Chapter 3 Big business
Section 1 logo—see me &get to know me
Work with a partner. Look at the logos. Which are from an organization? Which are from multinatio
nal companies? What is the name of each company? What dose it produce or sell?
Please choose 5 answers out of 7 choices A logo is your organization’s identity – your image – your representation. _____1____What does your logo say about your company? Clients seldom present logos for use with their websites. The logo is often too complex, ugly and makes no sense; but they don’t know that. I try my best to accept what they have, and sometimes, make small touch-ups, if at all possible. If you scroll up to the top of this page, you’ll see some professionally designed, well-known, logos. _____2_____
Easy Shapes These logos use shapes that are recognizable and easy to understand: text, circles, apples, blocks, pandas, eagles, price tags, arrows, ovals. _____3_____Bold Text Notice the bold letters, they grab your attention and they stand out. Even though the IBM logo has lines going through it, it still is bold, strong and understandable. Relates to the Industry Some of the logos are identified with the industry, product, or service and gives a clear picture of what is being marketed. With NBC, we are shown a multicolored peacock to show enhancements in color broadcasting. ____4_____The U.S. Postal service used an eagle for the U.S. and thick bold streaks to show the motion of mail delivery. The World Wildlife Fund uses a panda. Apple used an apple. Simple All the logos are simple shapes and colors. They don’t use gradients, drop shadows and bevels, just clean and simple lines. _____5____and simple logos can be scaled down to very tiny sizes yet still be readable. Minimal Color Most of the logos use no more than 2 colors, most only one. There are two reasons for this: 1) the more colors you add the more complicated the logo can get and 2) it costs more money to print additional colors. However, with digital printers today, the amount of colors is not a problem.
A.The reason for this is because: the more lines you add the more complicated for the viewer to understand; B.Here’s what they all have in common C.When we look at these shapes, we easily understand and remember them. D.This is why professional logos are so simple, they must function across multiple media. E.A professionally designed logo is important because it’s the first impression a client gets. F.With FedEx, there’s an arrow between the E and X signifying motion and fast transport. G.Another thing to know is that the cost for logo design goes up based on the number of concepts and revisions.
Steve Paul Jobs
a man who made computers friendly for everybody
Steve Paul Jobs was born on February 24, 1955. He was raised by adoptive parents Paul and Clara. His father was a machinist, and his early interest in machines was inspired by his father's work. But Jobs was not happy in school, finding it boring and this precipitated the family's move to Los Altos. His electronics teacher, Holn McCollum, remembers Jobs as "something of a loner" and "always had a different way of looking at things" . When Jobs was a freshman in high school, William Hewlett offered him a summer job at the Hewlett-Packard plant. It was there, when Jobs was 13, that he met the man with whom he would invent the first ready-made personal computer--the 18 year old, college drop-out Steve Wozniak. At this time though, Jobs helped Wozniak sell his 'blue box' an illegal pocket-size telephone attachment that would allow the user to make free long-distance calls. Jobs also worked on his skills, selling and repairing stereos throughout his high school career, in addition to his job at the plant. In 1972, Jobs graduated from high school, and went to Reed College. After
the first semester, he dropped out of the school, but stayed around the campus, taking classes in philosophy and immersing himself in the counterculture. In 1974, Jobs started working as a video game designer for Atari, Inc., a pioneer in electronic arcade recreation. After working for several months and saving his money, he then went to India with a friend in search of spiritual enlightenment. When he returned, Jobs started attending weekly meetings of Wozniak's Homebrew Computer Club. While Wozniak was content with the joy of electronics . . . . had his eye on marketability of electronic products and persuaded Wozniak to work with him toward building a personal computer. So with Jobs' passionate belief in bringing computer technology to everyone and Wozniak's engineering talent they became a team. Please analyze the sentences But Jobs was not happy in school, finding it boring… ( ) His electronics teacher, Holn McCollum, remembers Jobs as "something of a loner" and "always had a different way of looking at things" .( ) Jobs also worked on his skills, selling and repairing stereos ( ) he dropped out of the school, but stayed around the campus, taking classes in philosophy and immersing himself in the counterculture.( ) In 1974, Jobs started working as a video game designer for Atari, Inc., a pioneer in electronic arcade recreation. ( ) After working for several months and saving his money, he then went to India ( ) When he returned, Jobs started attending weekly meetings of Wozniak's Homebrew Computer Club.( ) persuaded Wozniak to work with him toward building a personal computer.( ) So with Jobs' passionate belief in bringing computer technology to everyone and Wozniak's engineering talent they became a team.( ) A． B． C． D． E． F． G． 现在分词作状语表伴随 现在分词作原因状语 现在分词作结果状语 现在分词作定语 动名词作宾语 动名词做主语 动名词作表语
Words an phrases
adoptive inspire drop-out attachment philosophy immerse in recreation enlightenment was content with marketability passionate belief
To be continue… They designed the Apple I in Jobs' bedroom and . . . built the prototype in the Jobs' garage. _____________________(finance) their company, Jobs sold his Volkswagen van and Wozniak his programmable calculator to raise $1,300. Some weeks later, Jobs secured the company's first sale: 50 Apple I computers at$666 each. And Apple Computers Inc., was born. The Apple I lead to the Apple II. The successful Apple II has been described as the Volkswagen of computers. Jobs created the sleek design for the Apple II" with its plastic __________________(case and feature) the Apple logo, "an apple with a ____________(miss) bite, ____________(play) on the word 'byte,' one of the central units of information in computer languages". There were three main factors in the Apple II's success. One reason being it had an open system __________(allow) for add-ons like modems. The second was that after 1978 the computer came with a Wozniak ___________(engineer) disk drive. Lastly, in the fall of 1979, two Apple devotees developed a spread sheet program that only ran on Apple Computers. Thus, in three years, Apple computers had a growth of 700 percent. But soon IBM had a version of the personal computer on the market and Apple began _________(struggle) to stay on top of the market. So in 1983, Jobs lured John Scully from Pepsi-Cola to help him compete, _________(say) If you come to Apple you can change the world. After the _____________(fail) Apple III and Lisa computers, Apple introduced the Macintosh. Jobs designed it ___________(compete) with the PC, and on
Super Bowl Sunday in 1984, the Macintosh was unveiled with the promise that 1984 would not be like 1984. The Macintosh, the first truly user-friendly computer, with its mouse, icons, and pop-up menus, was hailed by Jobs as being not just great . . . but insanely great. Go on continuing… The Macintosh was a success, over 400,000 Macs were sold in the first year of production, but it did not ease any of the tension at Apple . _____1______Jobs then left Apple to form his own company. _____2______Though the final product sold poorly, its "workstation concept with high-level graphics and advanced technology resulted in Jobs receiving the 1989 Software Publishers Association's Lifetime Achievement Award. In 1991, Jobs married Laurene Powell and they now have two children. _____3______Jobs feels "Microsoft has not transformed itself into an agent for improving things or a company that will lead the next revolution in software development". ____ 4______hurting innovation in the computer industry". _____5_____
A. This company, NeXT, has a focus on educational computing. B. Jobs has also become "concerned because he sees Microsoft competing very fiercely to put a lot of companies out of business . . . C. Jobs would rather the public use NeXT, instead of Microsoft. D. In 1985, Wozniak left and Scully demoted Jobs. E. Jobs is presently using his prestige and influence which he earned at Apple to further advance computer technology and provide an alternative to Microsoft. F.He's also just revealed his philanthropic plans for his billions. 95%, he says, will be donated to charitable causes. G.So who will be the next of this family of pioneers to make waves in the world of computers? Words and phrases finance programmable secure plastic feature devotee struggle unveil pop-up hail
insanely tension concept resulted in transform revolution focus on
Section 3 Grammer focus
一、考查不定式、现在分词与过去分词的基本区别 从时间关系上看，不定式表未来，现在分词表进行，过去分词表完成，同时 注意不定式和现在分词的完成式也表完成 (尤其是表示有明显的先后关系的完 成)；从主动与被动来看，不定式和现在分词表主动，过去分词表被动，同时注 意不定式和现在分词的被动式也表被动(不定式的被动式在表被动的同时还兼表 未来，现在分词的被动式表被动的同时还兼表进行)。如： 1. I send you 100 dollars today, the rest _____ in a year. A. follows B. followed C. to follow D. being followed 分析：答案选 ________。动词_________表示未来的动作。 2. _____from other continents for millions of years, Australia has many plants and animals not found in any other country in the world. A. Being separated B. Having separated C. Having been separated D. To be separated 分析：答案选 _________。因为 Australia 与 separate 是__________(主动/被 动)关系，且 separate 发生在谓语动词 has（之前/之后） ，所以用现在分词的完成 被动式作原因状语。 二、考查非谓语动词的主动式与被动式 结合句子意思，考察非谓语动词与相应逻辑主语的关系，若为主动关系，用 主动式；若为被动关系，用被动式。此时要特别注意，过去分词没有相应的被动 式，因为它本身可以表示被动。如： 1. The repairs cost a lot, but it’s money well_____. A. to spend B. spent C. being spent D. spending 分析：答案选_________。因 money 与 spend 是__________(主动/被动)关系， 所以用过去分词。 2. The prize of the game show is＄30000 and an all expenses _____ vacation to China. A. paying B. paid C. to be paid D. being paid 分析：答案选_____________。因 all expenses 与 pay 是__________动关系， 故用过去分词。注意句中的 an 不是修饰 expenses，而是修饰 vacation。 3. When _____help, one often says, “Thank you.” Or “It’s kind of you.” A. offering B. to offer C. to be offered D. offered
分析：答案选 ____________。因一个人说“谢谢”，应当是他被提供了帮助， 所以要用_____________（现在/过去）分词，When offered help… =When he is offered help… 三、考查非谓语动词完成式的用法 非谓语动词(不定式、动名词和现在分词)的完成式主要表示发生在谓语动作 之前的动作。做题时要注意根据题干所提供的语境来推断这种先后关系。如： 1. The storm left, _____a lot of damage to this area. A. caused B. to have caused C. to cause D. having caused 分析：答案选________。因 The storm 与 cause 是__________(主动/被动)关 系，排除选项__________；不定式作状语，前面通常不用逗号，排除_________ 和 ___________ ；因暴风雨给这个地区 “ 造成损失 ” 是在 “ 结束 ” 之前，所以用 ___________式。 2. More and more people are signing up for Yoga classes nowadays, _____ advantage of the health and relaxation benefits. A. taking B. taken C. having taken D. having been taken 分析： 答案选 ____________。 因 people 与 take advantage of 是__________(主 动/被动)关系， 排除选项_________和_________； take 不会发生在谓语 are signing up 之前，不用完成式，排除___________。 四、考查非谓语动词用作伴随状语 在通常情况下，表伴随情况的应用现在分词。如： 1. “You can’t catch me!” Janet shouted, _____away. A. run B. running C. to run D. ran 分析：答案选___________。现在分词作________________状语。 2. He glanced over at her, ______ that though she was tiny, she seemed very well put together. A. noting B. noted C. to note D. having noted 分析：答案选______________。因为 he 与 note 是主谓关系，且 note 与谓语 动词 glanced 的动作同时发生，所以用现在分词的一般式作_______________状 语。 3. Daddy didn’t mind what we were doing, as long as we were together, _____fun. A. had B. have C. to have D. having 分析：答案选 _______________。用现在分词表_____________。 说明：有时过去分词也可表伴随(注意过去分词同时还表被动关系)，但高考 很少考查此用法。如： He came in, followed by his wife. 他走了进来，后面跟着他的妻子。 五、考查非谓语动词用作目的状语 在通常情况下，用作目的状语只能是不定式。如： 1. “Can the project be finished as planned?” “Sure, _____it completed in time, we’ll work two more hours a day.” A. having got B. to get C. getting D. get 分析： 答案选____________。 作_________________-状语只能用动词不定式。 2. ____ more about university courses, call (920) 746-3789.
A. To find out B. Finding out C. Find out D. Having found out 分析：答案选 _____________。作________________要用动词不定式。 3. It was unbelievable that the fans waited outside the gym for three hours just _____a look at the sports stars. (2005 上海卷) A. had B. having C. to have D. have 分析：答案选_________________。“看看体育明星”是“在体育馆外等三个小 时”的目的，作目的状语只能用_______________________。 六、考查非谓语动词用作结果状语 1. 用现在分词表结果。如： He fired, killing one of the passers-by. 他开枪了，打死了一个过路人。 Oil prices have risen by 32 percent since the start of the year, _____a record US $ 57.65 a barrel on April 4. A. have reached B. reaching C. to reach D. to be reaching 分析： 答案选________________。 伴随着谓语动词的发生而产生的自然结果， 用现在分词作____________________状语。 2. 用不定式表结果。如： He returned home to find his wife waiting for him. 他回到家发现他的妻子在 等他。 He hurried to the station only ______ that the train had left. A. to find B. finding C. found D. to have found 分 析 ： 答 案 选 ___________ 。 因 为 only to do 是 习 语 ， 意 为 “________________________”，hurried 和 find 是先后发生的两个动作。 七、考查非谓语动词用作宾语补足语 原则上，所有的非谓语动词形式均可用作宾语补足语，其区别是：不定式表 未来，现在分词表进行，过去分词表完成和被动。如： 1. I couldn’t do my homework with all that noise_____. A. going on B. goes on C. went on D. to go on 分析：答案选____________。作 with 的宾语的补足语要用非谓语动词，排 除选项___________和__________________；与谓语动作同时发生用现在分词作 宾语补足语，排除表示将来的不定式选项_______________。 2. You should understand the traffic rule by now. You’ve had it _____often enough A. explaining B. to explain C. explain D. explained 分析：答案选__________________。宾语 it 与 explain 是__________(主动/ 被动)关系，用过去分词作________________，have sth done 意为“请人做某事”。 八、考查非谓语动词的逻辑主语问题 按照英语习惯， 非谓语动词的逻辑主语应与句子一致，否则就应调整句子结 构。如： While watching television, _____. A. the door bell rang B. the doorbell rings C. we heard the doorbell ring D. we heard the doorbell rings 分 析 ： 答 案 选 ______________ 。 因 为 watching 的 逻 辑 主 语 一 定 是 _______________，排除选项__________和__________；又因在 hear 后作宾语补
足语的是省略了 to 的不定式， 所以选项 D 中的 rings 是____________(正确/错误) 的。 九、考查非谓语动词用作主语的问题 原则上说，动词用作主语，只能是不定式或动名词，不能是分词形式。这类 考题命题还往往用动词原形作为干扰项进行考查，同学们做题需引起注意。如： It’s necessary to be prepared for a job interview; _____the answers ready will be of great help. A. To have had B. Having had C. Have D. Having 分析：答案选_____________。动名词短语用作______________。 十、考查“(be +) 过去分词+介词”结构 有一类“be+过去分词+介词”结构，如 be interested in, be worried about, be lost in, be dressed in 等，也往往是命题的热点。如： 1. _____ in the mountains for a week, the two students were finally saved by the local police. A. Having lost B. Lost C. Being lost D. Losing 分析：答案选 _______________。因表示“迷路于”是 lose oneself in，题中没 有 oneself, 所以 the two students 与 lose 是__________(主动/被动)关系， 应该用过 去分词作_________。 2. _____ in a white uniform, he looks more like a cook than a doctor. A. Dressed B. To dress C. Dressing D. Having dressed 分析： 答案选 _____________。 由 dress 的宾语一定是人或 oneself 可知， dress 与 he 是 _____________( 主谓 / 动宾 ) 关系，即 he 与 dress 是被动关系，要用 _________(过去/现在)分词作状语，Dressed in …=As he is dressed in … 十一、非谓语动词的综合考查 有时命题者会将多个知识点综合起来进行考查， 如在考查被动式的同时兼考 完成式，在考查不定式的同时兼考分词，等等。如： 1. I don’t want _____ like I’m speaking ill of anybody, but the manager’s plan is unfair. A. to sound B. to be sounded C. sounding D. to have sounded 分析：答案选 ____________。表示“想要做某事”want 后只能接 to do，排除 选项______________；sound like 中 sound 是___________动词，属不及物动词， 不能用于被动语态，排除选项 B；sound 发生在 want 后，故不用完成式，排除 选项__________。 2. “Is Bob still performing?” “I’m afraid not. He is said _____ the stage already as he has become an official.” A. to have left B. to leave C. to have been left D. to be left 分析：答案选 _______________。因 he 与 leave 是__________(主动/被动) 关系，不用被动式，排除选项__________和___________；由 already 可知，要用 ___________式。
Section 4 Another Story… Microsoft founder Bill Gates said that he planned to give away almost all of his vast fortune , largely to the cause of global health , during the course of his lifetime . With an estimated（估计）worth of more than $ 40 billion , according to Forbes , the project will be no small feat （功绩）for Gates . Having already provided the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation with $ 24 billion to address global health issues , Gates said that eventually his entire fortune will be put towards the cause except “a few percent left for the kids.” So what has made the richest man in the world to channel his resources so heavily into one interest ? Gates believes that “the equality of opportunity” in which Americans take such pride needs to extend to other nations around the world . Improving the health of the populations , he says , has proven to be an essential method in helping poor countries to be financially successful . “National borders allow inequalities ,” said Gates : “We all need to take a more global view , rather than just saying my country is doing well . We have to step up these health issues , knowing how few resources are going into them .” Gates said that both his parents set an example for him as a child . His father , William H. Gates , was the head of the local Planned Parenthood , and his mother , Mary , volunteered for the United Way . As he gathered his fortune , Gates knew he would eventually want to give back as well , but he didn’t expect to devote himself whole-heartedly to one project until he was about 60. However , Gates , 47 , began to question his ability to wait that long . “It seemed there was a real time urgency,” Gates said . “I started to think , How many lives could I save before then ?” 1．Bill Gates will give away his vast fortune to . A．improve the health of population in America alone B．improve the health of population all over the world C．avoid leaving his children too much money D．spare the American government the burden of health care 2 ． Bill Gates believes that one important way of developing poor countries is . A．to set up more foundations for them B．to aid them with natural resources C．to put more effort into the health issues in them D．to help them take a more global view 3．It can be learned from the text that Bill Gates thinks . A．Americans should care about people in other countries B．Americans should treat fellow citizens well C．Americans should devote themselves to certain projects D．Americans can be world-famous by giving away vast fortune 4．Bill Gates gave away his vast fortune earlier than he had expected because of . A．his weakening health condition B．his parents’ suggestions C． his great success in business D． his concerns for suffering people
Section 5 Grammar Review
I.V-ing (______/________) 动词的-ing 形式也是一种非谓语动词。-ing 形式仍保留有动词的特征，可以 带有其所需要的宾语或状语而构成-ing 短语。 一、V-ing 的形式： V-ing 有一般式和完成式。及物动词的-ing 还有主动语态和被动语态，而不及物 动词的 V-ing 则没有被动语态。现在以及物动词 make 和不及物动词 go 为例， 将其-ing 各种形式列表如下： 及物动词 make 不及物动词 go 动词 语态 形式 主动语态 被动语态 主动语态 一般式 完成式 注意： 1. V-ing 的否定形式是由_______ 加 V-ing 构成。如： _______________________ his address, I could do nothing but stay at home and wait.不知道他的地址，我只好在家里等着。 ________________________ made all of us angry. 他没来使我们大 家都很生气。 2. V-ing 的一般式和完成式： V-ing 的一般式表示和谓语动词所表示的动作_____进行的动作； 完成式表示在谓语动词所表示的动作之_______发生的动作。 如：Being a student, he is interested in books. 作为一个学生，他对书本很感兴趣。 Not having studied his lessons very hard, he failed the examinations. 因为没有努力学习功课，他考试不及格。 3. V-ing 的被动式： V-ing 的被动式表示它的逻辑主语是 V-ing 动作的____者。根据 V-ing 动 作发生的时间， V-ing 的被动式有一般被动式 (________) 和完成被动式 (________)。如： The question _________________________ is very important. 正在被讨论的问题很重要。 ________________________ (criticize) by the teacher, he gave up smoking. 被老师批评以后，他把烟戒了。 二、V-ing 的语法作用 V-ing 分词一方面具有动词的性质，另一方面也相当于一个名词或形容词、 副 词 ， 在 句 中 可 以 作 ___ _____ ______ ______ ________ _______等。 （一）V-ing（短语）作_____： _______________ is easier than doing. 说比做容易。 注意：在下面两种结构中，V-ing 分词也作主语。 ①为了保持句子平衡，通常用________作形式主语，而把真实主语放在句末。
如： _____ is no use crying over spilt milk. 作无益的后悔是没有用的。 It's a waste of time _______________________________. 辩论这事 是浪费时间。 ②在 There is no 结构中，通常用 V-ing 分词。如： There is no ____________________ about such matters. 这种事开不 得玩笑。 2. V -ing 作________： ①V–ing 作动词宾语。如： I suggest _______________________________. 我建议用另一种方 法做这件事。 ②V-ing 作宾语也可用在复合宾语中作_______宾语，而用 it 作形式宾语。如： I don’t think it possible living in such a cold place. 我认为住在这么寒冷的地方是不可能的。 Do you consider ___________________________? 你觉得再试一次 会有好处吗？ ③V-ing 作介词宾语，经常用在一些短语的后面。如： I'm against inviting him to dinner. 我反对邀请他来吃饭。 He went to London in the hope of ______________________________. 他去了伦敦，希望能成为一个著名的画家。 此类短语还有很多： ________渴望，盼望, ______以……自豪, _________对……负责, ________坚持,_______考虑，想到, _______梦想, _______反对，抗议, ________听说, _______防止， 阻止, _______防止， 阻止 ________防止， 阻止, ________从事于, _______依靠，依赖_________因……而道谢_______ 因 …… 而道歉 , ________ 目的在于 _______ 献身于 ____________ 着手做 _________习惯于 ________喜欢_______害怕__________对……厌烦____________成功 地做 ______________对……感兴趣________________对……感到羞愧 注意：在有些句子中，介词常可省去。如： I have no difficulty (____)communicating with foreigners. 我在和外国人交谈方面没有什么困难。 What can prevent us (____) getting married? 有什么能阻止我们结婚？ 另外，V-ing 可以和一些介词如 in, on, after, against, before, by, for, without, besides 等构成短语，在句中作状语。如： He left ahead of time ________________________.他一句话也没说就提 前离开了。 _________________________________, she had to take care of four children. 除了做饭和缝纫(sew)以外，她还要照顾四个孩子。
只能用 V-ing 作宾语的动词及动词短语 1). ___________ 承认 _______ 说到，讲到 _____ 承认 ________ 忍受 _________讨厌 _________完成 _________ 感激，欣赏_____避免 ______ 享 有 ， 喜 爱 ______ 忍 受 _______ 嫉 妒 ________ 不 禁 _________ 延 迟 _______ 逃 跑 ， 逃 避 ___________ 受 不 了 _________ 否认 ________ 借口 ________ 考虑 _________ 介意 __________ 悔 悟 _________ 描 绘 ， 计 算 ____ 错 过 _______ 怨 恨 _________完成__________原谅， 饶恕______抵抗 _________原谅 __________允许________设想________冒险 2). feel like ________give up ________ put off______ keep on__________look forward to _______insist on______ can’t help_______ get used to_______ devote …to___________ 3).It’s useless/no use/no good… doing ________________________________ 3. V-ing（短语）作_______： ①V-ing 分词作表语可以表示主语的内容是什么。如： Their job is building houses. 他们的工作是盖房子。 The real question is ________________________________________________. 真正的问题是了解人民的需要。 ②V-ing 分词作表语还可以表示主语所具有的特征。如： This story is very interesting. 这故事很有趣。 The problem is quite puzzling. 这个问题很令人困惑。 4. V-ing 作________： ①单个的分词作定语一般放在被修饰词的前面。如： ____________ room 阅览室 ____________ pool 游泳池 ____________ car 餐车 ____________ car 卧车 a __________ car 一辆等待着的车 a ___________ child 一个酣睡的孩子 the ________ news 令人振奋的消息 a _________ speech 令人乏味的演出 ②V-ing 分词短语作定语应放在被修饰词的后面，也相当于一个_________从 句。如： Who is the comrade _____________________? 站在门边的同志是谁？ When she appeared, John, wearing a dirty and worn-out overcoat, ran to her with joy. 当她出现的时候，约翰穿着一件又脏又破的大衣高兴地跑了过去。 5. V-ing 分词做状语：时间、原因、结果、条件、让步、方式、伴随 ①V-ing 分词短语作_________，相当于一个时间状语从句，有时可由连词 when, while 引出。如： __________________________________, she remembered her childhood. 看到那些画，他想起了她的童年。 ②V-ing 分词短语作_________，相当于一个原因状语从句。如： _____________________________, I can’t send this book to him. 因为不知道他的地址，我不能把这本书送给他。
③V–ing 分词短语作__________。如： His father died, ______________________________.他父亲死了，留 给他许多钱。 ④V-ing 分词作_______，可以放在句子的前面、后面或中间，表示主语的另 一个、 较次要的动作。如： They stood there for half an hour, watching the stars in the sky. 他们在那儿站了半小时，观察着天上的星星。 ⑤V-ing 分词间或也可作___________，相当于一个状语从句。如： A person standing at the foot of a high mountain will find himself very small. 一个人如站在大山的脚下会发现自己很渺小。 Knowing all this, they made me pay for the damage. 尽管知道了一切情况，他们还是要我赔偿损失。 注：-ing 分词作状语时，它的逻辑主语就是整个句子的______。 ⑥―with/without+名词普通格或代词宾格+V-ing 分词‖结构在句中作状语，表示 伴随情况或时间、原因等。如： His hair became grey with the years passing.随着时间的推移，他的头发变花白 了。 Without ___________________________, he slipped through the window. 没人注意，他从窗户溜了出去。 6. V-ing 分词作________： ①V-ing 分词可以在 see, hear, notice, watch, feel, look at, listen to, observe, have, get, leave, keep, set, catch, find 等动词后面和一个名词或代词构成一个 复合宾语，作宾语补语。如： I noticed a man running out of the bank when I got off the car. 我下车的时候注意到一个男人匆匆忙忙地从银行里跑出来。 Last night the shopkeeper caught ________________________________ in the shop. 昨晚，店主在商店里抓到一个小孩在偷东西。 ②上面这类句子也可变成被动语态，这时，V-ing 分词可看成是主语补语。如： We were kept waiting for quite a long time. 让我们等了好长时间。 Jill was never heard _______________________________. 人们再也没有听到吉丽唱这首歌了。 三、V-ing 分词的复合结构： V-ing 分词的复合结构通常由______、_________、________或者名 词的普通格+-ing 分词构成，在句子开头时必须用物主代词和名词所有格，通常 在句中作主语和宾语。如： _________ made us very happy. 他的到来使我们大家都很高。 He was awakened by __________________________ 他被某人的 敲门声吵醒了。 四、在使用 V-ing 时需要注意的若干内容 1. V-ing 作主语和表语时与不定式的区别：
? 在表示比较抽象的一般的多次性行为时，多用 V-ing 分词； ? 在表示具体的或一次性的动作，特别是将来的动作时，多用不定式。如： Smoking is forbidden here.（泛指吸烟）这里禁止吸烟。 It’s not good for you to smoke so much. （指你吸烟）吸这么多烟对你的身体 不好。 2. 有些动词既能接不定式，又能接 V-ing 分词，含义有所不同。如： ①forget, remember, regret 等词后面接不定式表示不定式动作后于谓语动作， 而后接-ing 分词作宾语表示分词动作_______谓语动作。如： Do you remember seeing me before? 你记得以前见过我吗？ Remember to lock the door when you leave. 离开时要记得锁门。 ②动词 mean, stop, try, go on 等动词后面接分词和接不定式作宾语，意思也有 所不同。如： I ______________about that. 我尽量不去想那件事。 Would you please ________ that again? 请你再试一次好吗？ I ______________it for another one. 我想换成另外一个。 Missing the train ______________ for another hour. 误了这班车意味 再等一个小时。 Having finished the exercises, we_________ the new words in the next unit. 做完练习以后，我们继续学习下一单元的单词。 After a short rest, they___________ 短暂地休息以后，他们又继续工 作。 He _____________ when the bell rang. 铃响的时候，他停止了讲话。 While working, he ___________ with Tom at times. 工作的时候，他不时地停下来和汤姆谈话。 ③动词 allow, advise, forbid, permit 等可直接跟-ing 分词作宾语，不可以接动 词不定式作宾语，但可接不定式作宾语补语。如： Please permit me to say a few words. 请允许我说几句话。 We don’t permit smoking here. 我们这儿不允许吸烟。 ④动词 need, require, want 作―需要‖解时， 后面接 V-ing 分词或不定式的被 动式。如： The room wants cleaning/____________. 这个房间需要打扫。 These little children require looking after carefully/to be looked after carefully. 这些小孩需要细心地照料。 ⑤动词 like, hate, prefer 等后面，如表示一般性动作，多用-ing 分词；如指 特定的具 体的某次动作，多用不定式。如： I like _________, but I don’t like _________with you. 我喜欢游泳，但我不喜欢和你一起游泳。 ⑥动词 begin, start 后面，如表示有意识地开始做某事，常用-ing 分词，否则用 不定式更多一些。如： We began to do that job last year. 我们去年开始做那工作的。 They started talking about the film at once. 他们立刻开始谈论那部电影。
注：下面几种情况多用不定式作宾语： a. 当 start, begin 本身用于进行时态时。 When the teacher came into the room, he was starting to write to his parents. 老师走进教室的时候，他正开始写信给他的父母亲。 b. 当 start, begin 后接表示心理活动的动词时。 Hearing the news, he started to think of a good way to solve the problem. 一听到消息，他就开始考虑一个好办法来解决这个问题。 c. 当句子的主语是无生命的东西时。 We were about to leave when it began to rain.我们正准备离开，天开始下雨了。 II. 不定式（The Infinitive） 定义：动词不定式是非谓语动词的一种，它没有人称和数的变化，在句子中不能 独立作谓语，但它仍保持动词的特点，既可以有自己的宾语和状语。 一、不定式的构成 （以动词 do 为例） 主动形式 被动形式 to do 一般式 完成式 进行式 完成进行式 无 无
1. 不定式的一般式(to do ) 一般式表示的动作或状态，发生在谓语动词表示的动作或状态_________ My wish is to become a doctor. 2. 不定式的被动式 (to be done) 当不定式的逻辑主语是这个不定式所表示的动作的承受者时,不定式要用被动式. The building to be finished next month is for our teachers. 3. 不定式的进行式 如果谓语表示的动作(情况)发生时, 不定式表示动作______,这时候不定式 就要用进行式.（to be doing） They seemed to be talking about something important. When I went to his home, he happened to be traveling around the world. 4. 不定式的完成式 如果不定式所表示的动作或状态发生在谓语动词所表示动作或状态之前， 就用 完成式 (to have done) ；若是在此基础上的被动含义，就用完成被动式( to have been done). He is said to have written a novel about the Long March. The assistant seemed to have been fired. Einstein is said to have built up his theory when he was in his twenties. 5. 不定式的完成进行式 如果不定式的动作是在谓语所表示的时间之前一直进行的动作，就要用完成进 行式. They are said to have been collecting folk song in Xinjiang. We’re happy to have been working with the experts all the month. 二、动词不定式的用法：
动词不定式具有名词、形容词和副词的特征。因此在句中可以做主语、表语、宾 语、宾语补足语、定语和状语。 （一）不定式做_________：不定式做主语一般表示具体的某次动作。 e.g: To finish the building in a month is difficult. To see is to believe. (对等) 注: 1) 不定式作主语时,谓语用________数 2) 当主语较长，谓语较短时，常用______做形式主语，而将不定式放到 谓语的后面。 it 做形式主语，不定式放在谓语动词之后常用于下列结构中： (1) It is/was +adj.+of sb. to do… (2) It is +adj.+for sb.+to do… It is easy / difficult / hard / foolish / unwise / right / wrong / unnecessary (3) It is +a +名词+ to do... ? It is a pity / a pleasure / a pleasant thing / one’s duty / an honor / a shame / a crime / no easy job… to do (4) It takes (sb.) some time / courage / patience …to do… ? It requires courage / patience / hard work… to do… （二）不定式做表语 主语是以 aim/duty/hope/idea/intention/plan/job/suggestion/wish/purpose/task 等为 中心词的名词词组或以 what 引导的名词性从句表示， 后面的不定式说明其内容, 不定式作表语常表示将来或现在的动作或状态。 eg My idea is to climb the mountain from the north. Your mistake was not to write that letter. （三）不定式作宾语 以不定式结构为宾语的动词有： ask, agree, care, choose, demand, decide, expect, fail, help, hope, learn, manage, offer, plan, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, want, wish 等只能用动 词不定式作宾语口诀（接不定式作宾语的动词） 想要学习 早打算（ ______ _______ ________） 快准备 有希望（ _____ ________ ________ ________） 同意否 供选择（ ______ _______ ________） 决定了 已答应（ ______ _______ ________） 尽力去 着手做（ _______ ________） 别拒绝 别假装（ _______ ________） 失败不是属于你（________） e.g. Tom refused to lend me his pen. We hope to get there before dark. （四）动词不定式做定语 1. 不定式作定语需要后置。 2. 作定语的不定式与被修饰的名词或代词存在着两种主要的逻辑关系，即被 修饰的名词和代词是不定式的逻辑主语（逻辑上的主谓关系）或逻辑宾语（逻辑 上的动宾关系） 1）不定式前的名词是它的逻辑_________. He is the doctor to do the operation.
2) 不定式和它所修饰的名词是逻辑上的______关系 I have a lot of things to do. 3）不定式前的名词是它修饰的对象。 This is the right time to start. （五）不定式做宾语补足语 e.g: He want you to be his assistant. I saw her cross the street. [注 1] 如果谓语动词为____或__动词，则作宾补的不定式不可带 to，这些 动词有 see, hear, feel, watch, notice; have, make, let 等。 I felt my blood run cold. What made you think like that? 但如果句子是被动语态，则__不可省略。 He was made to clean the windows as a punishment. Someone was heard to come up the stairs. （六）动词不定式做表语补足语 当不定式与主语存在逻辑上动宾关系的时候，用主动表被动。 That is hard to say. The chair is comfortable to sit in. （七）不定式做状语 不定式做状语修饰动词、形容词、副词等，表示目的、原因、结果、条件等。 1、表_________ e.g. To learn a foreign language well, you must try your best (主语一 致) He came here in order to see Charlie. I turned the radio down so as not to disturb him 注：表示目的的不定式可以置于句首，这也是区别于其他功能的标志之一。 * 但是，置于句首表示目的的不定式可以是 to, in order to ，但却不可以是 ________ In order to draw maps properly, you need a special pen. 注：不定式结构表示目的时，通常句子的主语就是它的逻辑主语 (主语一 致) e.g. He bought a bicycle to go to town more quickly. 例外 He opened the door for the children to come in. They sent a man to mend the window. 2. 表_________ 不定式结构表示结果更常见于下列句型 ① so …as to … Would you be so kind as to lend me your bicycle / tell me the time? ② such (…) as to … I’m not such a fool as to believe that. ③ adj./adv. + enough to … The boy is old enough to go to school. ④ too … to … His eyesight is too poor to read such small letters. ⑤ only to find, only to be told 出乎意料之外的结果 3. 表_____用于动词、形容词或-ed 分词后表示原因。
He was too excited to get high marks. （八）独立成分 To tell you the truth, I don’t like you. They arrived here at 11:55 a.m., to be exact. 类似的有：to be frank 坦率地说，to hear him talk 听他说话的口气， to cut a long story short 长话短说，等等。 III. 过去分词 一、过去分词的形式：V-ed 过去分词只有一种形式， 也没有主动语态，它所表示的动作是一个被动且完成的 动作。 二、过去分词的基本用法： 过去分词在句中也可用作定语、表语、宾补或状语等成分。过去分词在句中作某 种成分时，其逻辑主语一般为该分词所表示的动作的承受者，如： （一）作_______ 过去分词作定语时，如果这个分词是一个单词，就位于其修饰的名词之前，如果 是分 词短语，就位于其修饰的名词之后。被过去分词所修饰的名词，就是该分词的逻 辑主 语 . e.g. The stolen car was found by the police last week. We have read many novels written by this author. 我们读过这个作家写的许多小说。 （二）作________ 1. 过去分词作表语时，表示其逻辑主语所处的状态，其逻辑主语就是句中的 主语， e.g. The glass is broken. 这个玻璃杯是破的。 2. 过去分词作表语时，和动词的被动语态结构相似，但两者表达的意义不同， e.g. The glass was broken by my little brother. 这个玻璃杯是被我小弟 弟打破的。 3. 作表语用的过去分词在许多词典中已列为形容词 如：crowded, devoted, discouraged, done, dressed, drunk, experienced, frightened, gone, hurt, interested, killed, known, learned, lost, pleased, satisfied, shut, surprised, tired, undressed, worried, astonished, broken, completed, covered 等。 （三）作_____________ 1. 过去分词作宾语补足语时，句中的宾语就是其逻辑主语 e.g. When I opened the door, I found the ground covered by fallen leaves. 2. 动词 have 后的复合宾语中，宾语补足语如为过去分词，常表示该分词所表 示的动作是由别人来执行的而不是句中主语自己来执行的
e.g. I had my bike repaired yesterday. 昨天我（找别人）把我的自行车给 修了。 （四）作___________ 过去分词作状语时， 和 V-ing 形式作状语一样， 也可以表示时间、 原因、 条件、 让步、方式或伴随情况等。 e.g. Seen from the hill/ When seen from the hill, our town looks beautiful. （_________） Given more time/ If given more time, we could have done it better. （__________） Excited by the new discovery, we decided to go out and celebrate. （___________） Exhausted by the running, they went on running after the robber. （__________） He went into the office, followed by some children. （___________） 三、-ing 形式与过去分词的区别： 1. 语态不同：-ing 形式表示____，及物动词的过去分词表示________ e.g. an inspiring speech 鼓舞人心的演说； the inspired audience 受鼓舞的听 众。 2. 时间关系不同：现在分词所表示的动作一般是正在________的动作，而过 去分词所表示的动作，往往是已经__________的动作， e.g. The changing world 正在发生的世界；the changed world 已经起了变化 的世界。 IV 独立主格： 上述 V-ing 和过去分词的用法中，V-ing 和过去分词在句中均有逻辑主语，但 有时它们也能有自己的独立的主语，这种独立的主语，一般为名词或代词，位于 其前之前， 和 V-ing 或过去分词构成独立主格。 独立主格在句中一般只作状语用， 而 V-ing 和过去分词作用的形式， 则要根据它们所表示的动作和句中谓语动词所 表示的时间关系而定。至于独立主格中是使用 V-ing 或是过去分词，则要根据它 们的主语和其所表示的动作的主动被动关系而定， 如：The bell ringing, we all stopped talking. 注：The work having been finished, she sat down to have a rest. ①独立结构中的 being 或 having been 常可省去， 如：The meeting (being) over, all left the room. ②作伴随状语的独立结构常可用 with 短语来代替， 如：She read the letter, tears rolling down her cheeks./ She read the letter with tears rolling down her cheeks.
Section 6 Retain popularity
The home computers industry has been growing rapidly in the United States for the last ten years. Computers used to be large, expensive machines that were very difficult to use. But scientists and technicians have been making them smaller and cheaper while at the same time they have been made easier to use. As a result, their popularity has been increasing as more people have been buying computers for their homes and businesses. Computers have been designed to store information and compute complex problems. Some have voices that speak with the operators. Stores use computers to keep records of their inventories and to send bills to their customers. Offices use computers to type letters, record business and communicate with other offices. People have been using computers in their homes to keep track of expenses and turn appliances on and off. One important new use for computers is for entertainment. Many new games have been designed to be played on the computers. People of all ages have been playing these games. They have been going to Arcades where the computer games can be played for a small cost. People also have been buying home computers to play computer games at home. They have become very popular indeed. A.Read the passage, which tense do you think it is and how and when t use it? 1.The home computers industry has been growing rapidly in the United States for the last ten years. 2.But scientists and technicians have been making them smaller and cheaper while at the same time they have been made easier to use. 3.As a result, their popularity has been increasing as more people have been buying computers for their homes and businesses. 4.People have been using computers in their homes to keep track of expenses and turn appliances on and off. 5.They have been going to Arcades where the computer games can be played for a small cost. 6.People also have been buying home computers to play computer games at home.
B.Compare them with the following sentences,what are the differences? A.while at the same time they have been made easier to use. B.Computers have been designed to store information and compute complex problems. C.Many new games have been designed to be played on the computers. 现在完成进行时 1. 定义：现在完成进行时表示一个动作始于过去，持续到现在，并强调现在还 在进行。 例如： I have been looking for my lost book for three days, but I still haven’t found it. 我一直在找我丢的那本书，找了三天任然没找到。 He has been learning English for 6 years. （强调从过去某一时间开始 学英语，强调到现在还在学） 2. 构成：―have/has+been+ 动词的现在分词 ‖构成 3. 完成进行时的用法 1. 表示动作发生在过去一直持续到现在，还要继续下去。 例如： I ' ve been reading this book for two hours, but I haven ' t finished it. 这本书我已读了两个小时了，但我还没读完。 比较： I ' ve read this book. 我已读完这本书了。 2. 强调动作延续时间的长久或带感情色彩。 例如：She has always been working like that. 她一贯是这样工作的。 It has raining for 3 days. (强调说话者抱怨的感情色彩) 3. 现在完成进行时也可表示现在以前这段时间反复发生的事情。 We ' ve been seeing quite a lot of each other recently. 最近我们经常见面。 4. 现在完成时和现在完成进行时的区别 1.现在完成进行时更强调动作的延续性， 它是现在完成时的强调形式。 试比较： We ' ve been living here for ten years. 十年来我们一直住在这儿。 We ' ve lived here for ten years. 我们在这儿已经住了十年了。 2.在不用时间状语的情况下，现在完成进行时表示动作仍在进行。而现在完成时 则表示动作在过去已结束。如： The students have been preparing for the exam.（还在进行）学生们一直在准备 考试。 The students have prepared for the exam. （已经结束） 学生们为考试作了准备。 3.有些表示状态，感情，感觉的动词如： have, exist, like, hate, hear, know, sound 等动词不能用于现在完成进行时，但可用于现在完成时。如： They 've known each other since 1970. 自从 1970 年起他们就相互认识了。
1. — I’m sure Andrew will win the first prize in the final. — I think so. He ________ for it for months. (2008 江苏)
A. is preparing B. was preparing C. had been preparing D. has been preparing 2. By the time he realizes he _________ into a trap, it’ll be too late for him to do anything about it. (2008 山东) A. walks B. walked C. has walked D. had walked 3. So far this year we _______ a fall in house prices by between 5 and 10 percent. (2008 福建) A. saw B. see C. had seen D. have seen 4. Cathy is taking notes of the grammatical rules in class at Sunshine School, where she ______ English for a year. (2007 湖南) A. studies B. studied C. is studying D. has been studying 5. Danny _________ hard for long to realize his dream and now he is popular. (2007 福建) A. works B. is working C. has worked D. had worked 6. —I have got a headache. —No wonder. You_________ in front of that computer too long. (2007 江 西) A. work B. are working C. have been working D. worked 7. The unemployment rate in this district_______ from 6% to 5% in the past two years. (2007 上海) A. has fallen B. had fallen C. is falling D. was falling 8. Now that she is out of job, Lucy ___ going back to school，but she hasn’t decided yet.(北京) A. had considered B. has been considering C. considered D. is going to consider 9. —______ you ______ him around the museum yet? (2007 江苏) —Yes. We had a great time there. A. Have ; shown B. Do ; show C. Had; shown D. Did; show 10. —Hi, Tracy，you look pale. —I am tired. I _______ the living room all day. A. painted B. had painted C. have been painting D. have painted More: 1. We ____on this project for four hours, let’s have a rest. A: are working B: have been working C: worked D: had worked 2. –why, Jack, you look so tired! ---well, I ___the house and I must finish the work tomorrow. A: was painting B: will be painting C: have painted D: have been painting 3. I have to see the doctor because I ___a lot lately. A: have been coughing B: had coughed C：coughed D: cough 4. --We have spent too much money recently. --Well, It isn’t surprising, our friends and relatives ____around all the
time. A: are coming B: had come C: were coming D: have been coming 5. Joseph _____to evening classes since last month, but he still can’t say ―what’s you name?‖ in Russian. A: has been going B: went C: goes D: has gone 6.I’m tired out. I ____all afternoon and I don’t seem to have finished anything A: shopped B: have shopped C: had shopped D: have been shopping 7 .---why do you want to work for our company? --- this is the job that I ___for A: looked B: am to look C: had looked D: have been looking 8.Excuse me, Marcia, a reporter from Vanity Fair ____all day. Could you speak to her now? A: phones B: has phoned C: has been phoning D: phoned