独立主格结构： 独立主格结构，又叫独立结构（absolute construction）.它在句法上游离与句子主体之外，跟 主句没有任何语法联系； 但在意义上却与主句紧密联系在一起， 给他构成一个完整的寓意环 境。独立主格结构没有主语和位于，只有逻辑上的主语，因此，它在句法上不是句子，而是 一个独立于句子成分之外的独特结构形式。 独立主格结构可置于句首、句尾，用逗号上与主句隔开。
一、独立主格结构的形式 独立结构可分为俩部分，一部分事名词或代词（主格） ，起着逻辑主语的作用；另一部分由 形容词、 副词、 名词、 分词、 不定式、 介词短语等构成， 表示前面名词或代词的状态或动作。 1） 名词/代词+形容词 I heard that she got injured in the accident , my heart full of worry. 我听说她在这次事故 中受了伤，内心充满担忧。 He stood silent in the moon-light, his door open .月光下，门开着，他默默地站在那。 2）名词/代词+现在分词 Winter coming ，it gets colder and colder. 冬天来了，天气越来越冷了。 The rain having stopped ,he went out for a walk. 雨停了，他出去散散步。 3）名词/代词+过去分词 More time given ,we should have done it much better. 如果给我们更多时间，我们会做的更 好。 The boy stood there , his right hand raised. 那个男生站在那里，右手高举。 4）名词/代词（主格）+不定式 Here are the first two volumes , the third one to come out next month. 这是前俩卷，第三卷将于下雨问世。 The two boy said good-bye to each other ,one to go home ,the other to go to his friend\s 俩个男孩彼此道了别，一个回了家，另一个去了他朋友家。 5）名词/代词+介词短语 The huntsman entered the forest ,gun in hand. 那个猎人手里提着枪走进了树林。 注意： 这里 gun in hand 还可以说成 with a gun in hand。 但不可以说 a gun in hand 或 gun in his hand。 6）名词/代词+副词 Nobody in ,the thief took a lot of things away. 由于没有人，小偷拿走了许多东西。 Lunch over ,he left the house .But he was thinking.午饭结束，他离开了路。但他还在考虑。 7）名词/代词+名词 He fought the wolf ,a stick his only weapon. 他和狼搏斗着，唯一的为武器是一根棍棒。 8）with 复合结构 它的构成是： “with+宾语+宾语补足语” 。宾语由代词、名词、名词词组充当，宾语由分词、 不定式、形容词、副词、介词短语、名词等充当。 Holms and Watson sat with the light on for half an hour. 福尔摩斯和沃森坐着，让灯亮了半个小时。 （介词短语） He used to sleep with the door open .他过去常开着门睡觉（形容词） With a boy leading the way ,they started towards the village. 由一个小男孩领着路，他们朝那个村子去了。 （现在分词） With the work done ,he went home. 工作做完后，他回了家。 （过去分词） With you to help us, we will finish the task in time
有你来帮忙，我们将会及时完成任务。 （不定式） Hong Kong looks more beautiful with thou-sands of lights on night . 夜里，香港万盏灯火，分外美丽。 （副词） 从以上例句可以看出：在 with 复合结构中，宾语和宾补之间形成逻辑上的主谓关系。当这 种主谓关系表现为主动语态是，用现代分词：当这种主谓关系表现为被动语态是，用过去分 词：当这种主谓关系表示将来意义是，用不定时：当这种主谓关系辨识伴随意义时，用现在 分词或副词。 三、独立主格结构的功能 独立主格结构主要用于描绘性文字中，七作用相当于一个撰于从句，常用来辨识时间、原因、条件、行 为方式或伴随情况等。 1） 表示时间 Her work done ,she sat down for a cup of tea. 她干完了活，坐下来喝茶。 2） 表示条件 The condition being favourable , she may succeed. 若条件有利，他或许能成功。 3） 表示原因 There being taxis , we had to walk.没有出坐车，我们只好步行。 4） 表示伴随情况 Almost all metals are good conductors ,silver the best of all. 几乎所有的金属都是良导体，而银则是最好的导体。 四、形式选择中应该注意的问题 1）现在分词还是过去分词？ 在独立主格结构中，主格词语分词形成逻辑主语关系时，用现在分词，如：Winter coming, it gets colder and colder.一句中， “春天”和“到来”是逻辑主谓关系，用现在分词；主格词与分词形成 逻辑动宾关系时，用过去分词，如：More money given ,we should have sent more employees to the mother company to get trained. 一句中， “money”和“give”是动宾关系（被动关系） ，用过去分词。 在独立主格结构中，如果强调分词的时间发生在主句动词时间之前，常用现在分词完成时态表示。如： The snow having stopped ,she went out to sweep the snow in the yard 现在分词与过去分词的性质完全不同，但在独立结构中，有时却有共同之处：子安在分词的被动式有时 可以简化为过去分词，例如： As her skirt was caught on a nail, she could not move. Her skirt being caught on a nail , she could move. Her skirt caught on a nail , she could move. After his work had been finished , he went home. His work having been finished , he went home. His work finished , he went home. 2) 分词结构还是独立主格结构 上面的例子告诉我们，独立主格常常可以看做是由复合句中的从句变来的。但是，如果从句和主句的主 语相同，则不可改为独立结构。例如： Since he was very tired with his work , he soon fell asleep and forgot his trouble. 不可改为：He being very tired with his work ,he….但可改为：Being very tired with his work ,he… 比较：判断动名词复合结构的方式 主语位置上。或动词、介词后的“名词代词+非谓语动词” ，如果表示的是一个时间则是动名词复合结 构而不是“名词+定语” ，请看以下各例： He insisted on the windows _____ open while he was sleeping. A left B being left C leaving D be left The road _________ caused us to stop our work for half an hour. A blocked B was block C blocking D being blocked The concerned mother thrilled at the news of his son_______ to college.
A had been admitted B admitted C having been admitted D having admitted Quebec,which was originally colonized by France ,was lost to the British in 1763.(P2 L26) Be lost in 1)消失在…中 The ship________(消失在风暴中) 2） 陷入（沉思等） ：被….所吸引 For some time he seemed lost in thought. 3)在…中迷路，迷失在… We are lost in the forest.(在森林里迷路了) be lost to ……失去，没有…… the opportunity is lost to him .(他没有机会了) C (1)_______to the British,Quebec was originally colonized by Erance A.Being lost B.To lose C.Lost D.Losing C(2)_______himself in thought,he didn’t notice what happenedaround him. A.Being lost B.Lost C.Losing D.Having lost C(3)After hours walk in the forest,finally we found ourselves_____our way. A.lost B.losing C.lose D.to lost 6.because of this, Montreal has a wonderful mix of Old World…(P2 L27) Because of=owing to =on account of =due to =as a reasult of 由于……的原因，因为 1） He was unable to go to work because of the fall from his horse. 2） Because of my work and so on ,I don’t get up much to the club. 3） He was not allowed to take the senior course because of his youth. 7.Vancouver has superb scenery, a beautiful harbour ,and……and international cuisine,in addition to being close the popular wilderness and ski areas. In addition to 除……之外（还有）=besides Eg. In addition to English , he has to study a second foreign language. We saw a Mickey Mouse cartoon in addition to the cowboy movie. In addition 另外，此外（还） Eg. I paid 100 yuan in addition. In addition, there was a crop failure in many provinces. Cf: apart from (1) = besides Apart from the cost, it will take a lot of time. The children hardly see anyone , apart from their parents. (2) = except for Apart from that , all goes well. Good work , apart from a few faults. Other than = but , except There is nobody here other than me. You can’t go there other than swimming. Is anyone other than yourself coming? 8.it is like an underground city, covering an area of more than 20 football pitches. Cover v. 覆盖，铺（反：expose）; 掩盖，掩饰，藏匿；占据（时间，空间） ；包括，涉及； 走过（路程） ；看过……页书；够付（开支等） ，弥补（损失） ；对……进行新闻采访，报道 Eg.1. Cover his eyes with a hand. 2 .The ground has covered with snow.
3. Lies cannot cover facts./cover a mistake/cover one’s tracks 销声匿迹 4. Cover an area of 5. His researches covered a wide field . 6. The report covered all aspects of the problem. 7. I didn’t cover as much ground as I had wanted. 8. Cover 20 pages a day 9. Cover the expenses 10. I want our best reporters sent to cover the 2008 olympics. n.盖子，封面 选择题 ——How about the book you are reading? ——Good indeed . It ＿ many problems we have come across in our study . A .says B .take C .covers D .refers 9 .Still ,Australia is considered to be a great sporting nation . 尽管如此， 澳大利亚仍被视为体育 大国。(P14,Line 14) ConsideringAustralia's relative small population , its outstanding performence in the Olympic Game was very amazing . 考虑到澳大利亚人口相对比较少， 它在奥运会上的出色表现着实令 人惊讶。 （P15，Line 51-52） Consider v . 1. 考虑，常用结构：consier doing . consider + 疑问词 + to do 2 .认为，常用结构：consider that， consider sb ./sth . to be， consider sb ./sth .as 3 .Consideringprep .考虑到 4 .Conderation n.考虑，常用短语：take sth . into consideration 把?考虑在内 （1）他正在考虑换工作。 He is condering to change the job . （2）他们没有考虑他们能不能买的起着栋房子。 They don't conder wheather they can afford the home . （3）你没有考虑怎么去那儿？ How do you consider to go there? （4）我们认为不该责怪你。 Wo consider that we shouldn't scold you . （5）他被认为是一个优秀的领导。 He is consider as a good leader . （6）考虑到天气，这场足球赛还是很不错的。 Considering the weather,the football match is good . 10 .The sport that most of the world calls football is known as scorer in Australia , to distinguish it from 'footy' , which is short for Australian rules football.(P14 Line28-30) Distinguish (v .) 区分，区别：使与众不同 eg .The girl is color-blind ; she can't distingush between colors . 这女孩是色盲，她不能辨别颜色。 Jay Chou distinguishs himself by his unique singing styles . 周杰伦因其独特的唱歌风格而引人注目。
拓展：distinguishable (adj .) 可辨认的；可区分的 distinguished (adj .) 著名的；非凡的 [小试] 用 distinguish 的适当形式填空： You should be able to distinguish between right ang wrong . He is distinguished for his knowledge of economics . A black object is not easily distinguishable at night . [归纳] distinguish between A and B 分辨 A 和 B distinguish A from B 区分 A 与 B be distinguished by / for 以??著名的 distinguish ? into 把?分类 distinguish oneself 使杰出，使显出特色 [用法相似的短语] tell the difference between A and B 说出 A 与 B 之间的不同 tell A from B 把 A 与 B 区分开来 tell A and B apart 把 A 与 B 分开 differ A from B 使 A 不同于 B 11.While a high percentage of Australians may be peole who watch sports rather than do them , as far as most of its population is concerned , it is indeed a great sporting nation . (P15 Line55-57) 句中 while 表示让步，通常置于句首，意思是“尽管，虽然” Eg: While I agree with your reasons,I cant’t allow it. 尽管我同意你的理由，但我不允许你这样做。 While 的其他用法： （1） 引导时间状语从句，意思是“当……的时候，和……同时” ，从句中的谓语通常是延 续性动词。 eg.While she was listening to the radio,she fall asleep. 她听着收音机睡着了。 （2） 表示对比或转折，意思是“而，然而” ，while 一般位于句中 eg.Some people waste food while others haven’t enough. 有人浪费粮食，有人却吃不饱。 （3） 引导条件状语从句，意思是“只要” eg.There will be life while there is water and air. 只要有水和空气，就会有生命。 [翻译]： （1） 虽然他爱他的学生，但他对他的学生很严格。 He treats students strictly while he loves his children. (2) 玛丽边吃饭边看电视。 Mary was eating dinner while she was watching TV. (3) May 英语学得好，而他的哥哥数学好。 May is good at English while her brother is good at Maths. (4) 只要有生命，就有希望。 There will be hope while there is life. 选择 B (1)She thought I was praising her child,_____,in fact, I was scolding him for his bad behaviors at school. A.what B.while C.So that D.therefore A (2)I do every single bit of housework ______my husband Bob just does the dishes now and then.(2004 全国卷 35) A.while B.since C.when D.as D (3)_______it is expected that students come university with the ability to take a good set of notes,this is not always the case.
A.When B.As C.For D.While A (4)we were swimming in the lake______suddenly the storm started.l A.when B.while C.until D. before 词组汇集 1. be famous/noted/known/distinguished for 因为……而出名 be famous/noted/known/distinguished as 作为……而出名 2. be fond of 喜爱，喜欢 3. for short 简称，缩略 4. in addition to 除……之外 5. in ddition 此外，另外 6. be home to 为……的所在地 7. cover an area of 占……面积 8. consist of =be made up of 由……组成 9. seek one’s fortunes 寻找发财的机会 10. a handful of people 少数人 11. go with 和……相匹配 12. turn a beautiful red 变成一种美丽的红 色 13. turn to 变成，求助于，转向，翻到 14. most of the time 大部分时间 15. be equipped with 配备有…… 16. after dusk 黄昏之后 17. participate in 参加 18. distinguish ……from…… 把 …… 和……区别开来 19. lead to 导致 20. become excited about 对……感到激动 21. in particuar 尤其，特别 22. in total 总共，总计 23. be worthy of praise 值得表扬