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高考英语语法专题备考课件-被动语态


语法专题

被动语态

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一、被动语态构成形式

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被动语态由“助动词be+及物动词的过去分词”构成。不及物动词没 有被动语态。在不同的时态下助动词be有不同的形式。

时态

被动语态的构成

一般现在时 b

e(am,is,are)told ? 现以及物动词tell为例,列表如下: 一般式 一般过去时 be (was,were)told

一般将来时
过去将来时 现在迚行时

shall/will be told
should/would be told be (am,is,are)being told be (was,were)being told have/has been told

迚行式 过去迚行时 完成式 现在完成时

? 1.一般现在时:You are ordered to do it. ? 这样考过 ? ①(南京调研)The temperature will fall sharply the day after tomorrow,when a snowstorm ________ to strike our area. ? A.expects B.has expected ? C.is expected D.will be expected ? 解析:句意:届时会有暴风雪。be expected to“预计会 做某事”。 ? 答案:C

? 2.一般过去时:I was invited to the concert. ? 这样考过 ? ②(北京)The way the guests ________ in the hotel influenced their evaluation of the service. ? A.treated B.were treated ? C.would treat D.would be treated

? 解析:句意:客人们在旅馆中被招待的方式影 响到对他们服务的评价。此题考查时态语态。 根据题意,客人是被招待的,应排除A、C两项; influenced 时间提示为一般过去时,故选B。 ? 答案:B

? ③(湖南示范性中学联考)After being discovered by Dutch explorers in 1606,the eastern half of Australia ________ by the British in 1770. ? A.was claimed B.claimed ? C.was claiming D.has been claimed ? 解析:由句意:自1606年被荷兰探险者发现之 后,澳大利亚东半部分在1770年宣布为英国所 有,知答案选A。 ? 答案:A

? 3.一般将来时:The matter will be looked into tomorrow. ? 这样考过 ? ④(皖西四校)________ is known to us is that the 2012 Olympic Games ________ in London. ? A.What; will be held B.It; will hold ? C.As; is held D.Which; holds

? 解析:由句意知空中应填一个引导主语从句的 连接词,并作句子的主语;由句中的时间2012 年知表将来,且Olympic Games与hold之间为 被动关系。综上选A。 ? 答案:A

? ⑤(北京海淀区)If your order is ready,the T-shirt ________ to you as soon as possible.

? A.has delivered B.is delivered ? C.will deliver D.will be delivered ? 解析:主语是T-shirt 谓语动词,deliver 应用被 动,表示T-shirt被送,排除A、C两项。根据语 境,如果你定了货,T-shirt 将会随时被送货。 故选D项。 ? 答案:D

? ⑥(北京宣武区)—A meeting ________ at 3 p.m.next Tuesday. ? —Will you go there? ? A.has held B.has been held ? C.will be held D.will hold ? 解析:根据时间状语next Tuesday 判断用将来 式。主语是meeting 被举行因此选C项。will be held 为将来时的被动式。 ? 答案:C

? 4.现在迚行时:The house is being built. ? 这样考过 ? ⑦(四川)—Why don't we choose that road to save time? ? —The bridge to it ________.

? A.has repaired ? C.is being repaired repaired

B.is repaired D.will be

? 解析:句意:——为什么我们不选择走那条路以 节省时间呢?——因为去那条路的桥正在修理中。 题目考查了现在进行时的被动语态作谓语。桥 与修理存在被动关系,而且根据句子语境要求 采用进行时态。 ? 答案:C

? ⑧(湖南)Would you please keep silent?The weather report ________ and I want to listen. ? A.is broadcast B.is being broadcast ? C.has been broadcast D.had been broadcast ? 解析:句意:请安静一下好吗?正广播天气预 报呢,我想听听。根据句意,该空考查的是现 在进行时的被动语态。 ? 答案:B

? ⑨(江苏)—Hi,Torry,can I use your computer for a while this afternoon? ? —Sorry.________. ? A.It's repaired B.It has been repaired ? C.It's being repaired D.It had been repaired ? 解析:句意:——嗨,Torry,今天下午我能用一 会儿你的电脑吗?——真抱歉,电脑正在修理。 该句强调的是此时电脑正被维修,需用现在进 行时的被动语态。 ? 答案:C

? 5.过去迚行时:When I called,tea was being served. ? 这样考过 ? ⑩(上海)During the period of recent terrorist activities,people ________ not to touch any unattended bag. ? A.had always been warned ? B.were always being warned ? C.are always warning ? D.always warned

? 解析:句意:在最近恐怖活动期间,人们总是 在被警告不要碰任何无人照看的包。be always doing sth.总是做某事,表达某种抱怨、不满或 赞许的情绪。人们是“被警告”,要用被动语 态。 ? 答案:B

? 6.现在完成时:My bike has been repaired. ? 这样考过 ? ?(全国Ⅰ)His sister left home in 1998,and ________ since. ? A.had not been heard of ? B.has not been heard of ? C.had not heard of ? D.has not heard of

? 解析:句意:他妹妹在1998年离开家,从那以 后就没了音讯。根据句意,指的是过去离开以 后,到现在一直没音讯,故用现在完成时; hear of 与his sister 在本句中为被动关系,故用 被动语态,所以选B。 ? 答案:B

? 7.过去完成时:When we went to the cinema, the film had been on for ten minutes. ? 这样考过 ? ?(北京崇文区)It was proven that the story of one witness ________. ? A.has been invented B.had been invented ? C.would be invented D.was invented ? 解析:此题考查时态,据证实(It was proven that...)用过去的时态,故后面用过去完成式(已 经被编造出来)。 ? 答案:B

? ?(皖南八校联考)This Monday morning I was informed I ________ as one of three exchange students from our college. ? A.had been choosing B.was chosen ? C.had been chosen D.was choosing ? 解析:过去的过去应用过去完成时的被动语态。 ? 答案:C

? 8.过去将来时:He said that the teaching building would be built next month. ? 这样考过 ? ?(2006·湖南)In a room above the store, where a party ? ________,some workers were busily setting the table. ? A.was to be held B.has been held ? C.will be held D.is being held

? 解析:由some workers were busily setting the table,可知会议要被召开,同时时态为过去时, 故选A。 ? 答案:A

? 9.将来完成时:They will have finished the work ahead of time when we decide to see them. ? 这样考过 ? ?(青岛质检)—Have you finished your essay? ? —Half ________ when you come back. ? A.has been done ? C.be done B.is done D.will have been done

? 解析:考查动词时态和语态辨析。when引导的 时间状语从句中用一般现在时代替一般将来时, 所以主句表示将来的动作,且表示“等你回来 的时候一半的工作将已经完成”。 ? 答案:D

? 10.含有情态动词的被动语态:情态动词+be +动词的过去分词 ? These books must be returned in three days. ? 注:被动语态还有一种“get+过去分词”的结 构,这种结构比较口语化。例如: ? Teacher Wang got married last year.

? 这样考过 ? ?(北京宣武区)At minus 130℃,a living cell can ________ for a thousand years. ? A.preserve B.be preserved ? C.be preserving D.have been preserved ? 解析:考查情态动词用法。can 后面接动词原 形,同时应注意被动语态。句意为:在零下 130℃时,活细胞可以存活一千年。 ? 答案:B

? 二、主动形式表示被动意义的情况 用法

例句

表示烹调、饮食方面的动词。 The soup tastes 如:cook,eat,drink,taste delicious.汤很好喝。 等。
这几 表示运动变化的某些动词。 类动 如:drive,change,move 词作 等。 谓语 时 In America,cars drive on the right?hand side of the road.在美国,车 辆靠右行驶。

表示主语状态、特征的连系动 The desk feels smooth. 词。 这张桌子摸起来很光

用法 用来作定语,和被修饰的名词 有动宾关系,又和另一名词戒 代词有主谓关系的动词丌定 式。 在“be+adj.+丌定式”结构 中,丌定式表示的动作不主语 乊间存在动宾关系,丌定式常 用主动形式表示被动意义。 在“疑问词+丌定式”结构

例句 Please lend me a pen to write with. 请借给我一支钢笔写 字。

The chair is very comfortable to sit on. 这把椅子坐着很舒适。

Who do you think can tell us what to do?

用法

例句

There is nothing to fear/to 在there be结构中,主语后 be feared. 的丌定式可用主动形式表示 没有什么可害怕的。 被动意义,也可用其被动形 式。但跟逻辑主语时必须用 There's nothing for me to do today. 主动形式。 今天我无事可做。

在be+adj./adv.+enough The story was not +丌定式结构中,可用丌定 interesting enough to 式的主动形式表示被动意 publish.这部小说趣味性丌

? 这样考过 ? ?(洛阳统考)—Honey,this is a present for your birthday. ? —Ah!A pair of shoes,Nike!I think it ________ comfortable. ? A.wears B.is worn ? C.is wearing D.has worn ? 解析:it wears comfortable 它穿起来很舒服。 ? 答案: A

? ?(郑州预测)—I'd like a pen which ________ well. ? —Will this one ________? ? A.writes; help B.writes; do ? C.is written; work D.is written; help ? 解析:考查动词的语态和动词辨析。第一空表 示“一支好用的钢笔”,用主动语态而不用被 动,因此空白处填writes。答语说:这支笔可以 吗?表示“行,可以”用动词do。 ? 答案:B

? ?(北京五中)Our house has reached the point where so many things need ________ and it's so hard to find the time to fix them. ? A.to do up B.doing up ? C.to put up D.putting up ? 答案:B

? 三、被动语态不系表结构的区别 ? 被动语态表示动作,主语是动作的承受者;而 系表结构则表示主语的特征戒所处的状态。
区别 例句 I was frightened by his ghost story.(被动语态) 我被他的鬼故事吓着了。 I was frightened of snakes.(系表结构)我怕蛇 。

大多数用by短语的句子是 被动语态;若用其他固定 搭配的介词,往往是系表 结构。

区别

例句

The bank is usually closed “be+p.p.”是一般现在 at six.(被动语态) 时,若句中有时间状语,说 银行通常在6点关门。 明动作的反复性戒习惯性, The bank is now closed.(系 是被动语态;若无这类状 表结构) 语,则是系表结构。 银行现在没开门。

The picture was drawn long “be+p.p.”是一般过去 ago.(被动语态) 时,若句中有时间、地点、 这幅画是很久以前画的。 方式戒目的状语,多为被动

? 这样考过 ? ?(武汉)Mom's spent the day shopping, cleaning and cooking and now she________. ? A.has worn out B.is worn out ? C.is wearing out D.wears out ? 解析:本题的第一分句用的是现在完成时,再 根据时间状语now可知指现在状况,所以用一 般现在时,be worn out意为“筋疲力尽”。 ? 答案:B

? 四、“get+过去分词”结构的用法
用法 例句

表示突然、 偶然、意外 发生的事。

The student got hurt on his way home from school. 这名学生在放学回家的路上受了伤。 Some glasses got broken when we were moving. 我们搬家的时候有些杯子被打碎了。

用法

例句

I have to get dressed before 8 o'clock. 表示反身行 8点钟前我必须穿戴好。 为而非被动 I'm afraid you can't have time to get changed before the party. 行为。 恐怕在晚会前你没时间换衣服了。

表示说话 者强调的 动作。

Antonio and Portia arranged to get married. 安东尼奥和鲍西娅筹备要结婚。 Did you get invited to the party?

? 这样考过 ? (北京东城区)—Do you know how much a babysitter ________ for an hour? ? —Well,it depends. ? A.pays B.gets paid ? C.being paid D.paid ? 解析:根据句意“你知道一个保姆一小时挣多 少钱吗”可知答案为B。 ? 答案:B

? (重庆诊断)—What's wrong with your leg? ? —It ________ in a car accident.

? A.has been hurt B.got hurt ? C.hurt D.hurts
? 解析:考查谓语动词的时态和语态。答语意为: 在一次车祸中受伤了。主语It即指my leg,为谓 语动词动作的承受者,因此需要用被动语态; 车祸发生在过去,因此应用一般过去时。这里 got hurt=was hurt。 ? 答案:B

? 单项填空 ? 1.The students said hello to the teacher and ________ with a smile. ? A.were rewarded B.was rewarded ? C.have rewarded D.has rewarded

? 答案与解析:A “学生们向老师问好,老师回 应给他们一个微笑。”应该是“学生们被回 应……”由句意可知此处为被动,故C、D排除; 又“the students”做主语,所以谓语动词为 “were”,故选A项。

? 2.—Have the traffic police caught the driver? ? —Yes.He ________ only two hours after the accident occurred. ? A.was caught B.caught ? C.has caught D.has caught ? 答案与解析:A 表示过去某一时间点发生的事 用过去式。He和caught 形成被动关系,用被动 语态。

? 3.—The windows must have taken you quite a long time that day. ? —Right.They ________ for weeks. ? A.haven't been cleaned B.didn't clean ? C.hadn't been cleaned D.haven't cleaned ? 答案与解析:C 考查时态。第一句话的谓语动 词是must have taken,说明此处是对过去发生 的事情的推测;答语“好几个星期没有打扫了” 发生在that day 之前,表示过去的过去,因此 用过去完成时。

? 4.The advanced high-speed railway ________ in the year 2012,when the Olympics are to be held in London. ? A.will be completed B.has completed ? C.will have completed D.will complete ? 答案与解析:A 考查谓语动词的时态。句中的 时间状语in the year 2012暗示应该用将来的某 种时态,主语“The advanced high-speed railway”是动作的承受者,因此应用被动语态, 只有选项A为被动语态,答案为A。

? 5.—Why do you look so worried? ? —My computer broke down and my essay ________ since. ? A.has been left unfinished ? B.has left to finish ? C.was left to finish ? D.had been left unfinished ? 答案与解析:A 考查动词的时态和语态。由 broke down和since 可知时态用现在完成时, 且主语与谓语动词之间是动宾关系,故用被动 语态。

? 6.—Why don't you buy that shirt? ? —That kind of material ________ well.

? ? ? ?

A.doesn't wash B.hasn't washed C.isn't washed D.can't be washed

? 答案与解析:A 有少数及物动词可转化为不及 物动词,常见的有:cut,lock,open,read, sell,shut,wash,wear,write等,此时句子 的主语一般是物,而且这些动词常和well, easily等连用或与否定词连用构成否定句。注意: 含有这类动词的句子也可用被动语态表示,但 含义不同。主动语态表示现状,被动语态则侧 重某一动作的发生。本句表示那种面料很不耐 洗,所以选A。

? 7.After saying good-bye,the couple moved off and ________ in the crowd. ? A.was lost B.were lost ? C.had lost D.to lose ? 答案与解析:B 考查动词的时态和主谓一致。 主语是the couple,谓语动词应用复数形式;空 中的时态应与moved off 一致,此处应用be lost, 表示“消失在人群里”。

? 8.—Why do you go to work by bus? ? —Because my car ________.

? A.has repaired B.has been repaired ? C.was repaired D.is being repaired ? 答案与解析:D 考查时态与语态。从本题语境 可知,没有开车的原因是车子正在被修理,因 此动词应该使用现在进行时的被动语态。

? 9.He ________ as a child,sent to good schools,and given every chance to be brought up well. ? A.reads B.had to read ? C.was read to D.read to ? 答案与解析:C 短语read something to somebody “给某人朗读……”。语境为:小 时候,有人给他朗读、送他去上好学校、给他 提供一切有助于他成材的机会。在他儿时,应 是别人给他朗读,因此空白处应填was read to。

? 10.—What is that noise? ? —Oh,I forgot to tell you that the new machine ________. ? A.was tested B.will be tested ? C.is being tested D.has been tested ? 答案与解析:C 考查时态和语态。由上一句中 的一般现在时知说话者询问的是目前的噪声是 怎么回事,故答话中应用现在进行时表示目前 的情况;同时,机器应是被测试的,故用被动 语态。

? 11.This kind of ball pen which ________ smoothly is quite popular with students. ? A.is written B.writing ? C.written D.writes ? 答案与解析:D write vi.写起来,表示事物本 身具有的性质,用主动形式。write smoothly 写 起来流畅。which引导定语从句且在从句中作主 语,所填部分作定语从句的谓语,故选D。

? 12.The TV series “The Gate of the Sea”, which is adapted from a popular novel, ________ in Taizhou in the early 1980s. ? A.was set B.is set ? C.has been set D.had been set ? 答案与解析:B 本题考查时态。句意:“海之 门”这部由流行小说改编成的电视连续剧,是 以二十世纪八十年代早期的台州为背景。由句 意可知本题是在陈述客观事实,因此用一般现 在时,故选B。

? 13.—Can you see what is written on that board? ? —Yes.It ________ “CAUTION:WET FLOOR”. ? A.reads B.is read ? C.writes D.is written ? 答案与解析:A read表示“写着”,做本题时 注意与汉语习惯的差异。

? 14.Bread and butter ________ for breakfast in many Chinese homes nowadays. ? A.serve B.servers ? C.is served D.are served ? 答案与解析:C 考查主谓一致与语态。bread and butter 作为一个整体谓语动词用单数。be served for...被当作……;serve breakfast 供应 早餐。


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