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北师大版高一重难点讲解Unit 8

Module 3 Unit 8 Adventure

1.risk vt.冒??的危险,冒险干 n.冒险,风险;危险的人/事物 【精讲拓展】 risk sth.冒??的危险 risk doing sth.冒险做某事 at the risk of doing sth.冒着??的风险 take a risk(to do sth.)冒险做某事 take the risk of/in sth./doing sth.甘冒(做)某事的风险 【典型例句】 He risked his life to save the drowning boy. 他冒着生命危险去救那个溺水的男孩。 [朗文当代] He who risks nothing gains nothing. 不入虎穴,焉得虎子。 [朗文当代] Whoever you are,don’t take the risk of doing a job like that. 无论你是谁,都不要冒险做那样一份工作。 [朗文当代] He risked losing his house when his company went bankrupt. 他的公司破产时,他差点连自己家的房子都保不住了。[剑桥高阶] 即学即用 ①He thinks we shouldn’t go ahead with this plan because of the ________ of failure. A.future B.pressure C.worry D.risk 2.differ vi.不同,有区别 【精讲拓展】 differ from...in...在??方面与??不同 differ (with sb.) about/on /over sth.(和某人)就某事意见不同 be different from sb./sth.in sth.在某方面不同于某人或某物 make a difference 有影响,起主要作用 make no difference 不起作用,没影响,不重要 【典型例句】 Economists differ on the cause of inflation. 经济学家们对通货膨胀的原因看法不一。[剑桥高阶] His opinion differs entirely from mine. 他的意见与我的意见完全不同。[朗文当代] It makes a great difference to me.这对我很重要。[朗文当代] Is there any significant difference in quality between these two items?这两件东西在质量方面有显著的差别吗?[剑桥高阶] 即学即用 ②They are different________nature. A.in B.on C.of D.with

3.tire vt.疲倦,(使)厌烦,(使)厌倦 【精讲拓展】 tire sb.out 使某人筋疲力尽 tiring adj.引起疲劳的,累人的 tired adj.疲劳的,厌烦的 be tired of 厌烦 be tired from/with 因??而疲倦 be tired out 累坏了 【典型例句】 I am tired of living in the same area. 我厌倦了生活在同一地区。 [朗文当代] I am tired from overwork.过度工作使我很疲倦。 [朗文当代] Let the kids run around in the garden and that’ll soon tire them out. 让孩子们在院子里跑跑吧,他们很快就会筋疲力尽的。[剑桥高阶] 即学即用 翻译句子 ③他助人不倦。 4.anxious adj.忧虑的,担心的;渴望的,急切的 【精讲拓展】 be anxious about sb./sth.为??而担心 be anxious to do sth.渴望做某事 be anxious for sb. to do sth.急于让某人做某事 with anxiety=anxiously 焦虑地 【典型例句】 I am anxious for/about his safety.我很担心他的安全。[朗文当代] I’m anxious to get home to open my presents. 我恨不得马上到家去打开礼物。 [剑桥高阶] They were anxious that they (should) have everything they want. 他们渴望得到所有他们想要的东西。 [朗文当代] We waited with great anxiety for more news about the accident. 我们忧心忡忡地等待着有关这一事故的更多消息。 [朗文当代] 即学即用 ④I am anxious________ the result of exam. A.about B.to C.with D.over 5.patience n.耐心,耐性,容忍 【精讲拓展】 be/get out of patience with 对??失去耐心 lose one’s patience with 失去??的耐心 have no patience with 不能容忍,对??没有耐心 be patient with 对??有耐心 be patient of 能忍受,容许 【典型例句】 I’ll look into the matter as soon as possible.Just have a little patience. 请耐心点,我会尽快调查此事。 [朗文当代]

He’s a good teacher,but he doesn’t have much patience with the slower pupils. 他是个好老师,但对较迟钝的学生没多大耐心。 [剑桥高阶] Be patient with her—she’s very young. 对她耐心点——她年纪太小了。 [剑桥高阶] 即学即用 翻译句子 ⑤她是一位富有耐心和想象力的活泼的年轻妇女。 6.break vt.& vi.撕破;摔开;损坏 【精讲拓展】 break out(战争、火灾、瘟疫等)突然爆发 break away from 逃脱;脱离(政党等);打破(陈套等) break down 出故障;(计划等)失败;(身体,精神等)垮掉;(关系 或讨论)破裂;(化合物等)分解 break in 闯入;打断,插嘴 break into...破门而入;突然??起来 break through 突破;冲破 break off 折断;(突然)中止,结束 break up 打碎;拆散,放假;(集合)结束 【典型例句】 He likes to break in when others are talking. 别人讲话时他喜欢插嘴。 [朗文当代] The two countries have broken off diplomatic relations with each other. 这两个国家突然中断了外交关系。 [朗文当代] Fire broke out during the night.夜间突然起火了。[美国传统] 即学即用 完成句子 ⑥The police ___________________(驱散)the crowd. ⑦It was wrong of him_____________________(断绝往来)all his old friends. 7.run vi.& vt.跑;开动(机器等);经营;伸展,扩散,流动 【精讲拓展】 run out 结束,??东西用完了(主语为物,无被动态);流出 run out of(人)用完了??;从??中流出/跑出 run across 无意中碰到,遇见 run after 追逐;追求 run into 碰撞;偶然遇到 run over 浏览;(车辆)碾压 run through 浏览 【典型例句】 They soon ran out of their food.=They soon used up their food. 他们很快用完了食物。 [朗文当代] Let me know if you run across my keys. 如果你碰巧看到了我的钥匙,告诉我一声。 [美国传统] His car ran into the fence.他的汽车撞上了围栏。[朗文当代] She’s been running after him for years.

她追求他多年了。 [美国传统] 即学即用 ⑧Keep the machine________,and you will know how it works. A.run B.running C.to run D.runs 8.carry vt.搬,抬,提,拿,背 【精讲拓展】 carry on 从事,经营;继续做某事 carry out 实施;贯彻;执行 carry through 进行到底,完成 carry about/around 随身携带 【典型例句】 We should carry out the plan to the full. 我们应该不折不扣地执行计划。 [朗文当代] Despite powerful opposition,they managed to carry their reforms through. 尽 管 遇 到 了 强 大 的 阻 力 , 但 是 他 们 还 是 设 法 进 行 了 改 革 。 [朗文当代] The debate was carried off without any difficulty. 辩论轻松地结束了。[美国传统] He carried through the work.他完成了那件工作。 [朗文当代] 即学即用 ⑨I carried ________my promise. A.off B.away C.out D.at ⑩We carried________the discussion. A.on B.off C.about D.at 9.various adj.不同的,种种的,各种各样的 【精讲拓展】 variety n.种类,种种 a variety of/varieties of 多种多样的 vary vi.变化,不同,变更,改变 vary with 随??而变化 vary from...to...从??到??转变 【典型例句】 The weather varied from very cold to quite mild. 天气变化很大,会从冷变得相当暖和。 [朗文当代] The shirt is available in a wide variety of colours. 这种衬衫有各种各样的颜色可供选择。 [朗文当代] Her mood varies with the weather. 她的情绪随天气的变化而变化。 [朗文当代] I varied the speed of the drill to get it to work better. 我调整了钻头的速度以使其更好用。 [美国传统] 即学即用 翻译句子 ?他多方面的成就给人以深刻的印象。 10.back n.背部,反面;vt.使后退/倒退;支持;vi.后退,倒退 【精讲拓展】 back out 决定不履行(允诺的事);食言;打退堂鼓

back sb. on sth.支持某人某事 back up 后退,倒车;支持;证实 back away 退缩;退却 【典型例句】 He had a lot of evidence to back up his arguments. 他有许多证据证明自己的观点。 [朗文当代] I promised to help and I’m not backing out now. 我答应过要帮忙,现在我也没有打退堂鼓。 [朗文当代] There was an argument because neither side was willing to back down.双方都不愿意让步,于是争论了起来。 [美国传统] Don’t talk about me behind my back. 不要在背后议论我。 [美国传统] 即学即用 英译汉 ?Someone must be at the back of this. 11.limit v.限制,限定,n.边界,限度 【精讲拓展】 beyond/over the limit 超过限度 within limits 在一定范围内 without limit 无限制性 limit sth.to sth.把??限定在??的范围内 be limited to 局限于 【典型例句】 His speech was limited to five minutes. 他的演讲被限制到五分钟。 [朗文当代] I’ll help as much as I can,but there’s a limit to what I can do. 我会尽力帮忙,但我所能做的也是有限度的。[朗文当代] Try to limit your talk to ten minutes. 尽量把你的讲话限制在 10 分钟内。 [美国传统] 即学即用 完成句子 ?I can’t shoulder such a great responsibility;I know _________(能力有限). 12.advantage n.有利,有利条件 【精讲拓展】 at an advantage 有利地,占优势地 take advantage of 乘机利用 gain/win/have an(the)advantage over 胜过,优于 be of advantage to 对??有利 to one’s advantage 对某人有利 【典型例句】 Being able to speak another language fluently is a great advantage when you are looking for a job.当你找工作的时候,能熟练地说另 一门语言是一种优势。 [朗文当代] You should take advantage of the fine weather to paint the fence.

你应该利用这好天气给篱笆上油漆。 [朗文当代] His height and reach give him a big advantage over(=make him better than)other boxers. 他身高臂长,这使他在和其他拳击手较量时占有很大优势。 [剑桥高阶] 即学即用 ?You will find it________your advantage to learn some German before you visit Switzerland. A.to B.at C.over D.on

get across(使)通过;(使)被理解;(把??)表达清楚 【精讲拓展】 get about/around 走动;(消息等)传开 get sth.across to sb.向某人表达 get down to sth./doing sth.开始认真考虑做某事 get down 把??写下来;使悲伤,使沮丧 get along/on with 进展;与??相处?? get through 熬过困境;接通电话;做完,通过(测试) get over 痊愈,克服,战胜 get rid of 摆脱,除去 get into 陷入;养成(某种习惯) 【典型例句】 He’s not good at getting his idea across. 他不善于表达思想。 Sooner or later you’ll get over the shock. 迟早你会从震惊中恢复过来的。 I’m going to get down to studying English this term. 这学期我要认真学习英语了。 I telephoned twice,but couldn’t get through. 我打了两次电话,但都没打通。 即学即用 用 get 相关词组填空 ?The news of their secret wedding soon______________. ?The message__________at last. ?A police officer grabbed him,but he_____________ .

[朗文当代] [朗文当代] [朗文当代] [美国传统]

as well as 除??之外(也),与??一样(程度) 【精讲拓展】 as well as 含义相当于 not only...but also 等,表“不但??而 且??,既??又??” 。它可以连接名词、代词、形容词、动 词、介词短语、非谓语动词及从句。 as well as 也可用作介词,放在句末或句首,含义与用法相当于 besides,in addition to。

由 as well as 连接的复合宾语并不影响谓语动词的数,即 as well as 后面的部分不应看作主语的一部分。 as well as 在意义上强调前者。 【典型例句】 He as well as his parents is kind to me.他和他的父母对我都很好。 The stars shine during the day as well as at night. 星星不仅夜间发光,白天也发光。 He can sing as well as,if not better than,John. 如果他唱得不如约翰好的话,起码是唱得一样好。

1.Chinese differs greatly________Japanese________pronunciation. A.from;in B.with;at C.from;on D.in;from 2.—Climate here doesn’t agree________some of us. —I agree________you on this point. A.with;with B.to;with C.to;about D.on;with 3.The latest________in women’s clothes indicate that people now care more about being comfortable. A.tracks B.signs C.directions D.trends 4.—Do you have any double rooms________? —Oh,let me see if there are any left. A.preferable B.considerable C.possible D.avaiable 5.We didn’t plan our art exhibition like that but it________very well. A.worked out B.worked on C.went out D.carried on 6.—Angelia looks blue today. —Yes,but she won’t say ________ bothers her. A.why is it that B.that is why C.it is what D.what it is that 7.________makes this shop different is that it offers more personal services. A.What B.Who C.Whatever D.Whoever 8.Perhaps that is the only point________I completely agree. A.that B.which C.when D.where 9.—Look!What a mistake!Why? —Sorry ,I________on it. A.don’t concentrate B.hadn’t concentrated C.hadn’t been concentrating D.wasn’t concentrating 10.________in this way,this kind of flower belongs to the subtropical plant. A.Once sorting B.If sorting C.When it sorted D.If sorted

分 词 分词分现在分词、过去分词 一、现在分词 doing 常表主动,动作正进行(也可表经常性动作、 状态,还可表条件、原因、 方式等),具有动词、副词、形容词的特征。 (1)现在分词的形式有:主动态的一般式、完成式;被动态 的一般式、完成式。(即 doing,having done;being done, having been done) (2)现在分词的一般式表示的动作与句中谓语动词表示的动 作同时或几乎同时发生。 She sat there reading the book.她坐在那里看书。 (3)现在分词的完成式所表示的动作发生在谓语动词所表示 的动作时间之前。 Having lived there for many years,he told us a lot about things about the city. 在那个城市居住多年之后,他给我们 讲了关于那儿的很多事情。 二、过去分词(done)常表被动,动作已完成 1.定语 A.看作定语的分词与被修饰词之间的关系,①存在主动关系用 现在分词 doing;②存在被动关系用过去分词 done(表动作已完 成)或现在分词被动态 being done(表被动动作正进行) a sleeping baby 一个正在睡觉的婴儿 spoken English 英语口语 the building being built now 在建的大楼 B.部分不及物动词的分词有进行与完成之分,无主动、被动意 味。如: developing country 发展中的国家 developed country 发达的国家 changing world 还在变化的世界 changed world 变化了的世界 falling leaves 正在下落的叶子 fallen leaves 落叶 boiling water 沸水 boiled water 开过的水 rising sun 初升的太阳 Risen sun 升起了的太阳 C.表示人的心理活动的动词如:amuse,surprise,interest,excite,move,please,satisfy, disappoint,worry,tire,frighten,relax,puzzle 等,现在分词常修饰物(表使人如何),过去 分词常修饰人(表本身如何)。此时的动词已失去动作意义,是形容词。 excited people 激动的人们 exciting news 令人激动的消息 2.表语

The cup is broken.杯子是破的。 I am very tired.我很累。 3.宾补 A.现在分词 doing 作宾补,常表主动动作正在进行或某一动作或 状态一直在持续。 I found him sleeping.我发现他在睡觉。 We have the lights burning.我们让灯一直开着。 B.过去分词(done)作宾补强调一被动动作已完成或一种状态,现 在分词被动态(being done)强调一被动动作正在进行。 I have my bike repaired.我把自行车拿去修理了。 We saw shop windows being painted by two workers. 我看见两个工人正在油漆橱窗。 4.状语 多表伴随、条件、时间、原因、结果、方式,分词作状语要看 作状语的动词与句子主语之间的关系。 A.存在主动关系,用①现在分词一般式 doing;②现在分词的完 成式 having done(时间上有先后关系) B.存在被动关系用①过去分词 done(强调动作已完成);②现在分 词的被动态 being done(强调一被动动作正在进行);③现在分词 完成式的被动态。having been done(强调一被动动作发生在句子 谓语动词所表示的动作时间之前)。 They came into the classroom,singing and dancing. 他们又唱又跳地进了教室。 Being a student,I must study hard.因为我是学生,我得努力学习。 Having time,I’ll come to see you.有时间的话我会来看你。 Having finished the work,we went out for a walk. 完成工作后我们就出去走了走。 Built in 1900,the bridge is over 100 years old. 这桥建于 1900 年,有 100 多年的历史了。 Being repaired now,the car can’t be used.车还在修,现在用不了。 Having been criticized by his teacher,the boy decided to correct his mistakes. 那个小孩受到老师的批评后决定改正错误。

1.While watching television,________. A.the doorbell rang B.the doorbell was rung C.I heard the doorbell ring D.the doorbell was ringing 2.________from the tallest building,the whole city looks more beautiful. A.See B.Saw C.Seeing D.Seen 3.When we got back,we found the gas________but the door remained________. A.burned;locked B.burned;locking C.burning;locked D.to burn;locking 4.The radio________tomorrow is Mary’s.

A.repairing B.repaired C.to be repaired D.being repaired 5.________good,the food sold out soon. A.Taste B.Tasting C.Tasted D.To taste 6.You can’t catch me!Mary shouted,________away. A.run B.running C.to run D.ran 7.________from his accent,he is from Beijing. A.Judging B.Judged C.To judge D.Judge 8.________more time,I can do it better. A.Given B.To give C.Be given D.Give 9.Anyone________to vote must come to the meeting. A.wishing B.desiring C.wished D.hoped 10.Things________never come again. A.lost B.losing C.lose D.have lost

1.________many times,but he still couldn’t understand it. A.Having been told B.Having told C.He had been told D.Though he had been told 2.________,I went out for a walk. A.There was nothing to do B.There being nothing to do C.There had nothing to do D.I had nothing to do 3.________an answer,he decided to write another letter to her. A.Having not received B.Not received C.Not having received D.Having not received 4.There was a ______expression on his face at the______news. A.puzzling;puzzling B.puzzled;puzzled C.puzzling;puzzled D.puzzled;puzzling 5.China is a ________ country ________to the Third World. A.developing;belonging B.developed;belonged C.developing;belonged D.developed;belonging

【例 1】 There are plenty of jobs ________in the western part of the country. A.present B.available C.precious D.convenient 教材原文对照 There were inventions and developments in China which were not available in Europe at that time. (P26) 【例 2】 —How about your journey to Mount Emei? —Everything was wonderful except that our car________twice on the way.

A.slowed down B.broke down C.got down D.put down 教材原文对照 First his two sledges broke down,and then the horses began to have serious difficulties with the snow and the cold. (P28) 【例 3】 Some parents are just too protective.They want to________their kids from every kind of danger,real or imagined. A.spot B.dismiss C.shelter D.distinguish 教材原文对照 We’ll teach you survival skills and you’ll learn how to make a fire and build your own shelter. (P31)

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