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Kochan Workplace Health Safety in the US


Workplace?Health?&?Safety?in?the?U.S.:??Laws,?Best?Practices,? and?a?Case?Study?of?the?BP?Disaster 美国环境 健康 安全(EHS)相关法规介绍、最佳做法 美国环境、健康、安全( )相关法规介绍 最佳做法 和英国石油公司(BP)案例分享

Thomas?Kochan?and?Arnold?Zack Lingnan?College,?Sun?Yat‐sen?University Guangzhou,?China May?28 28,?2013

Overview三部分内容
? Brief?outline?of?workplace?safety?&?health?laws ? 简单介绍职场安全与健康法律 ? Elements?of?best?practices—firms;?unions;? g y?strategies g regulatory ? 最佳实践的组成——企业;公会;监管策略 ? Case?Study: d ??Lessons?from f ?the h ?BP?Gulf lf?Coast? Oil?Rig?Disaster?of?2010 ? 案例分析——从2010年英国石油公司(BP)墨 西哥湾漏油事件中得到的教训

U S ?Legal?Setting?美国的法律环境 U.S.
? ? Prior?to?1970:??All?legislation?at?the?state?level?国家级别 1968:??Farmington?mining?accident:??78?miners?killed.??Led?to:?法明顿矿难 – 1969?passage?of?Coal?Mine?Safety?&?Health?Act?煤矿安全与健康法案 – 1970:??Occupational?Safety?&?Health?Act?passed?职业安全与健康法案 ? Division?of?U.S.?Department?of?Labor?成立美国劳工部 ? Inspects?workplaces?on?unannounced?basis?非公开形式监管劳动场所 ? Establishes?safety?and?health?standards??and?regulations?标准和法规 ? Investigates?worker?safety/health?complaints?调查投诉 ? Promotes?“best?practices?through?“Voluntary?Protection?Program”? ? 通过“自愿保护计划”推行“最佳实践” 通过 自愿保护计划 推行 最佳实践 – National?Institute?for?Occupational?Safety?and?Health?Research?created?to?study? health hazards?and?hazardous?substances?and?processes – 建立国家级别的职业安全与健康研究所,研究健康危害、危险物质和过程

Government?Role?Today?政府角色
? Never?have?enough?inspectors?to?monitor?America’s?8?million? workplaces?职场人数800万,政府监管和监控者远远不足 ? Staffing St ffi ?l levels l ?limited li it d?人员编制限制 ? Safety?rates— 安全比例
– i injury j ?rates t ?h have?declined d li d?steadily t dil ?since i ?2002: 2002 ??3.5 3 5?per?100?workers k ?in i ? 2011?从2002年起,工伤率稳定降低—2011年,3.5% – Fatality?rates?only?declining?slightly:??3.5?per?100,000?workers?in?2011 – 死亡率下降幅度很小:2011,10万分之3.5

? Health?regulations?still?criticized?for?not?keeping?up?with? changing?materials,?processes?健康监管机构受到批判,未 健康监管机构受到批判 未 能与新材料和进程与时俱进 ? Difficult Diffi l ?to?get?new?regulations l i ?approved d?通过新法案很难

致死工伤率

OSHA’s?Voluntary?Protection?Program 职业安全与健康署的自愿保护计划
? ? ? ? ? ? Performance‐based?cooperative?model???基于表现的合作模式 Firms?apply?to?be?covered??能够应用这项计划的企业 Must?demonstrate?above?industry?average?safety?and?health?performance? and?existence?of?comprehensive?safety?management?system 必须具有行业平均水准以上的安全与健康水平,并且有全面的安全管 理体系 VPP?firms?excepted?from?OSHA?inspections?(except?if?major?accident?or? fatality?occurs)?免于OSHA监管的VPP企业(除非发生重大事故或致死事 件) Results: – 2012:??2,374?worksites?covering?900,000?workers – 2012:2374工作场所,90万人 – 52%?lower?injury?rates?than?their?industry’s industry s?average – 工伤率比行业平均水准低52%

VPP?Program?Elements?VPP项目构成
? Each E h?site it ?must t?have: h ?
– – – – – – – – – a?system?focused?on:?hazard?prevention?and?control;? 一个体系,关注:危险预防和控制 worksite?analysis?of?hazardous?substances,?processes,?and?;? 对于工作场所的危险物质和流程的分析 Comprehensive?workforce?safety?training? 完整的工作场所安全培训 management?commitment—values,?structures,?staff 管理委员会——价值观,企业架构,职工 Worker?involvement?in?safety?monitoring?and?improvement?processes? and?worker?involvement.?To?participate,? – 让员工参与其中,进行安全监控和改善流程 – Union?support?(if?a?union?is?present) – 工会支持

Hi?Performance/Reliability?Organizations:??One?Company’s?Model?in?a?High?Hazard?Industry 表现好/责任感强的组织:高危行业的一家企业的模式 责任感强的组织 高危行业的一家企业的模式
Management/Employee? Engagement?管理/员工参与 ? Hourly?employees时薪员工 ? Unions公会 ? Work?Councils?劳动委员会 ? Contractors?合同商 ? Supervisors?监管者 ? Professionals??专家 (e.g.,?engineers)

People
(HR?system?capability) 人力资源系统能力

High?表现好 Performance High?责任强 Reliability

Integrated?Management? System?综合管理系统 Operations?– HR?link 基本运作—HR HR环节

Process?流程
(OMS,?Safety,?IM) 停电管理系统,安全, 停电管理系统 安全 感应电动机
8

Key?Elements?of?a?Comprehensive?Safety?&?Health?Management? System?全面安全与健康管理系统组成部分

? A?workplace?Safety?Culture?工作场所的安全文化 ? Business?Strategies?that?value?重视的企业策略 ? Training?and?Enforcement?培训和实施,强化 培训和实施 强化 ? Employee?engagement engagement—joint joint?committees committees,?etc etc. ? 员工参与——联合委员会 ? Supervision—reinforcement?of?safety?as?priority?on?front? lines ? 监管——加强 加强一线的安全监管 线的安全监管,作为重中之重 作为重中之重 ? Comprehensive?safety?engineering/processes ? 全面的安全工程/流程

Leadership?Values?Matter! 领导价值观非常重要!
“I?was?prepared?to?accept?the?consequences?of?spending?whatever?it? took?to?become?the?safest?company?in?the?world.” 我已经做好准备,付出一切努力,承担一切后果,让我的公司成 我已经做好准备,付出 切努力,承担 切后果,让我的公司成 为世 上 安全的 为世界上最安全的公司。
Paul?H.?O'Neill,?former?chairman?and?CEO?of?Alcoa? (Harvard?Kennedy?School?Speech, Speech ?Nov. Nov ?4?2002) 保罗?奥尼尔,美国铝业公司的前总裁、CEO (哈佛大学肯尼迪学院的讲话)

At?Alcoa,?a?company?with?140,000?employees?in?36?countries,?he?improved? the?safety?record?from?1.86 1 86?lost?workday?incidents??per?100?employees?to? 0.2.?It?is?now?.05.?He?maintained?that?the?goal?should?be?zero.? 美国铝业公司在全世界36个国家拥有12万员工。

Background:??A?High?Hazard?Industry?with?a?Problematic?History 第三部分:BP漏油事件 背景:高风险行业,具有历史遗留问题
? 1989:??P 1989 Petrochemical t h i l?plant l t?accident id t?kill killed d?22?contract t t?workers k ?i in?T Texas:?? Recognition?that?operations?involving?multiple?employers—prime?site? operators?and?contractors?are?especially?prone?to?accidents 1989: 一起化工厂事故导致德克萨斯州 起化工厂事故导致德克萨斯州22名合同工丧生,这让人们意 名合同工丧生 这让人们意 识到,涉及到多个雇主的运营往往最容易导致事故发生,譬如涉及到 主要现场运营商和承包商的时候。 2005:??BP?Texas?City?plant?explosion?kills?15? 2005:BP德克萨斯州工厂爆炸,15人死亡 – Government?study?of?root?cause:??LACK?OF?STRONG?SAFETY? CULTURE—PRODUCTION?&?COST?PRESSURES?DOMINATE?PLANT? PRACTICES – 政府调查根本原因:缺乏强有力的企业安全文化——生产和成本 压力影响和支配了工厂的生产方式。

?

? ?

BP?Deepwater?Horizon?Case?Study:??Disaster?in?the?Gulf:??2010 BP公司深水地平线案例分析: 2010年墨西哥湾漏油事件调查

? Largest?oil?spill?in?US?history:??5?million?barrels? ? 美国历史上最严重的漏油事件:500万桶 ? 11?workers?killed;?17?injured ? Spill?continued?for?85?days?before?being?capped控制之前 ? BP?required q ?to?p pay y?$20?Billion?in?damages g ?200亿美元损失 赔偿 ? Litigation?continues?involving?BP?and?other?contractor?firms:? additional?fines?likely?to?range?between?$4?Billion?to?$16? Billion?后续诉讼要求BP和其它承包商支付更多的赔偿, 40 0亿到160 60亿美元不等。

MIT?Class?Analysis?of?Root?Causes
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Production?and?cost?pressures—project?was?overdue?and?over?budget 生产和成本压力——项目逾期/超期,预算超支 Management?Incentives/Reward:??Unit?performance?not?total?company 管理激励/奖励:以单位绩效而非整个公司的绩效作为衡量标准 Ambiguous?authority—BP?and?contractors 职权模糊——BP和其它承包商 Lack?of?experience?of?engineers?and?management?personnel 工程师和管理人员缺乏经验 Unwillingness ll ?of f?management?to?listen l ?to?employees l ?warning?of f?problems bl 管理人员不愿意听取员工的警告 Outmoded?equipment—rig?overdue?for?maintenance;?computers?outdated 设备老化——钻机维保过期;电脑老化 Safety?practices?ignored—overridden?to?meet?time?pressures 无视安全规范——疲劳工作,赶工 System y ?failures—multiple p ?things g ?went?wrong g?at?the?same?time 系统故障——几样事情同时出错

Summary?Lessons?from?U.S. 美国经验总结
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Bedrock?requirement:??Strong?safety?&?health?laws 基本要求 强有力的安全和健康法案 基本要求:强有力的安全和健康法案 Strong?enforcement?and?penalties?for?violations 严格实施 对违规事件进行处罚 严格实施,对违规事件进行处罚 Beyond?standard?regulations—reward?companies?that?have? demonstrated?performance?and?management?systems 对于标准法规以外的行为——对具有绩效和管理体系的 公司进行奖励 Involve?employees?and?unions 让雇员和公会参与其中 Continue?health?monitoring 继续健康监控 Above?all:??Build?and?enforce?safety?culture 最重要的是:建立和加强安全文化


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