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句子成分学案sentence


武安三中

高三英语 语法专项 命题人:买艳科

使用时间 2011 年





句子成分学案 学习目标:明确不同句子成分,形成句子成分概念用于指导英语写作。 学习重点:写作中把握谓语(核心), 修辞中丰富定状。 成分的认识:
1. 主语 主语是一个句子所叙述的主体

,一般位于句首,通常由名词性的词来充当。 可由 1.名词、2.代词、3.数词、4.名词化的形容词(如 the rich)5.不定式、6.动名词、 7.主语从句等表示。 1. Nowadays, after-class activities have become more and more popular. _______ 2. We are aware of the importance of protecting the environment. _______ 3. One-third of the students in this class are in favor of the latter.. _______ 4. To swim in the river is a great pleasure. _______ 5. Smoking does harm to the health. _______ 6. The rich should donate some money to the poor. _______ 7. When we are going to have an English test has not been decided. _______ 8. It is necessary to master a foreign language. _______ 9. what we can do is make good use of limited water _______ 练习 2. 改错 1) Do exercise everyday is good for your health. 2) That what he said isn’t true. 3) He came late made his teacher angry. 4) On each side of the road is various kinds of flowers. 2. 谓语: 谓语由动词充当,说明主语所作的动作或具有的特征和状态。谓语的构成如下: 1、简单谓语: Reading enriches my knowledge while playing football strengthens my body. I usually memorize twenty new words a day whenever possible. 2、复合谓语: (1)由情态动词或其他助动词加动词构成。如: Only in this way can you make great progress. Great changes have taken place in our hometown in the past three years. I’m looking forward to hearing from you as soon as possible. Obviously the accident is caused by drunk driving. I would rather stay at home, helping parents with everyday chores. (2)由系动词加表语构成。系动词不能单独作谓语,要和表语一起作谓语。 Your idea sound great.(改错) Our school very beautiful and we like it very much. The food delicious and I ate a lot.
I never tried quiting, and I never quit trying. 我从不尝试放弃, 也从不放弃尝试。

武安三中

高三英语 语法专项 命题人:买艳科

使用时间 2011 年





The neighbor ’s house full of smoke and I hurried to fetch water. She might as well turned to your teacher for help. They planting trees on the farm when It began to rain heavily. 3. 表语: 表语多是形容词,用以说明主语的身份、特征和状态,它一般位于系动词(如 be, become, get, look, grow, turn, seem 等)之后。表语一般由名词、代词、形容词、分词、 数词、不定式、动名词、介词短语、副词及表语从句表示。 1) Our teacher of English is an American with handsome appearance _________ 2) Is it yours? No, it belongs to him. _________ 3) The weather has turned cold. Do remember to put on more clothes._________ 4) The speech is so exciting that we are greatly encouraged. _________ 5) When I turn 24, I’ll have graduated from my ideal university. _________ 6) My dream is to be volunteer teaching English in a remote mountain village._________ 7) His hobby is sharing my happiness and sadness with my close friends. _________ 8) According to its state, the machine must be under repairs. _________ 9) I’m certain that we will have a better understanding. _________ 4. 宾语: 宾语由名词性的词充当,表示动作的对象或承受者,一般位于及物动词和介词后面。 宾语分为动词宾语和介词宾语,分别构成动宾结构和介词结构, 1) The guide showed us around lots of famous scenic spots. 2) The heavy rain prevented me from coming to school on time. 3) They helped the old with their housework yesterday. 4) I feel ashamed that I couldn’t afford to buy a car. 5) I enjoy listening to popular music. 6) I think he is fit for his office. 7) I can’t convey my feelings for what you do for me. 5. 宾语补足语: 英语中有些及物动词,除有一个直接宾语以外,还要有一个宾语补语,才能使句子的 意义完整。宾语补足语和宾语构成逻辑上的主谓关系。换句话说,在意思上,宾语相 当于宾补的主语。 带有宾语补足语的一般句型为:某些及物动词(如 make 等)+宾语+宾补。宾补可由 名词、形容词、副词、不定式、分词、介词短语和从句充当。 1) I make it a rule to take exercise every morning. 2) Such is Mr Li. He is always making his class colorful. 3) Let the fresh air in and you’ll feel good. 4) You mustn’t force him to lend his money to you. 5) We saw a red car knocking into an old lady at the corner. 6) To my relief, I found everything in the lab in good order.
I never tried quiting, and I never quit trying. 我从不尝试放弃, 也从不放弃尝试。

武安三中

高三英语 语法专项 命题人:买艳科

使用时间 2011 年





7) We will soon make the lake what it used to be. 8) I want your homework done on time. 6. 主补: 对主语的补充。 (含有宾语补足语的句子在变成被动宾语作主语时,原来的宾补就成 了主语补足语。 1) He was elected monitor. 2) She was found singing in the next room. 3) He was advised to teach the lazy boy a lesson. 4) He hurried to the station, tired and out of breath. 7. 定语: 定语是对名词或代词起修饰、 限定作用的词、 短语或句子, 汉语中常用‘……的’表示。 定语通常位于被修饰的成分前。 The picture shows a touching moment. Everyone should take the responsibility to protect our water resources. There is nothing interesting in the book. It provides us with the latest information from home and abroad. The man next to me is a scientist. The shop closest to my house is about one kilometer away. Somebody else might have taken it away. You can see these signs in a hospital. ___ can you see them? A. Where else B. Where place else C. Where else place D. Else where You can’t be careful enough. If you are in trouble, you may as well ask a policeman nearby for help. There are thirty women teachers in our school. 8. 状语 修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子, 说明动作或状态特征的句子成分,叫作状语。 : He takes notes earnestly in class. This material is environmentally friendly. Unfortunately, he was caught in a traffic jam. 几个副词并列作状语时,其顺序较灵活,但一般是:方式→地点→时间。如: We had a good time together outdoors last Sunday. I found a lost pen outside our school yesterday morning. 副词如 already, often, always, usually 等在 be 及助动词动词后,行为动词前。 He is always helping others. Non-smoking signs will then be posted everywhere to warn people against smoking. Go ________(直) and you’ll see the place you are seeking on your right side. We were _________(热情)welcomed there.
I never tried quiting, and I never quit trying. 我从不尝试放弃, 也从不放弃尝试。

武安三中

高三英语 语法专项 命题人:买艳科

使用时间 2011 年





With this crazy spirit rooted_____(深深) in your soul, you can____(容易)conquer English. _______(不幸), accidents caused by drunk driving can be seen _______(频繁) Such behavior can be_______ (极其) dangerous to the passers-by. _________(令人吃惊), few people would stop to offer a hand. I _________(完全)understand what you are feeling now. The number of cars is__________ (迅速)rising. You have _______(可能) heard about some horrible stories in the newspaper. _____(不管怎么说), different cultures, different customs. Do remember _____(入乡随俗) Positive messures should be taken _____________(尽快) 1. To make his dream come true, Tom becomes very interested in business. 2. Tired of endless homework, students are burdened with high stess. 3. we are invited to different families, enjoying an unforgetable meal. 4. When in trouble, he prefers to have a heart-to-heart talk wih his teacher. 5. With this environment-friendly shopping bags widely used, our earth will be a cleaner home. 9. 同位语 同位语是在名词或代词之后并列名词或代词对前者加以说明的成分,近乎于后置定 语。 We senior 3 students should make the most of the limited time. It’s good to us peole living on the earth. Our geography teacher, Mrs. Chen often helps us with study. 10. 插入语 一些句中插入的 I think , I believe,等。 如: The story, I think, has never come to the end./我相信,这个故事还远没结束. 范文赏析: A Fire Drill Last Friday, a fire drill was carried out in our school. Before the drill, our teacher carefully explained to us what we should do when there was a fire in the school. Every one of us listened attentively and remembered the right procedure. At 9:30 when we were having a Chinese class, the fire alarm rang. Without hesitation, we went down the stairs in order as planned. Following our teachers’ instructions, we moved towards the exits. Three minutes later, all the students came outside the teaching building safely, which is really an experience. I think all the schools should have these kinds of drills so that every student will know what they should do when meeting certain disasters.

I never tried quiting, and I never quit trying. 我从不尝试放弃, 也从不放弃尝试。


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