time we went back to older values and Conclusion ideas，and __10__ into our young people and society. 答案 1.Compared with 2.disrespect/little/less respect 3.dependent on
5.aware 6.come true 9.spoil 10.brought courage back Passage 4
7．ability 8.in trouble
Is there a “success personality”—some winning combination of qualities that lead almost inevitably(不可避免的) to achievement? If so，exactly what is that secret success formula(公式)，and can anyone develop it?
At the Gallop Organization we recently focused in depth on success，inquiring into the attitudes of 1,500 distinguished people selected at random from Who is Who in America.Our research finds out a number of qualities that occur regularly among top achievers.Here is one of the most important，that is common sense. Common sense is the most widely possessed quality of the people surveyed.79% award themselves a top score in this quality.And 61% say that common sense is very important in contributing to their success. To most， common sense means the ability to present sound，practical judgment on daily affairs.To do this，one has to remove extra ideas and get right to the key points of what matters.A Texas oil and gas businessman puts it this way“The key ability for success is simplifying.In conduction of meeting and dealing with industry reducing a complex problem to the simplest term is highly important.” Is common sense a quality a person is born with，or can you do something to increase it? The oil man's answer is that common sense can definitely be developed.He owes his to learning how to debate in school.Another way to increase your store of common sense is to observe it in others，learning from their and your own mistakes. Besides common sense，there are many other factors that influence success: knowing your field，selfreliance，intelligence，the ability to get things done， leadership， creativity， relationship with others， and of course luck.But common sense stands out.If you develop these qualities，you'll succeed.Any you might even find yourself listed Who is Who someday. __1__ Finding of the research Comments on common sense Understandin g of common sense Top achievers have some common __2__，one of which is common sense. 79% of the people surveyed share strong common sense. 61% say their __3__ lies in such a quality
To most，it means one is able to __4__ daily affairs soundly and practically by __5__ on what really matters.
__6__ to get common sense __9__ leading to success 答案
__7__ it through activities like learning how to debate in school Increasing it through __8__ by observing others.
Knowing your field，selfreliance，intelligence，the ability to get things done，leadership，creativity，__10__，and luck. 2.qualities 5.focusing 9.Other factors 10.relationship with
1.Secrets to success/How to succeed 4.judge/present judgment on 7.Developing 8.mistakes
3．success 6． How/Ways others