? Teachers who are kind are popular with the students. ? Mr. Wang, who is kind, is popular with the students.
限制性定语从句 省略后主语所指 就不明确， 所以不能省略。 非限制性定语从 句省略后意义 仍 然完整， 所以
1) I have a sister who works in a hospital.
2) I have a sister, who works in a hospital.
? His father, who works in Beijing, came back yesterday. ? Shanghai, which is in East China, is developing rapidly.
形式 限制性 无 定语 逗号 从句 非限制 逗号 性定语 隔开 从句
能否 省略 不能
修饰 限定 补充 解释
1. The famous basketball star, _____ who is an American, came to China yesterday. 2. In those days, she used to go to Mr. Black, with whom she had a wonderful time. ______ 3. I bought a car yesterday, ______ which cost me a lot. 4. Xi’an, which _____ I visited last year, is a nice old city. when he 5. He will come to see me next July, _______ won’t be so busy. where I once studied, was built 6. The school, _______ thirty years ago. 7. John said he’d been working in the office for an which was true. hour, _______ whose name is Ann, 8. The manager’s daughter, _______ gave me a patient smile.
非限制性定语从句是先行词的附加说明, 去掉也 不 会影响主句意思, 它与主句之间通常用逗号分开。 1.引导非限制性定语从句的关系词有： who whom whose which when where 等 2. 从句中所有的关系词都不可省略 3. 从句通常不能用that引导 4. 在“非限定”中, 指人的关系代词作宾语时, 只 能用宾格whom, 不能用who替换, 也不能省略。
1. I am doing different types of exercises, all which are quite helpful to my health. of ______ 2. Many people, some of _______ whom are not overweight, are going on diets. 3. There are 54 students in my class, three of whom come from US. _______
▲ 在 of which / whom 之前可以使 用表达数量或定位的数词或代词
比较关系代词as / which 引导非限制性定语从句 1.The sun heats the earth , which _____ is very important to us . which I 2.He admires everyone in the class , _______ find quite strange . As we all know, smoking is harmful to one’s 3._____ health . as / which is shown in her 4.She is very patient , _________ work . 指代整个句子 , 在定语从句中作 as 和 which 都可___________ 主语 宾语 as 常译为____ 正如 ,which常译为这一点 ___ 或____ _____ 句首 或_______, 句中 as 可放在______ 句中 不可放在______ 句首 which 只放在_____
A we expected, he made a long speech ____ A As B That C Which D It C He made a long speech, _______was unexpected. A as B that C which D it 当主句和从句语义一致时，用as；反之，用 which来引导非限制性定语从句。
1.as we (all) know / as is known to us (all) 正如我们所知道的 2.as we / they (had) expected 正如所期待的那样 as is / was / had been expected 3.as is /has been mentioned above 正如上面提到的那样 4.as is /was / has been shown in …正如在…中表现的那样 5.as has been pointed out 正如所指出的那样 正如能想象的那样 6.as can be imagined 7.as you can see / as can be seen 正如所看见的那样 正如常发生的那样 8.as often happens 9.as is often the case 这是常有的事
1.众所周知，爱因斯坦是一位伟大的科学家。 As we all know / ________________ _____________ As is known to us all, Einstein was a famous scientist . as / which is known to us all = Einstein was a famous scientist , _____________ =___________ We all know /________________ It is known to us all that Einstein was a famous scientist . = _______________/___________________ What we all know What is known to us all is that Einstein was a famous scientist . 2.正如上面提到的那样，英语很容易学。 _____________________, As is mentioned above English is easy to learn . 3.正如我们所期待的那样，所有被困在矿井的矿工 都被救出来。 As we (had) expected all the miners trapped in the ___________________, mine were rescued .
as 也常与the same , such 搭配使用，构成 the same … as , such… as 1.She has the same book as you have . 2.He is such a good teacher as we all respect .
比较： 1.This is such a difficult question that nobody can answer it . 这是一个如此难的问题以致没有人能回答。 that 引导结果状语从句 2.This is such a difficult question as nobody can answer . 这是一个如此难没人能回答的问题。 as 作关系代词，引导定语从句，在从句中作宾语
2 This is the same book that I lost . 这本书就是我丢的那本。
This is the same book as I lost . 这本书和我丢的那本书一样。
非限制性定语从句和简单句的比较 1) He failed in the exam. _______ This made his parents angry. which made his 2) He failed in the exam, _______ = and this parents angry. them are teachers. 3) He has two sons. Both of _____ whom are teachers. 4) He has two sons, both of _____
1. It is reported that two schools, ___ are being built in my hometown, will open next year. (2007四川) A. they both B. which both C. both of them D. both of which
2. I have many friends, some ___are businessmen. (2005全国)
A. why C. who of B. from which D. of whom
3. Last week, only two people came to look at the house, ____ wanted to buy it. (07安徽) A. none of them B. both of them C. neither of whom D. none of whom 4. The factory produces half a million pairs of shoes every year, 80% _____ are sold abroad. (2004辽宁) A. of which B. which of C. of them D. of that
5. I walked in our garden, ____ Tom and Jim were tying a big sign onto one of the trees. (05 辽宁) A. which B. when C. where D. that 6. Great changes have taken place in that school. It is no longer what it was 20 years ago, ____ it was so poorly equipped. (05安徽) A. when B. which C. what D. that 7. Jim passed the driving test, ____ surprised everybody in the office. (05浙江) A. which B. that C. this D. it
完成句子： 1 He went to the university and studied IT , which made him develop a special interest in ______________________ artificial intelligence . (develop) 他进入大学学习 信息技术，这使他对人工智能产生了特别的兴趣 each of which was 2.I have three beautiful pens , _______________ from my parents .(each) 我有三支漂亮的钢笔，每支都是父母给我的礼物 3. The settlement is home to nearly 1000 people many of whom left / of whom many left their , ________________________________ village homes in search of a better life in the city .(leave) 近一千人在这一社区居住，他们当 中很多都是从农村老家来城市寻求最好的生活。
4. Taobao is Asia’s largest retail network platform, where people can buy __ many kinds of things. (buy) 淘宝是亚洲最大的网络零售平台国，人们在这里能 够买很多种商品。 5. They arrived at a farmhouse, in front of which sat a dog _____. (sit) 他们到达了一个农庄，农庄 前面坐着一只狗。 6. We rent a house with two small rooms, the smaller of which can serve as a kitchen. (serve) 我们租了一间带有两个小房间的屋子，其中较小的 那间房可以用作厨房。
7. As can be seen from the graph, the number of TV watchers is increasing rapidly. (see) 正如从图表上所能看到的，看电视的人的数量快 速上升 8. These are such good books as I like very much. (like) 这些是那么好的书，我都非常喜欢 we all know / As is known to us all practice 9 As ______________________________, makes perfect. The more you practice, the more fluent English you will speak. (know) 众所周知，熟能生巧，你练习得越多，你的英语口 语就会越好。 10. We all know / It is known to us all that the earth is round. (know) 众所周知，地球是圆的