student association look around step back in defence dash through on the contrary nod at be likely to in general 学生会 环顾四周 后退 防卫地；戒备地 飞快地穿过 正相反 朝?点头 很可能?
既不??也不?? not…nor… 把??介绍给?? introduce…to… 亲吻某人脸颊 做??的方法 kiss sb. on the cheek the /an approach to doing sth. / the way to do sth.
Stand / sit / live close to… 站/坐/住得靠近?
1.Yesterday,…representing our university’s student association,… represent v.代表，象征；体现，表达；描绘， 声称; 1).The competition attracted over 500 players representing 8 different countries. 2).He represented himself as an expert. 3).Let me try to represent my ideas to you in another way. 4).The King is represented as a hero in the play. ____________________________________
【归纳总结】represent 1)vt. 代表；描绘；表现，体现，象征；声称， 宣称；说明 2) represent sth 代表某物 3)represent sb as/to be?宣称某人为?? 4)represent sth to sb 向某人说明某事；向 某人传达某事 5)represent sth/sb as sth/sb 把??描绘 成?? 【辨析】 stand for只代表某事物或缩略词。 eg.字母E代表什么？ What does the letter “E” stand for?
【巩固运用】 用represent的正确形式填空。 1）The red lines on the map represent railway lines. 2）她把自己描绘成世界上最好的母亲。 She represents herself as the kindest mother in the world. 3）They represented their concerns to the authorities.（英译汉） 他们向当局陈述了他们关心的问题。
Mr.Wang was chosen to represent our school at the
meeting. 王老师被选为去参加会议。 ①This painting represents a hunting scene. 这张油画展现了打猎的情景。 ②He represents himself as an expert. 他自称专家。 ③They represented ④His representation their concerns to authorities.
influenced them to investigate.
2. … I saw several young people enter the waiting area looking around curiously. looking around curiously是动词-ing用作状 语，表示伴随状态。 He left off driving a car. He said it angrily, pointing at the notice on the wall.
curious adj. 好奇的，求知的，古怪的
(1) be curious about...
be curious to do sth. 极想做某事 It's curious that... ??很反常，??真奇怪 (2)curiosity n. 好奇心，求知欲；奇物 from/out of curiosity 出于好奇 meet/satisfy one's curiosity满足某人的好奇心 with curiosity＝curiously 好奇地
He was very curious about the people who lived upstairs.
①The reporter is curious to know whether the official is involved in the case. 这个记者很想知道那位官员是否涉及此案。 ② he didn't tell you.
他没有告诉你， 实在反常。 It's curious that
③Just to satisfy my ， how much did you pay for your car？我只是出于好奇， curiosity 请问你买这辆车花了多少钱？
? 35. ______ about wild plants that they decided to make a trip to Madagascar for further research ? A. so curious the couple was ? B. So curious were the couple ? C. How curious the couple were ? D. The couple was such curious
? 28.People have always been curious_______ how living things on the earth exactly began. ? A.in B.at C.of D. about ? 5. People have always been about exactly how life on earth began. ? A. curious B. excited ? C. anxious D. careful
3. The first person to arrive was Tony Garcia from Colombia, closely followed by Julia Smith from Britain. closely followed …是过去分词短语，修饰前 面的Tony Garcia，相当于非限制性定语从句 who was closely followed by Julia Smith from Britain。Tony Garcia与follow之间是动宾关 系。比较下面两句话： There was a terrible noise following the sudden burst of light. Then soldiers walked forward, followed by their dogs.
4. Tony approached Julia, touched her shoulder and kissed her on the check!
approach v. 接近；靠近; Silently we approached the enemy’s camp.
approach n. 接近；方法；途径；通道 approach to (doing) sth.（做）某事的方法 Snow announced the approach of winter. The lion’s approach drove away the small animals. All approaches to the city were blocked.
approach 【观察思考】 v. 1) National Day is approaching. 2) She approached the bank for a loan. 3) As you approach the town, you will see the college on the left. n. 1) All the approaches to the airport were blocked by the police. 2) The school has decided to adopt a different approach to discipline.
【归纳总结】 1)approach vt./vi. 接近，靠近，建议，要求,着 手处理，开始对付 n. 接近，方法，途径，通道 2)approach sb./sth.接近/靠近某人/某物 3)approach sb. about/for sth. 向某人要求/建议 某事 4)approach sb about doing sth. 建议某人做某事 5)the approach to (doing) sth. 做……的方法/途 径
【巩固运用】 翻译句子 1）随着冬天的临近，天气变得更冷了。 With the approach of winter the weather got colder. 2）学习外语的最好途径是什么？ What’s the best approach to learning a foreign language?
approach / way / means / method
四者皆有“方式”“方法”“途径”之意，但 approach侧重指待人接物或思考问题的方式； way为一般用语； means指可以得到结果的方法； method指有规律的、有条理的做法。
1）表“做…的方法”时各自的搭配： the approach to (doing) sth. the way to do/of (doing) sth. the means of (doing) sth. the method of (doing) sth. 2) 表“用这种方法”时各自的搭配： with this method in this way by this means
1 At the meeting they discussed three different _____ to the study of maths.
the city center, we saw a stone statue of about 10 meters in height. B. Approached
D. To be approached
C. To approach
? 33. Those who suffer from headache will find they get ______ from this medicine. ? A. relief B. safety ? C. defense D. shelter
(2010?福建省厦门检测) American people are
wondering whether the newlyelected president and his administration will keep the nation safe and defend it A.to any terrorist attack in the future. B.on C.against D.with
5…touched her shoulder….. touch v. touched adj.感激的，激动的，受感动的; touching adj.令人同情的，感人的，动人的 【观察思考】 1）Don’t touch that plate― it’s hot. 2）His story touched us all deeply. 3）Are you still in touch with your friends from college? 4）In his speech he was only able to touch on a few aspects of the problem.
【归纳总结】 1) v.触摸；（使）接触,感动 n. 接触，联系 2) touch sb./sth. 触摸/碰某物 3) touch sb. 感动/触动某人 4) be in touch with sb. 与某人有联系 5) touch on/upon sth. 谈及/提及某事 【拓展】 be out of touch with sb 与某人失去联系 lose touch with sb 与某人失去联系 get in touch with sb 与某人取得联系 keep in touch with sb 与某人保持联系; be touched by… 被……感动
【巩固运用】 我轻轻地碰了碰他的手臂。 him lightly ___ on ___ the ____ arm . I）I touched _____ _____ 2）他的话确实触动了我的心弦。 What he said really touched my heart. ___________________________ 3）自毕业之后我们一直保持联系。（汉译英） We have kept in touch with each other since graduation.
? 3. In his talk Dr. Lin __ to the help he received from his colleagues in his research. ? A. mentioned B. expressed ? C. referred D. touched
6. …and kissed her on the cheek!
Kiss sb. on the cheek
动词(hit, pull, pat, strike, catch, hold, take) +sb.+介词(in, on, by)+ the + 身体部位或衣着 例：1）She touched him on the shoulder. 她碰了碰他的 肩。
2）He took the girl by the hand. 他拉着小女孩的手。
3） He hit her on the nose. 他打了她的鼻子。
4）The stone struck the man in the eye. 石头击中了那 人的眼睛。
5）I caught her by the right hand. 我抓住她的右手。
She patted the boy on his head.
（误，本结构中身体部位或衣着前不用 one’s） She patted the boy on the head. （正）
7. She stepped back appearing surprised and put up her hands, as if in defence. appearing surprised在这里用作状语。 defence n. 防御；保卫 The high wall was built as a defence against intruders. [C] A lot of money is spent on defence. [U] defend v. 保护；保卫 Chinese people defended against the Japanese army during World War 2.
in defence of 保卫…，为…辩护
defend…against / from 保卫…以免受 defend oneself自卫，为自己辩解
The young man joined the army in defence of his country. Soldiers should defend their country against the enemies.
? 33. Those who suffer from headache will find they get ______ from this medicine. ? A. relief B. safety ? C. defense D. shelter ? 35．Mr. Green stood up in defence of the 16-year-old boy, saying that he was not the one ． ? A．blamed B．blaming
8. major 【观察思考】 adj.1) This is a major road. 2) Water plays a major role in our life. n. Her major is History. vi. She majored in English at Shandong University. 【归纳总结】
1）adj. 主要的，重要的，大的 play a major role in sth 在某事中起重要作用 2）n. 主修课程，专业课 3）v. 主修 major in sth 主修（=specialize in sth ） major on sth 专门研究（课题、文体等）
This is a major international company.
2）Never mind― it’s not major.
He majored in French when he was at university. 4）The majority ______ in favor of banning smoking. A. are B. is C. should being D. A or B
9. As I get to know more international friends, I learn more about this cultural “body language”. get to do在这暗示一个较长的过程，含有“渐 渐开始”之意，此时get后接的不定式通常为 to know, to like, to hate, to understand, to realize等表示心理感觉的动词。 I really wanted to get to know America. After a time you get to realize that these things don’t matter.
10. They both apologized--- another…
apologize to sb. for sth. / doing sth./ having done sth. make an apology to sb. for (doing) sth. accept / refuse an apology
? 10.---- I apologize for not being able to join you for dinner. ? ---- ________. We’ll get together later. ? A. Go ahead B. Not to worry ? C. That’s right D. Don’t mention it ? 3. --- You should apologize to her, Barry. ? --- ______, but it’s not going to be easy. ? A. I suppose so B. I feel so ? C. I prefer to D. I like to
? 40. Victor apologized for __________ to inform me of the change in the plan. ? A. his being not able B. him not to be able ? C. his not being able D. him to be not able
11. Not all cultures greet each other the same way, nor are they comfortable in the same way with touching or distance between people. nor / neither 否定副词, 常置于句首, 此时句子要 倒装, 即助动词/系动词/情态动词放在主语之前. nor = and also not / neither I don’t like her, nor/neither does Lily. I am not a nurse, nor/ neither is Lily. with touching 方式状语 = while they are touching…or being…
nor can he. She can’t dance, ________ I don’t want to go, ________ nor will I.我也不 会去。 nor do I care. I don’t know about it, _______ nor will I.我也不会去。 If you don’t go, ________
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
15.Helen doesn't like milk and . (A)so I don't (B)so don't I (C)either I do (D)neither do I 16 “ Did you enjoy that trip?" "I'm afraid not. And ." (A)my classmates don't either (B)my classmates don't too (C)neither do my classmates (D)neither did my classmates
? You may drop in or just give me a call. ______will do． ? A．Either B．Each C Neither D．All ? 11. If Joe' s wife won' t go to the party, _______. ? A. he will either B. neither will he ? C. he neither will D. either he will
? 35. Bill wasn’t happy about the delay of the report by Jason, and ______. ? A. I was neither B. neither was I ? C. I was either D. either was I
all, every, everybody, everything, both, always等与否定词 not 连用时，不管not 放前 还是放后，均表示部分否定，而非全部否定 。 如：Not all…= all…not“不是全部都…”，用于 三者以上。 All the girls don’t like dancing. =Not all the girls like dancing. 不是所有的女孩都喜欢跳舞。
Not both…= both…not “不是两个都”
1）I don’t know all of them. 我并不全认识他们。 2）I don’t like both of the books. 这两本书我并不都喜欢。 3）Not every student goes to the farm on Sundays. 并非每个学生星期天都去农场。 4）Not everyone in our class likes football. 在我们班并非每个人都喜欢足球。
若要表示全部否定，则应用相应的表示全部否定的否 定词。如： all → none （一个人也没有、没有任何 东西）， both → neither （两个都不）， every → no ， everyone → no one（nobody），
everything → nothing 等。
上述四个例句要表示全部否定应分别为： 1)他们我都不认识。 I know none of them. 2)这两本书我都不喜欢。
I like neither of the two books.
No student goes to the farm on Sundays.
No one/ Nobody in our class likes football.
12. ..they also express their feelings using unspoken language… express v; expression n. 为高考高频词汇, 考查角度主要有以下几点： (1)作动词时的多义考查及搭配考查，如express oneself“表达自己的思想感情”； express feelings 表达情感;express sympathy/ fear/ anger/interest／ thanks／gratitude表示同情／恐惧／生气／兴趣 ／感谢／感激等。 (2)考查作形容词的用法，如express train特快列 车。(3)考查其名词expression表示“表情及神情” 的用法，如[2006湖北，23]。
? 32.The visiting Minister expressed his satisfaction with the talks, that he had enjoyed his stay here. ? A.having added B.to add ? C.adding D.added ? 53. Words ________ me when I wanted to express my thanks to him got having saved my son from the burning house. ? A. failed B. left ? C. discouraged D. disappointed
? 23. The ______on his face told me that he was angry. ? A. impression B. sight ? C. appearance D. expression ? 30. Human facial expressions differ from those of animals in the degree ______ they can be controlled on purpose. ? A. with which B. to which ? C. of which D. for which
13. …and more likely to touch them.
likely 常用于如下结构： sb./sth. is likely to do sth; 很可能…;有希望… It’s likely that-clause. 注意:likely 的主语可以是人也可以是物, 但不说: It’s likely to do sth. It’s possible, though not probable, that he will come tomorrow. He’s very likely to be late for class. It isn’t likely to rain.（it表天气，并非形式主 语。）
possible, probable, likely
1) possible 常用于下列结构:
It’s possible (for sb.) to do sth; It’s possible + that-clause. 注意: possible 的主语不能是人
2) probable语气比possible重，是most likely 之意。常用于这种结构： It’s probable + that 从句 注意: probable 的主语不能是人, 英语中不 说: It’s probable to do sth.
3) likely 常用于如下结构： sb./sth. is likely to do sth; 很可能…;有希望… It’s likely that-clause. 注意:likely 的主语可以是人也可以是物, 但不说: It’s likely to do sth. It’s possible, though not probable, that he will come tomorrow. He’s very likely to be late for class. It isn’t likely to rain.（it表天气，并非形式主 语。） 可能性由弱至强:possible likely probable
? 25. Someone who lacks staying power and perseverance is unlikely to ___ a good researcher. ? A. make B. turn C. get D. grow ? 32. – “ Could we put off the meeting ?” she asked. ? -- “______,” he answered politely. “ This is the only day everyone is available.” ? A. Not likely B. Not exactly
? 13. -- Would she mind playing against her former teammates? ? -- __ She is willing to play against any tough players. ? A. I think so. B. I'm not surprised. ? C. Of course. D. Not likely! ? 21. —Do you enjoy your present job? ? — . I just do it for a living. ? A. Of course B. Not really ? C. Not likely D. Not a little
? 22. Studies show that people are more to suffer from back problems if they always sit before computer screens for long hours. ? A. likely B. possible C. probable D. sure
1）Look, dark clouds are gathering. It is ______ to rain soon. A. probable B. possible C. likely D. perhaps 2）I think he is ______ to win, but I’m not sure. A. possible B. likely C. probable D. certain 3）I advise you to learn a second language. Me? ______! I’m too slow. A. Not likely B. No problem C. As possible D. Surely
Complete the sentences with likely, possible or probable. 1. I think it quite ________ possible for us to reach the railway station before the train leaves. 2. Who is ______ likely to go traveling with us? likely result? 3. What do you think is the most _____ 4. He began to realize his dream would not likely come true. ______ possible for him to lend us the car. 5. It is ________ likely come. 6. He is ______to 7. It’s ________, probable not only ________. possible
14. They are simply the ways in which cultures have developed. 译：他们仅仅是文化发展的方式。
【观察思考】 1）Mary smiles the same way which her mother did when she was her age. 2）I’m not happy with this way of working. 3）She was pleased with the way (in which) he apologized to her.
【归纳总结】 1）the way(s)之后的定语有三种形式： the way(s) to do sth; the way(s) of doing sth; the way(s)+定语从句。 2）the way(s)之后的定语从句有两种情况： ①当way后面的从句中缺少主语、宾语或表 语时，要用关系代词that或which,关系代词作 宾语时可以省略。 ②当way后面的从句中缺少状语时，则用that 或in which引导定语从句，或者可以省略。
This is the way (that ) they used to solve the problem.
I didn’t like the way (in which) he eyed me. He seemed to look down upon me.
This is the way in which/that/不填they live.
We first broke the law in a way which was peaceful.
? 21. Reality is not the way you wish things to be, nor the way they appear to be, _________ the way they actually are. ? A. as B. or C. but C. and ? 23. A great man shows his greatness _____ the way he treats little man. ? A. under B. with C. on D. by
? 40. Thai is the only way we can imagine the overuse of water in students' bathrooms. ? A. reducing B. to reduce ? C. reduced D. reduce
15. general 1). adj. 一般的，普遍的，全面的 A matter of ~ concern/ interest 普遍（公众）关心/感兴趣的事情 Air-conditioner is in general use now. 2).总的，整体的 general idea of the passage 3) n.将军
In general 大体上, 通常, 总的来讲 In general, he is a good guy.
generally speaking frankly speaking honestly speaking
? 17. ________ the general state of his health, it may take him a while to recover from the operation. ? A. Given B. To give ? C. Giving D. Having given ? 22. Peter ______ be really difficult at times even though he’s a nice person in general. ? A. shall B. should C. can D. must
? 32. Drunk driving, which was once a ________occurrence, is now under control. ? A. general B. frequent ? C. normal D. particular
16. avoid vt. 避开，避免 avoid (doing ) sth /being done I think she is avoiding me. I avoid meeting him. 17. reach one’s hand out to sb. 某人向某人伸手 18. on the contrary正相反
? 42．If your race car isn’t insured, you may ________losing everything when it hits something solid． ? A．delay B．deny C．avoid D．Risk ? 26. I wasn’t blaming anyone; I ____________ said errors like this could be avoided. ? A. merely B. mostly C. rarely D. nearly
1. With the a___________________ approach / approaching of the New Year, people are all busy buying presents for their family and friends. 2. He stood silently, tears rolling down his c_________. cheeks 3. He is a c_________ boy who is always curious asking questions. 4. The letters USA __________ represent (代表) the United States of America.
5. We are working in ____________ association (联合) with a number of local companies to raise money for the homeless. 6. His remarks showed that he misunderstood ___________ (误解) my position on the question. 7. I woke up and was ________ greeted (greet) by bird song. 8. They built a robot capable of understanding ______ spoken (speak) commands.
二、选用合适的单词填空。 likely, dash, flight, greet, in general 1. He greeted ______ me in the street with a friendly wave of the hand. dashed to the scene 2. An ambulance _________ of the accident within ten minutes. general it’s easier for boy graduates to 3. In _________, get a job in a big company than girl graduates. likely that my mother will ring me 4. It’s very _____ tonight. 5. I’ll book you on a direct ______ flight to London.
to stand close to (站得近) 1. It’s dangerous ______________ the fire. introduced into(引入) Europe 2. Tobacco was ________________ in the sixteenth century. nor do I know (我也不知 3. I don’t know her, ____________ 道) who she is. lived in Shanghai for many years 4. Having __________________________________ (在上海住了这么多年), he knows the place very well. 5. 今年秋天约翰可能在伦敦。 _____________________________________. John is likely to be in London this autumn