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Unit 13
一.单词: junk food, stomach, fever, examine(指检查身体,作业等), nutrient/nutrition/nutritious, muscle, product, mineral, function, balance, digest, gain, brain 二.语法重点: 1. 意思为 “许多”的词组(分情况:修饰可数或不可数名词,注意 plenty of) 2. energy, force, power, strength 的区别 3. keep up with 跟上,赶上,了解….的最新信息 catch up with 4. (not) a bit 与(not) a little 的区别 5. to choose(+要选择的那个对象) 与 to choose from(+可供选择的范围)的区别 6. diet 与 food 的区别 7. 至今学过的四种倒装句: (1)介词短语在句首,句子全倒装 On the hill stand two men. (2)副词(here, there, then 等)在句首且句子的主语是名词时,半倒装. (主语是代词,不倒装.) There comes a car. There he comes. (3)only+介词短语在句首,半倒装. Only in that way will we be ready for the challenges and opportunities in life. (4)否定词(如 not only…(半倒装),but also…;hardly 等)在句首,半倒装. Not only did he pass the exam, but also others got high marks. 8. 情态动词 (1)had better+(not) v 原形 肯定句: You had better go now. 否定句: You had better not go now. 疑问句: Had I better go now? You had better go now, hadn’t you? (2)should 与 ought to 用于指 “应该”时,意义上没有很大的差别. 但 should 可用于指有一定客观根据的推测. ought to 否定:ought not to 或 oughtn’t to should have done:本该做某事(而没做) 9. Most fruits are naturally sweet and we can eat them just the way they are----all we have to do is clean or peel them. 此句中 the way 指水果原本存在的方式, 其后的定语从句可用关系词 that 或 in which 或省略关系词. is 前面的主语部分包含 to do, 所以 is 后的表语部分的动词 to clean or peel 省略 to.

Unit 14
一.单词: theme, symbol, conflict, argument, destruction, (in one’s) opinion, major, honor, ancestor, principle, nation, purpose, self-determination, unity, creativity, faith, commercial, joy, light(两个过去分词的用法), similar (to…), generation, celebration, reminder, respect, gift, invitation 二.语法重点: 1. “穿” put on 动作 wear/be wearing 状态 be in+颜色 have sth on 状态 dress vt. dress oneself in…. vi. dress in… dress up 盛装,打扮,装饰 vt. dress oneself up in… vi. dress up in … 2. take in 欺骗,摄取,吸收 take over 接管,接手,接任 take up 开始从事,占据 take off 脱下,起飞,成功 take on 呈现 3. as well as 既…又…, 也, 又, 都: 可用于连接前后两个相同的结构 连接两个并列主语时,谓语动词的数跟前面的主语 4. 尽力做某事: do all/everything (that) one can to do sth. do what one can to do sth do as much as one can to do sth do/try one’s best to do sth 5. 诸如 each time, every time, the moment, the first time, the last time 等名词短语可用作连 词来引导一个时间状语从句. Each time I go home, I can see her sitting there. 6. 情态动词 (1)have to=have got to 表客观情况迫使某人不得不做某事 (2)must: 必须. 指主观上觉得必须做某事 此外,must 还可以用于肯定句中表示推测 当对现在事实的推测,用 must + v 原形 当对过去事实的推测,用 must + have done 7. 包含: contain 表示包含全部, include 表示包含部分 including 与 included 的用法区别(请用其与前面的名词的主动或被动关系辨析)

Unit 15
一.单词 mystery/mysterious, scary, dormitory, recognize(或~ise), diamond, explain, jewellery [U], continue, precious, attend, earn, lecture, quality 二.语法 1. recognise 与 know, know of, know about 的区别 2. explain sth to sb/explain to sb sth (注意:to sb 中的 to 不能掉了) 3. call on 访问,号召,邀请;拜访+某人 bring back 拿回来, 使恢复 call at 拜访+某地 bring out 拿出来,出版 call for 需要,要求,提倡 bring up 培养,教育 call in 打电话进来, 打电话叫(某人)来 bring in 引进,带近来 call (sb) up 打电话给某人=ring up bring about 引起,带来,使发生 4. “参加”: bring down 打倒,击落,降低 take part in… +活动,比赛,游戏等 join in+活动,比赛,游戏等 注意:join sb in (doing) sth join +社团,团体,组织,政党等 attend +婚礼,会议等较正式的场合 5. 除了…之外: except: 从整体中排除一个不符合的因素 except for 后面加不完美的因素 except that +从句 besides 除了…之外(还有…) but 从整体中排除一个不相符的因素,意义与 except 基本相同,但当其前面有 nothing, nothing, nobody, no 等否定词时,只能用 but 6. think, believe, suppose, imagine, expect 等动词的否定前移 I don’t think he is handsome, is he? She doesn’t think he is handsome, does she? 7. 过去式的应用: ----Hi, Mary! ----I’m sorry, but I don’t think I know you. ----I am Mathilde. ----Oh yes. Sorry, I didn’t recognize you. (说此句时, “不认识”的动作已经过去) 8. marry 直接+sb/sth; sb be/get married to sb (这两个不能与一段时间连用) have been married for +一段时间 9. 情态动词: (表推测) (1)表示有把握的推测: ①在肯定句中用 must 对现在: must +动词原形 对过去: must have done

②在否定句中用 can’t/couldn’t 对现在: can’t + 动词原形 对过去: can’t + have done 注意: can have done 还可以表示: 本能做, 本可以做…(而没做) (2)表示有一些把握 ①用 can (在肯定句中), 意思是 “可能会,有时会” Attending a ball can be exciting. ②should “应该会”, 表示有一定客观根据的推测 Your film should be developed before tomorrow afternoon. (3)表示没有把握的推测: may>might 对现在: may/might + v 原形 对过去: may/might + have done 10. so 与 such 的用法与区别 用于修饰单数名词时: so + adj. + a/an +n.[单] such + a/an + adj. + n.[单] 用于修饰复数 n.或不可数 n.时,通常都用 such: such + adj. + n. (pl.)/[U] 注意:但当用语修饰 n. (pl.)/[U]的 adj.意思是 “多,少”时就要用 so: so many students so little water 注意: such little children so little water 11. “也”: so 与 neither/nor 的用法 (1)so 用于与肯定句对应,表示 “也”具有相同的情况: so +情态 v./助 v./be+主语 ----Tom likes basketball. ----- So does John. 注意: so + 主语+情态 v./助 v./be 表示某人 “确实如此” ----Tom likes basketball. ----- So he does. (2)neither 与 nor 用于与否定句对应,表示 “也不”: ~ +情态 v./助 v./be+主语 ----Tom won’t go. ----Nor/Neither will I. (3)当用于 if 引导的条件从句时,根据主将重现的原则,主句要用将来时 If Tom doesn’t go, nor will I. If he goes, so will I. (4)当前句中的谓语部分同时包含情态动词与助动词或 be 动词,或者当前句中同时包 含肯定和否定的情况, 用 so it is/was with sb. ----Tom likes English and is good at it. ----So it is with Mary. ----Mike likes sports, but he doesn’t like football. ----So it is with John.

Unit 16
一.单词 experiment, liquid, advantage/disadvantage, application, economy, comfort, unnecessary, successful/success/succeed, conduct, charge, electric/electrical, prove, tear, control, fasten, sense, test, doubt, view, conclusion 二. 语法重点 1. a number of +n.(pl.) +谓语 v.(复数) 许多.... the number of + n.(pl.) +谓语 v.(单数) ....的数目 2. be in the charge(或 control) of sb./be in one’s charge(或 control) 由某人负责或控制 be in charge of ... 负责..., 管理... 3. doubt 的用法 4. 感官动词 see, hear+ sb./sth. + do 已经做了 doing 正在做 done 被做 5. 使役动词: let sb. do sth make sb./sth. + adj./do/done have sb./sth. +do/doing/done 6. some really bad weather weather 是 n.[U] such bad weather 7. 祈使句, and(那么) +句子 Study hard, and you will get hign marks. 祈使句, or (否则) +句子 Study hard, or you will fail in the exam.

Unit 17
一.单词 inspire, admire, generous, cheerful, mean, tense, dishonest, champion, stormy, threaten, optimistic, regret, extremely, climate, value, bother, fame, promise, kindergarten, hardship, bear, scholarship, graduation/graduate (vi) 二. 语法重点 1. (just) around the corner 即将来临;在拐角处;在附近 2. die down 变弱;平息;消失 die of/by/from/in/for 死于... (区别) 3. regret to do sth. 为即将要做某事而感到抱歉/遗憾 regret doing sth. 为已经做过某事而感到后悔/遗憾 4. come to terms with ... 甘心忍受(不愉快的处境) 5. be famous/known to(对于)sb. for(因为)sth. as(作为)+身份/职业

6. It is/was said/reported that+从句 据说/报导... sb. is/was said to have done sth. 据说某人做了某事 (to have done 表示过去的动作) 7. become of 变成....样了;遭遇... What has become of her? 8. the first one(或其他单数 n.) to do sth. the first +n. (pl.) 头几个,第一批... 9. put up 支起,搭起,张贴(海报,布告等),接待,为...提供食宿 put on 穿上 put away 收拾好... 10. find + (that) 从句 sb./sth. +n./adj./adv./doing/do/done 11. 主谓一致原则:请参阅课本 pp155-156 12. the rest of + n.(pl) +v.(复数) n.(单数)或[U] +v.(单数) 13. on the radio=by radio

Unit 18
一.单词 central, surround, mild, harbour, surface, settle, mainly, voyage, possesion, paragraph, heading, location, mountainous, secretary, percent, wedding, conference, relation, agricultural, export, cottage, ethnic 二. 语法重点 1. make up 组成,构成 be made up of 由...构成 make of (看得到材料) make from (看不到材料) 2. turn to (to 是介词) +n./代词/doing 开始干;求助于;转向 turn up 调高;出现 turn down 调低;使沮丧;使扫兴 turn on 打开 turn off 关闭 turn around 转一圈 turn back 向后转 turn over 翻过来 turn out +(to be) n./adj. 结果是...;显得... 3. 位于,坐落于 lie in 在范围内 lie on 相接壤 lie to 在范围外,不相接壤 in/on/to the north/south/east/west of... (使用不同介词的方位区别同上) the northen/southern/eastern/western part of... east/north/south/west of... = to the east/north/south/west of...

be/lie on the coast of... 在/位于...的海岸上 off the coast of... 在/位于...海岸外的海面上 4. by+一个过去时间,句子用过去完成时,即 had done by+一个将来时间,句子用将来完成时,即 will have done 5. 定语从句 (要注意那种先行词与关系词不相邻的情况,以及 which 指代整个主句的情况等.) 6. it 作为形式主语: It is n./adj. (for sb.) to do sth. that 主语从句 it 作为形式宾语: find/think+ it + adj/n. for sb. to do sth 7. population 的用法请参阅课本 1 的笔记

Unit 19
一.单词 produce / product / production / productive, protection / protect...from / against..., technique /technology/technical, fertilisation/fertiliser/fertilise, irrigation, modernise, pump, import, delegation, depend on/It depends, method, discovery, gardening, wisdom, practical, guide, condition, remove, proverb, modify/modification 二.语法重点 1. do you think 作为插入语 2. as far as 和..一样远, 远至;直到;就...而言 3. over time 随着时间的推移 some time 一段时间 at a time 每次地,一次地 sometime 某时 at times 不时地 sometimes 有时 in time 及时;总有一天 some times 几次 on time 按时 from time to time 不时地 4. in the 1940s/in the 1940’s 在 20 世纪 40 年代 in one’s fourties 在某人四十几岁的时候 5. 无论... (选择题中同时出现以下两个选项时选后者) no matter+疑问词 what, how, where, when 等 +状语从句 疑问词 whatever, however, wherever, whenever 等+状语从句或名词性从句 6. in a word, 总之,总而言之 in other words, 换句话说 still, 尽管如此;仍然;还是 ,though (可做 adv., 放在句末一个逗号后)不过,可是,然而 that is/that is to say, 也就是说 (以上各项,请注意逗号) 7. 强调句式: It is/was +主语/宾语/表语(n./代)/状语 + that.... (用 that 最保险) who/whom...(当所强调的是人时) 注意: (1)强调句式是一个固定句式,所以 is/was 不可随着所强调的内容的单复数而变化 (2)若所强调的是主语,that 后的句子中的谓语的数跟前面强调的主语的数一致 (3)请千万对句子仔细分析,与定语从句区分清楚

Unit 20
一. 单词 humour/humourous, minister, comedian, German/Germany, circus, intend/intention, bitter, couple, stage, nationality, amuse, laughter, accent, actually, typical, tradition, rapid, applaud, appreciate, fluent, exist, suffer, operate, direction, fortuanately, silence, confuse/confused 二. 语法重点 1. make good/full/little use of sth. 及其被动 2. date back to =date from 一般用语一般现在时 be on good terms with sb. (与某人)关系好 3. 把...看作... look on/regard/considr/treat ... as/to be/*... 4. audience “观众” 既可以当作集体名词,像 people 一样使用 也可以当作可数名词, 可用作单数指单个观众,也可用+s 变复数指观众们 5. There be sb./sth doing sth. 6.~ing 形式作定语: p54 (1)当个 Ving 作定语放名词前,可以表示主动,或正在进行,或用途 (2)Ving 短语作定语应放在所修饰的名词后,相当于一个定语从句的作用(可互改) 应注意:该名词与此 Ving 应构成一种主动关系 ~ing 形式作宾语补足语: keep, see, watch, catch, hear, smell, have, stop, prevent +sb./sth. +doing ~ing 形式作主语,宾语,表语: (因为动名词本身就具有名词的属性) 作宾语时: (1)vt. 如 practice, finish, stop, remember, forget,. pay attention to, look forward to, keep, hate, like ,enjoy, continue, avoid, suggest, allow, advise, devote to, turn to, can’t help(忍不住), feel like, mind, end up +doing (2)介词+doing ~ing 形式作状语: (相当于一个状语从句) 将一个状语从句改为~ing 作状语时应注意: (1)从句的主语必须与主句的一致 (2)从句的谓语动词与其主语是 ①主动关系时,将引导该状语从句的连词和其主语去掉,若原本从句中是一般时态将 中心动词改为~ing 形式即可,若原本是进行时改为 being doing. ②被动关系时,去掉从句的连词和主语,将从句的中心谓语改为 being done 或者过去 分词 done 来表示被动 (3)当状语从句当中的谓语动作发生在主句动作之前 ,此时,改写从句时应使用完成时的 现在分词形式 Having done 来表示主动,Having been done 来表示被动 [详细例子请参阅课文相关单元内容] 同学们:除了复习这些语法和单词外,请一定将 Unit13-22 的练习册单选题看一遍!复习完 后,相应练习听力、做一些完型、阅读、改错练习。Good luck!

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