Ergonomics is the study of the relationship between man and machine and environmental science, also known as ergonomics ergonomics ergonomics or interpersonal, after World War
II developed a new discipline. Ergonomic research in foreign countries due to different methods, resulting in a lot of different names. In the United States called "human engineering" or "human factors engineering; while many Western European countries known as the" ergonomics, other countries, most cited the name of Western Europe. Ergonomics is the study of "man - machine - environment" system of human, machine and environment between the three elements in order to solve the system of human performance, health problems of theory and methods of science. People, machines, three elements in the environment, "person" means an operator or user, including the psychological characteristics, physical characteristics and human ability to adapt to the machine and the environment are important research topics. ` "Machine" refers to the machine, but the more general meaning of technical terms much broader, including all operation and use of human products and engineering systems. How can we design to meet the request, in line with the characteristics of the human machine products, is the important issue of ergonomics. In interior design "machine" means, mainly refers to all kinds of furniture and the relationship between people, such as doors, windows, railings, stairs, etc. Inseparable relationship between man and machine, mainly in: 1. Human beings in order to achieve certain goals, to meet some human needs and design the machine. (2) re-design, manufacture, use, monitoring and maintenance process, the machine is always constrained and influenced by people, machinery and progress much faster than humans. Imbalance between the two results gives the machine the one hand, the burden has increased, so have great effects on human beings; the other hand, humans are about and influence the mechanical performance. Hence, if the set of machinery and equipment does not meet the technical operator of physical and mental characteristics, not only the mechanical properties can not be fully realized, but also may cause accidents. "Environment" refers to people working and living environment, noise, lighting, temperature and other environmental factors on people's work and lives, is the main target. "System" that is, by the interaction and interdependence of several components combined into an organic whole with a specific function, and second, the "system" itself is its subordinate part of a larger system. Due to mental stimulation and physiological changes caused by the phenomenon known as stress. It was first proposed by selye. Experimental
results show that long-term psychological disturbance can be detrimental to health. Noise generated stress, interferes with mood, blood pressure, heart rate and other physiological changes is an example. Thus, ergonomics is not only the height from the system of man, machine and environment, the relationship between the height from the study of the various system elements. The performance of people who work mainly refers to the performance requirements that must be completed in accordance with an operation shown by the efficiency and performance. Workers have their work performance is to measure the efficiency and productivity. A person's performance depends on the nature of work, human capacity, tools and working methods, depending on man, machine and environment, whether the relationship between the three elements are properly addressed. People's health, including health and safety In recent decades, people's mental health attention has been attached. Psychological factors can directly affect the physical health and job performance, therefore, not only to study some of the ergonomic factors on people's physical damage, such as strong noise on the auditory system of direct damage, but also to study these factors on the human heart damage, for example, some noise, although not directly harm people's hearing, but psychological disturbance, causing people's emergency response. Understand the basic concepts later, we can better understand the definition of ergonomics. The key is that we should understand two things: First, ergonomics is the man and machine, human and environmental disharmony, or even a history of serious conditions such contradictions gradually built up, which itself is still under development; first Second, the study focuses on ergonomic system of people. Ergonomics in solving the system of people's problems, mainly in two ways: First, the machine, the environment for people; the second is through the best training methods, people adapt to the machine and the environment. Any system according to the principles of human engineering design or management, must be considered from two aspects. Ergonomic research is broadly divided into three main 1 person working the system The study includes: body size, experience and information processing, movement, learning ability, physical and psychological needs, the sensitivity of the physical environment, social environment, sensitivity, intuition and the ability to feel, the difference between personal, environmental on the human body can influence people's long-term, short-term capacity limits and comfort point, the human form of reflection and response, and differences in people's habits, ill-conceived research. 2 people working the system directly by using the mechanical part of how people adapt to the use of These sections are divided into three categories:
(1) Display: instrumentation, signal display (2) manipulator: the manipulation of various machinery parts, rods, buttons, plates, wheels, pedals and so on. (3)Equipment: furniture, equipment and so on. 3 the use of the environment and people (1) the general environment: interior architecture and space environment lighting, temperature, humidity control. (2) special circumstances: for example, metallurgy, chemical, mining, aviation, aerospace industry and polar exploration, encounter and sometimes special circumstances, such as temperature, pressure, vibration, noise, radiation and pollution. From the ergonomics point of view of the problem, covering the technical sciences and human sciences of many cross-cutting issues. Ergonomic basic data and measurement tools First, the human body's basic data underlying data are the following three aspects, namely, the body structure, human scale and human actions such as the domain of the data. 1, the body structure most closely with the ergonomics of the motor system in the bones, joints and muscles, the three parts of the nervous system dominated, so that all parts of the body completed a series of movements. Bone from the skull, trunk bones, limbs of three parts, the spine can complete a variety of sports, is the backbone of the human body, the connection between the bone joints and can play active role in skeletal muscle by muscle contraction or relaxation of the nervous system command, so that coordination of the various parts of the body movements. 2, the human scale is human scale ergonomic studies of one of the most basic data. 3, the domain of human action that people work and live in the interior of the size range of activities, namely the action domain, it is important to determine the spatial scale based on indoor factors. Determined in a variety of measurement domain of human action, is the basis for ergonomic research data. If the human scale is a static, relatively fixed data, the scale of the domain of human action was dynamic, the dynamic state of scale and activity scenarios. Interior design at the size of the human-scale use of specific data should be considered at different spatial and envelope of the state, the safety of people movement and activity, and suitable for most people's size and to highlight the security as a precondition. For example: a high degree of openings, clear height access stairs, railings handrail height, shall be taken as the maximum height of male body and dynamic when appropriate margin to the body design; for stepping height, hang on a shelf or structure height shall be the average height of the female body by design. Second, physiological measurement based on the human body
during various activities, changes in the physiological state of the case, by means of measurement, to be objective and scientific measurement to analyze the energy in activity and load size. Physiological measurement methods are: 1, EMG method to human activities in the state of muscle contraction Zhang current chart recorder, which can quantitatively determine the activity of human strength and load. 2, the rate of energy metabolism in the body activities as methods of energy consumption and consequential oxygen values, compared with normal oxygen consumption, as measured active intensity, energy metabolism rate calculation, and the rate of energy metabolism of different activities (RMR). The calculation formula is as follows: Oxygen consumption during exercise - resting oxygen consumption rate of energy metabolism (RMR) Basal metabolic rate of consumption of 3, the current method of spiritual reflection on the human body due to the amount of activity and sweat for the current measurement, quantitative understanding of the outside world and thus the intensity of psychological factors, thus determining the size of the load of human activities. Third, the human psychological measurement used in psychological measurement of mental and physical measurement scale method. 1, the spirit of physics measurements with physics method for the determination of the minimum amount of stimulation of human nerves, and the smallest difference between the amount of sensory stimulation. 2, scales in order to measure the division of psychology, for example, a straight line into segments, according to the order of calibration reviews by experts or ordinary people, corresponding to the beauty and ugliness, old and new, the pros and cons for evaluation Ergonomics in the interior design of the application Because ergonomics is an emerging discipline, ergonomic interior design application in the depth and breadth, to be further serious development, the current application has been carried out as follows: First, determine and interpersonal activities in the indoor space required for the main basis in accordance with the relevant ergonomic measurement data from the human scale, the action domain, mental space and interpersonal space, in order to determine the spatial extent. Second, determine the furniture, physical facilities, scale and use of the main basis for the use of human furnishings, their shape, scale must be based primarily on the human scale; the same time, people and facilities in order to use the furniture, must be around leaving room for activities and use the minimum, these requirements by the human body engineering science to be resolved. The smaller interior space, the longer the stay, the test requirements in this area the higher the content, such as cars, cabin, cabin and other modes of transport within the design space.
Third, to adapt the body's interior to provide the best physical environment physical parameters of the indoor environment are indoor thermal environment, acoustic environment, light environment, gravity, radiation environment, interior design with the requirements of the scientific parameters in the design when it is possible to have the correct decisions. Fourth, the measurement of visual elements designed for indoor visual environment to provide a scientific basis for human eye visual acuity, field of vision, light perception, color vision is the visual elements, ergonomic data obtained through the measurement of interior lighting design, interior color design visual areas to provide the best scientific basis. Environmental psychology and environmental psychology, interior design in the set, we first of the "environment" and "psychology" of the concept of a brief look. Environment is "the situation around," as opposed to people, the environment can be said to revolve around people, and people's behavior have an impact of external things. Environment itself has a certain order, pattern and structure, that environment is a series of elements and a variety of comprehensive human relations. It can either make changes in things outside, and these changed things for the actors in turn affect people. For example, one designed to create a simple, bright, elegant, orderly office environment, corresponding to the environment can also work in this atmosphere that people have a good psychological feeling, can induce people more civilized, more effectively work. Psychology is the "research awareness, emotion, will, psychological processes and abilities, personality and other psychological characteristics" of the subjects.