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ASTM A707A707M-02 低温设备用锻制碳素钢和合金钢法兰


Designation: A 707/A 707M – 02

An American National Stardard

Standard Speci?cation for

Forged Carbon and Alloy Steel Flanges for LowTemperature Service1


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1. Scope * 1.1 This speci?cation covers forged carbon and alloy steel ?anges intended primarily for petroleum and gas pipelines in areas subject to low ambient temperatures. Included are ?anges to speci?ed dimensions or to dimensional standards such as those MSS, ASME, and API speci?cations that are referenced in Section 2. 1.2 Supplementary requirements are provided for use when additional requirements are desired. These shall apply only when speci?ed individually by the purchaser in the order. 1.3 Eight grades, four yield-strength classes, and three different notch toughness levels are included. 1.4 The availability of a particular size of ?ange of a speci?c grade and class is limited only by the capability of the composition to meet the speci?ed mechanical property requirements. However, current practice normally limits the following: (a) Grade L1 to Classes 1 and 2, (b) Grade L2 to Classes 1, 2, and 3, (c) Grade L3 to Classes 1, 2, and 3, (d) Grade L4 to Classes 1, 2, and 3, (e) Grade L7 to Classes 1 and 2, and (f) Grades L5, L6, and L8 are generally available in any class. 1.5 This speci?cation is expressed in both inch-pound units and in SI units. However, unless the order speci?es the applicable “M” speci?cation designation (SI units), the material shall be furnished to inch-pound units. 1.6 The values stated in either inch-pound units or SI units are to be regarded separately as standard. Within the text, the SI units are shown in brackets. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents; therefore, each system must be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in nonconformance with the speci?cation.

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2. Referenced Documents 2.1 In addition to those reference documents listed in Speci?cation A 961, the following list of standards apply to this speci?cation: 2.2 ASTM Standards: A 388/A 388M Practice for Ultrasonic Examination of Heavy Steel Forgings2 A 788 Speci?cation for Steel Forgings, General Requirements2 A 961 Speci?cation for Common Requirements for Steel Flanges, Forged Fittings, Valves, and Parts for Piping Applications3 2.3 MSS Standards: SP 44 Steel Pipeline Flanges4 2.4 API Standard: 605 Large Diameter Carbon Steel Flanges5 2.5 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code: Section IX Welding Quali?cations6 Section VIII Division I, Part UG-846 2.6 ASME Standard: B 16.5 Dimensional Standards for Steel Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings6 2.7 AWS Standards: A 5.1 Mild Steel Covered Electrodes7 A 5.5 Low-Alloy Steel Covered Arc-Welding Electrodes7

1 This speci?cation is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on Steel, Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A01.22 on Steel Forgings and Wrought Fittings for Piping Applications and Bolting Materials for Piping and Special Purpose Applications. Current edition approved Sept. 10, 2002. Published November 2002. Originally published as A 707 – 74. Last previous edition A 707/A 707M – 00a.

*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard.
Copyright ? ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

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3. Terminology 3.1 De?nitions: 3.1.1 ?akes—short discontinuous internal ?ssures attributed to stresses produced by localized transformation and decreased solubility of hydrogen during cooling after hot working. 3.1.2 linear surface imperfection (or indication)—an imperfection or indication with a length at least three times its width.
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 01.05. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 01.01. 4 Available from Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry (MSS), 127 Park St., NE, Vienna, VA 22180-4602. 5 Available from The American Petroleum Institute (API), 1220 L. St., NW, Washington, DC 20005. 6 Available from American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), ASME International Headquarters, Three Park Ave., New York, NY 10016-5990. 7 Available from The American Welding Society (AWS), 550 NW LeJeune Rd., Miami, FL 33126.

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This standard is issued under the ?xed designation A 707/A 707M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

A 707/A 707M – 02
4. Ordering Information 4.1 It is the purchaser’s responsibility to specify in the purchase order all ordering information necessary to purchase the needed material. In addition to the ordering information guide lines in Speci?cation A 961, orders should include the following information: 4.1.1 Additional requirements (see Table 1 footnotes, 9.2.2, 9.3, 11.5, 17.1, 21.1, and 21.2). 5. General Requirements 5.1 Product furnished to this speci?cation shall conform to the requirements of Speci?cation A 961, including any supplementary requirements that are indicated in the purchase order. Failure to comply with the general requirements of Speci?cation A 961 constitutes nonconformance with this speci?cation. In case of con?ict between the requirements of this speci?cation and Speci?cation A 961, this speci?cation shall prevail. 6. Manufacture 6.1 The steel shall meet the melting practice of Speci?cation A 961. 6.2 The ?nished product shall be a forging as de?ned by 3 (only) of Speci?cation A 788. 7. Heat Treatment 7.1 After forging and before reheating for heat treatment, the forging shall be allowed to cool substantially below the transformation range. The method of cooling shall be such as to ensure against the development of cracks, ?akes, etc. 7.2 All material shall be heat treated by annealing, normalizing, precipitation hardening, quenching-and-tempering, normalizing-and-tempering, normalizing-and-precipitation hardening, or quenching-and-precipitation hardening. 7.2.1 The procedures for the various heat treatments are as given in Speci?cation A 961 except as de?ned in the following: 7.2.1.1 Precipitation Hardening—Consists of heating to a temperature between 1000 and 1250°F [538 and 677°C], holding at temperature for not less than 1?2 h, and then cooling at any convenient rate. 8. Chemical Composition 8.1 A chemical heat analysis in accordance with Speci?cation A 961 shall be made and conform to the requirements as to chemical composition prescribed in Table 1. Leaded steels shall not be permitted.

TABLE 1 Chemical Requirements
Grade Element Carbon, max, % Heat analysis Product analysis Manganese, % Heat analysis Product analysis Phosphorus, max, % Heat analysis Product analysis Sulfur, max, % Heat analysis Product analysis Silicon, max, % Heat analysis Product analysis Chromium, % Heat analysis Product analysis Nickel, % Heat analysis Product analysis Molybdenum, % Heat analysis Product analysis Vanadium, % Heat analysis Product analysis Nitrogen, % Heat analysis Product analysis Copper, % Heat analysis Product analysis Columbium, % Heat analysis Product analysis
A B

L1A 0.20 0.23 0.60-1.50 0.55-1.60 0.030 0.035 0.030 0.040 0.35 0.37

L2A 0.30 0.33 0.60-1.35 0.55-1.45 0.030 0.035

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L3 L4 L5 0.22 0.25 0.18 0.20 1.15–1.50 1.05–1.60 0.025 0.030 0.45–0.65 0.40–0.70 0.025 0.030 0.025 0.035 0.35 0.37 0.30 max 0.34 max 1.65–2.00 1.60–2.05 0.20–0.30 0.19–0.33 0.05 max 0.06 max ... ... 0.40 max 0.43 max 0.02 max 0.03 max 0.025 0.035 0.30 0.32 0.30 max 0.34 max 0.40 max 0.43 max 0.12 max 0.13 max 0.04–0.11 0.03–0.13 0.010–0.030 0.005–0.035 0.20 minC 0.18 minC 0.02 max 0.03 max ... ...

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L6 0.07 0.09 1.85–2.20 1.75–2.30 0.025 0.030 0.025 0.035 0.15 0.17 0.30 max 0.34 max 0.40 max 0.43 max 0.25–0.35 0.22–0.38 0.05 max 0.06 max ... ... 0.40 max 0.43 max 0.06–0.10 0.05–0.11 0.07 0.09 0.40–0.70 0.35–0.75 0.025 0.030 0.025 0.035 0.35 0.37 0.60–0.90 0.56–0.94 0.70–1.00 0.67–1.03 0.15–0.25 0.14–0.28 0.05 max 0.06 max 1.00–1.30 0.95–1.35 0.03 min 0.02 min

9. Mechanical Requirements 9.1 The material in the weld neck shall conform to the mechanical property requirements prescribed in Table 2. 9.2 For the purpose of determining conformance with Table 2, mechanical testing requirements shall confrom to Speci?cation A 961.

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L7B 0.20 0.22 0.90 max 1.00 max 0.025 0.030 0.025 0.035 0.35 0.37 0.30 max 0.34 max 3.2–3.7 3.18–3.82 0.12 max 0.13 max 0.05 max 0.06 max ... ... 0.40 max 0.43 max 0.02 max 0.03 max

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0.030 0.040 0.35 0.37 0.30 max 0.34 max 0.40 max 0.43 max 0.12 max 0.13 max 0.05 max 0.06 max ... ... 0.40 max 0.43 max 0.02 max 0.03 max

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0.30 max 0.34 max

0.40 max 0.43 max

0.12 max 0.13 max

0.05 max 0.06 max ... ...

0.40 max 0.43 max

0.02 max 0.03 max

The sum of copper, nickel, chromium, and molybdenum shall not exceed 1.00 % on heat analysis. The sum of chromium, molybdenum and vanadium shall not exceed 0.32 % on heat analysis. C When speci?ed.

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L8 0.20 0.22 0.20–0.40 0.15–0.45 0.020 0.025 0.020 0.025 0.35 0.37 1.50–2.00 1.44–2.06 2.8–3.9 2.68–3.97 0.40–0.60 0.35–0.65 0.05 max 0.06 max ... ... 0.40 max 0.43 max 0.02 max 0.03 max

A 707/A 707M – 02
TABLE 2 Mechanical Requirements
Property Yield strengthA min, ksi [MPa] Tensile strength, min, ksi [MPa] Elongation in 2 in. or 50 mm, min, % Reduction of area, min, % Hardness, HBN Cv energy absorption,B,C min, avg, ft·lbf [J] Cv energy absorption,B,D min, ft·lbf [J]
A B

Class 1 42 [290] 60 [415] 22

Class 2 52 [360] 66 [455] 22

Class 3 60 [415] 75 [515] 20

Class 4 75 [515] 90 [620] 20

11.4 One test (three specimens) shall be made from each heat in each heat treatment charge. 11.5 Unless otherwise speci?ed, the test temperature shall be as speci?ed in Table 3. 12. Product Analysis 12.1 The purchaser may make a product analysis on ?anges supplied to this speci?cation in accordance with Speci?caiton A 961. 13. Ultrasonic Examination 13.1 Each ?ange weld neck 24 in. [610 mm] and larger in diameter shall be ultrasonically examined over 100 % of the area within 2 in. [50 mm] of the welding end. 13.2 Longitudinal wave examination using a 21?4 MHz transducer 1 to 11?8 in. [25 to 29 mm] in diameter or 1 in. square [25 mm square] shall be used. Examination shall be in accordance with the general requirements of Practice A 388/ A 388M. 13.3 Any area giving an indication equal to or larger than the signal received from a 1?4-in. [6-mm] ?at-botton hole shall be cause for rejection. Multiple indications with an amplitude exceeding 50 % of the indication from the calibration hole, accompanied by a loss of back re?ection exceeding 50 %, shall also be cause for rejection. Any indication that results in a complete loss of back re?ection shall be cause for rejection.

40 40 40 40 149–207 149–217 156–235 179–265 30 [41] 40 [54] 50 [68] 50 [68] 24 [33] 32 [43] 40 [54] 40 [54]

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10. Hardness Requirements 10.1 A sufficient number of hardness measurements shall be made to ensure that the hardness values are within the ranges prescribed in Table 2. The number of ?anges to be tested shall be as agreed upon between the manufacturer and the purchaser. The purchaser may verify that the requirement has been met by testing at any location on the ?ange, provided such testing does not render the ?ange useless.

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11. Impact Requirements 11.1 The material in the weld neck shall conform to the requirements as to impact properties prescribed in Table 2 if the weld neck section is 1?4in. [6 mm] or greater in thickness. 11.2 For the purpose of determining conformance with Table 2, specimens shall be obtained from production ?anges after heat treatment or from separately forged test blanks prepared from the stock used to make the forgings. Such test blanks shall conform to the requirements of Speci?cation A 961. 11.3 Specimens shall be obtained from a location on the ?ange or test blank that represents the midwall of the weld neck if the thickness of the weld neck is 2 in. [50 mm] or less. If the thickness is greater than 2 in. [50 mm], the specimen location shall be midway between a surface and the center of thickness. Specimens taken from a ?ange shall be oriented longitudinally with respect to the bore of the ?ange.

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Grade L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 L8

9.2.1 For ?anges smaller than 24 in. [610 mm] in size, the forged test blanks shall be at least 2 in. [50 mm] wide by 2 in. [50 mm] thick by 12 in. [300 mm] in length. The test specimens shall be taken with their longitudinal axes parallel to the length of the test blank. 9.2.2 For ?anges 24 in. [610 mm] and larger in size, the test blank dimensions and orientation of test specimens with respect to the test blank shall be subject to agreement. 9.3 Specimens shall be obtained from the midwall of the thinnest section of the hub of the ?ange or 3?4 in. [19 mm] from the surface of the test blank. The orientation of specimens taken from a ?ange shall be subject to agreement.

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14. Tension Tests 14.1 Tensile requirements shall comply with Speci?cation A 961 where one tension test shall be made from each heat in each heat treating charge. 14.1.1 When the heat treating temperatures are the same and the furnaces (either batch or continuous type) are controlled within 625°F [614°C] and equipped with recording pyrometers so that complete records of heat treatment are available, then one tension test from each heat is required instead of one test from each heat in each heat treatment charge. The test specimen material shall be included with a furnace charge. 15. Hydrostatic Tests 15.1 Forgings manufactured under this speci?cation shall be capable of passing a hydrostatic test compatible with the rating of the ?nished ?ange. Such tests shall be conducted by the manufacturer only when Supplementary Requirement S8 of Speci?cation A 961 is speci?ed.
TABLE 3 Impact Test TemperaturesA
Test Temperature (Unless Otherwise Speci?ed), °F [°C] ?20 ?50 ?50 ?80 ?80 ?80 ?100 ?100 [?29] [?46] [?46] [?62] [?62] [?62] [?73] [?73]

A These temperatures are the lowest test temperatures that are commonly acceptable by the producer. If the minimum design temperature is higher, specifying the higher temperature as the test temperature will generally result in increased availability of a speci?c grade in greater thicknesses.

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0.2 % offset. For a set of three full-size [10 by 10 mm] Charpy V-notch specimens. Acceptance values for sub-size specimens are reduced in proportion to the reduction in width of the specimen. C These requirements are intended to minimize fracture initiation. They are not intended to give assurance against fracture propagation. If minimization of fracture propagation is of interest, consideration should be given to specifying Supplementary Requirement S7 at the operating temperature. D Minimum impact energy permitted for one specimen only of a set of three specimens.

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A 707/A 707M – 02
16. Retreatment 16.1 If the results of the mechanical property or impact tests do not conform to the requirement speci?ed, the manufacturer may reheat treat the ?anges as applicable and repeat the tests speci?ed. 17. Workmanship, Finish, and Appearance 17.1 In addition to the requirements of Speci?cation A 961, the ?anges shall be free of injurious imperfections as de?ned below and shall have a workmanlike ?nish. 17.1.1 Welding End— The machined bevel shall be visually examined. Any lamination extending into the weld bevel and having a transverse dimension exceeding 1?4 in. [6 mm] shall be considered injurious. 17.1.2 Hub Section—Linear imperfections with a length in excess of 1?8 in. [3 mm] and other imperfections such as slivers, sharp notches, gouges, scores, pits, etc., shall be considered injurious. 18. Repair by Welding 18.1 Repair of imperfections shall be permitted only with the approval of the purchaser. When approved, the limitations and requirements of Speci?cation A 961 shall apply: 18.1.1 In addition, the deposited weld metal shall be capable of producing welds with mechanical and impact test properties as speci?ed in Table 2 at the test temperature speci?ed in Table 3 for the base metal after the thermal treatments in 18.1.2. SMAW (using only low-hydrogen electrodes), GMAW, FCAW or GTAW may be used. Electrodes shall conform to the applicable AWS A5 electrode speci?cation. The GMAW process is limited to either the spray transfer or pulsed arc process. FCAW process is limited to repair of carbon or carbon-molybdenum base materials only. Welding procedures shall be quali?ed in accordance with Section IX and Paragraph UG-84, Section VIII, Div. 1, of the Code. 18.1.2 All ?anges repaired by welding shall be thermally treated after repair by either complete reheat treatment or post-weld heat treatment. 18.1.3 Indications discovered by ultrasonic inspection shall be reinspected in accordance with Section 13 after reheat treatment. 19. Inspection 19.1 Inspection provisions of Speci?cation A 961 apply. 20. Rejection and Rehearing 20.1 Each ?ange that develops injurious imperfections during shop working or application shall be rejected and the manufacturer noti?ed. 20.2 Purchaser shall comply with provisions of Speci?cation A 961. 21. Certi?cation 21.1 For ?anges made to speci?ed dimensions, when agreed upon by the purchaser, and for ?anges made to dimensional standards, application of identi?cation marks as required in 22.1 shall be the certi?cation that the ?anges have been furnished in accordance with the requirements of the speci?cation. 21.2 When test reports are required, they shall include certi?cation that all requirements of this speci?cation have been met, the results of all required tests, and description of heat treatment including temperature ranges, times, mode of cooling, and the heat number or manufacturer’s heat identi?cation. The speci?cation designation included on test reports shall include year of issue and revision letter, if any. 22. Product Marking 22.1 In addition to the marking requirements of Speci?cation A 961, the impact test temperature shall be legibly stamped on each ?ange.
NOTE 1—For purposes of identi?cation marking, the manufacturer is considered the organization that certi?es the piping component was manufactured, sampled, and tested in accordance with this speci?cation, and the results have been determined to meet the requirements of this speci?cation.

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22.1.1 If the ?anges have been quenched-and-tempered or quenched-and-aged the letters QT or QA, as applicable, shall be stamped on the ?anges following the ASTM designation. 22.1.2 Forgings repaired by welding shall be marked with the letter “W” following the ASTM designation. 22.2 When test reports are required, the markings shall include such other markings as necessary to identify the part with the test report. 22.3 Bar Coding—In addition to the requirements in 22.1 and 22.2, bar coding is acceptable as a supplemental identi?cation method. The purchaser may specify in the order a speci?c bar coding system to be used. The bar coding system, if applied at the discretion of the supplier, should be consistent with one of the published industry standards for bar coding. If used on small parts, the bar code may be applied to the box or a substantially applied tag. 23. Keywords 23.1 carbon equivalent; piping applications; pressure containing parts; residual elements; steel ?anges; steel forgings, alloy; steel forgings, carbon; temperature service applications; low

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A 707/A 707M – 02
SUPPLEMENTARY REQUIREMENTS In addition to any of the supplementary requirements of Speci?cation A 961, the following supplementary requirements shall apply only when speci?ed by the purchaser in the order: S1. Ultrasonic Examination S1.1 Flanges smaller than 24 in. [610 mm] shall be ultrasonically examined in accordance with Section 13. S2. Additional Tension and Impact Tests S2.1 In addition to the requirements of Sections 9, 10, 11 and 14, one tension specimen and one set of impact specimens shall be obtained from a representative ?ange at a location agreed upon between the manufacturer and purchaser. The results of these specimens shall comply with the requirements of Table 3 and Table 1 and shall be reported to the purchaser. S3. Carbon Equivalent S3.1 The maximum carbon equivalent, based on heat analysis, for Grades L1, L2, and L3 shall be as shown in Table S3.1: S3.2 Determine the carbon equivalent (CE) as follows:
CE 5 C 1 Mn/6 1 ~Cr 1 Mo 1 V!/5 1 ~Ni 1 Cu!/15
TABLE S3.1 Maximum Carbon Equivalent Value
Class 1 2 3 Maximum Thickness Less Than or Equal to 2 in. 0.45 0.45 0.47 Maximum Thickness Greater Than 2 in. 0.46 0.46 0.48

S3.3 A lower maximum carbon equivalent may be agreed upon between the supplier and the purchaser. S4. Notch Toughness, 50 % Shear FATT Minimum S4.1 In addition to the requirements of Section 11, the

(1) Revised paragraph 18.1.1 on repair welding.

ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility. This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every ?ve years and if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below.

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This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States. Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above address or at 610-832-9585 (phone), 610-832-9555 (fax), or service@astm.org (e-mail); or through the ASTM website (www.astm.org).

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This section identi?es the principal changes incorporated since the last edition, A 707/A 707M – 00a.

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SUMMARY OF CHANGES
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S5. Additional Ultrasonic Test Requirement S5.1 In addition to the requirements of Section 13, ?anges shall be tested by the angle beam method in accordance with Practice A 388/A 388M. Testing shall be limited to an area within 2 in. [50 mm] of the welding end. Acceptance limits shall be as agreed upon between the manufacturer and purchaser. S6. Notch Toughness, Measurement, and Reporting of Percent Shear and Lateral Expansion S6.1 In addition to the requirements of Section 11, percent shear and mils of lateral expansion shall be measured and reported for informational purposes.

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impact specimens shall exhibit a minimum of 50 % shear fracture appearance at the temperature speci?ed on the order.

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