倒装句 倒装句分为全部倒装和部分倒装 一． 倒装句之全部倒装 全部倒装是只将句子中的谓语动词全部置于主语之前。此结构通常只用于一般现在时和一般过去时。常见的结构有： 1） here, there, now, then, thus 等副词置于句首, 谓语动词常用 be, come, go, lie, run 等表示来去或状态的动词。 例如： There on the ground
lay a white dog.// Then came the chairman. // Here is your letter. 你的信。 2） 表示运动方向的副词或地点状语置于句首，谓语表示运动的动词。主语是代词时不倒装例如： Out rushed a boy from the room. Ahead sat an old woman. // // Away he went. // Away went Mr. Lee . Among these people was a three-month-old baby. // There lived an old fisherman in the village. // There stands a little girl. May you all be happy.
3) 在 there be 或者 there live(stand, exist ,appear, seem, remain,….) 句型中。例如： There are thousands of people on the square. 4）在某些表示祝愿的句型中。例如： Long live the People's Republic of China! 中华人民共和国万岁！// 注意：上述全部倒装的句型结构的主语必须是名词，如果主语是人称代词则不能完全倒装。 例如： Here you are. 二． 倒装句之部分倒装 部分倒装是指将谓语的一部分如系动词、助动词或情态倒装至主语之前。如果句子的谓语没有系动词、助动词或情态动词，则 需根据人称和时态添加助动词 do, does 或 did，并将其置于主语之前。 (一)句首为否定或半否定的词语。 1. 句首有这样的词,如 no, not, never, seldom, little, hardly, not until , scarcely, at no time 决不, by no means, on no account 绝不, in no case, under no circumstances, in no way,… 等。例如： Never have I seen such a bad performance. Not until the child fell asleep did the mother leave the room. I have never seen such a performance. 典型例题: 1） // Nowhere will you find the answer to this question. // Little does he know about this country. // Here he comes. // Here comes Mr. Wang.
当 Not until 引出主从复合句，主句倒装，从句不倒装。即：后倒前不倒。注意： 如否定词不在句首不倒装。例如： ---Never have I seen such a performance. ---Not until the child fell asleep the mother did leave the room. C. smoking is it permitted D. does smoking permit The mother didn't leave the room until the child fell asleep. A. is smoking permitted 2．以否定连词开头作部分倒装 如 Not only…but also, Hardly/Scarcely…when, No sooner… than 等，前倒后不倒。 例如： Not only did he refuse the gift, he also severely criticized the sender. // No sooner had she gone out than a student came to visit her. has the game begun C. did the game begin D. had the game begun Hardly had she gone out when a student came to visit her. No sooner___ than it began to rain heavily. 3． so, neither, nor 作部分倒装。 表示另一主语“也…样”时，用“So + be(have,助动词或情态动词)+主语”结构；而表示另一主语“也不…样”时，用“Nor\Neither + be(have,助动词或情态动词)+主语”结构。 例如：Tom can speak French. So can Jack. 汤姆会讲法语，杰克也会。 // Do you know Jim quarreled with his brother? A. nor don't I care B. nor do I care ---I don't know，_____. D. I don't care also C. I don't care neither If you don't go, neither will I. 你不去，我也不去。
Why can't I smoke here? --- At no time___ in the meeting-room B. smoking is permitted A. man did know B. man know C. didn't man know D. did man know
2） Not until the early years of the 19th century ___ what heat is.
如果置于句首的 Not only… but also 仅连接两个并列词语，不可用倒装结构，如 Not only you but also I am fond of music。 A. the game began B.
注意：当 so 引出的句子用以对上文内容加以证实或肯定时，不可用倒装结构。意为"的确如此"。例如： Tom asked me to go to play football and so I did. 汤姆邀我去踢球，我去了。 // It's raining hard. ---So it is. 雨下得真大。是呀。 (二)．Only 引导状语在句首时倒装的情况。only+副词；或介词短语；或状语从句时，主句倒装。例如： Only in this way, can you learn English well.（only+介词短语）// Only after being asked three times did he come to the meeting. Only yesterday did he find out that his watch was missing.（only+副词） //Only when it began to rain did he finish his job.（only+状语从句） 如果句子为主从复合句，则主句倒装，从句不倒装。例如： Only when he is seriously ill does he ever stay in bed. (三)． as, though 引导的部分倒装 as / though 引导的让步从句由于语法需要，可将表语或状语提前（形容词, 副词, 分词, 实义动词提前） 。但需注意： 1
1） 句首名词不能带任何冠词。 2） 句首是实义动词, 其他助动词放在主语后。如果实义动词有宾语和状语，随实义动词一起放在主语之前。例如： Shortest as/though she is, she is not the richest.(倒装后，最高级前不用冠词) Child as he is, he knows a lot.(倒装后，单数名词前不用 a) Fail as I did, I would try again.(倒装后，实义动词提前，在主语后添加助动词。) Hard as he tried, he didn't pass the exam.(副词提到句首) // Try hard as he will, he never seems able to do the work well. 注意：让步状语从句中，有 though，although 时，后面的主句不能有 but，但是 though 和 yet/still 可连用。 (四) so… that，such…that 引导的结果状语从句中，当 so 和 such 位于句首时，用”so\such + adj. + 主语+谓语”。例如： So frightened was he that he did not dare to move an inch. 他害怕得很，动也不敢动。 So difficult was the exam that most of the students failed to pass it. 考试如此难，以至于大多数同学没能考过。 (五) 在 if 虚拟语气条件句中从句谓语动词有 were, had, should 等词，可将 if 省略，把 were, had, should 移到主语之前，采取部分 倒装。例如： Should it rain tomorrow, we would not play basketball. =If it should rain tomorrow, we would not play basketball. Had I prepared well, I couldn't have lost the job. =If I had prepared well, I couldn't have lost the job. Were I you, I would try it again =If I were you, I would try it again. 倒装练习 1. Only in recent years ______ begun to realize that wild dogs, kept within bounds, often do more good than harm. A. people have B. since people have C. have people D. people who have 2.______ that this region was so rich in natural resources. A. Little he knew B. Little did he know C. Little he did know D. Little he had known 3.Not until I shouted at the top of my voice ______ his head. A. that he turned B. did he turn C. he didn’t turn D. he had turned 4.______ received such a good gift. A. Never she has B. Never has she C. Never does she D. Never did she 5.______ do we go for picnics. A. Certainly B. Sometimes C. Seldom D. Once 6.Her answer is not acceptable, and ______. A. neither am I B. either is mine C. neither is mine D. mine is neither 7.So fast ______ that it is difficult for us to imagine its speed. A. light travel B. travels the light C. do light travel D. does light travel 8.A sneeze cannot be performed voluntarily, ______ be easily suppressed. A. nor it can B. nor can it C. it cannot D. and cannot it 9.______ notebook and report that I promised you last week. A. Here is the B. Here are the C. Is here the D. Are here the 10.______ a little more time to think, he might have acted more sensibly. A. If he took B. If he has taken C. had he taken D. Should he take 11.Hardly ______ he got out of the court ______ the reporters raised a lot of questions to him. A. had … when B. had…than C. did…when D. has…than 12.Among these books ______ a dictionary that his father gave him as a birthday present. A. have included B. is included C. has included D. are included 13.Important ______ his discovery was, it was regarded as a matter of no account in his time. A. to B. for C. as D. although 14._______ for the leadership of the Party, we should not have succeeded. A. Had not it been B. Had it not been C. There was D. Is there 15.Not only ______ the data fed into it, but it can also analyze them. A. the computer can memorize B. can the computer memorize 17.Here ______ you want to see. A. the manager comes B. comes the manager C. comes a manager 2 D. is coming a manager C. do the computer memorize D. can memorize the computer 16.The world’s birth rates are on a decline and ______ are the death rates. A. so B. also C. too D. the same