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第二章 词性及其在句中的成分


第二章 词类及其在句中的成分
一、词性 英语词汇按其功能通常分为十大类。 而根据其句法功能和形式特征, 这十类词又可以分为实 词(notional word)和虚词(form word) 。 名词、代词、动词、形容词、副词都具有实际意义,可以在句子中独立担当成分,所以叫实 词;冠词、介词、连词、感叹词都没有具体意义,不能在句子中担当成分,所以叫虚词。 词类表: 名称 N

oun Pronoun Adjective Numeral Verb Adverb Article Preposition Conjunction Interjection 二、实词的主要用法 1. 名词:表示人、事物或抽象概念的词。在句中可作主语、宾语、表语、补语、定语、同 位语等。 ① The man bought a car yesterday. ( man 和 car 分别充当主语和宾语 ) ② She was made monitor. ( monitor 充当补语 ) ③ The boy student is from Canada. (boy 作定语修饰主语 student; Canada 作介词 from 的宾语) ④ Lily, a teacher, is interesting. (Lily 作主语;teacher 是 Lily 的同位语) 温馨提示 名词有时候还可以作状语或独立成分。 Wait a minute! (作状语,修饰的词 wait) Kendy, could you please close the window? 试一试 用下划线标出句中的名词 ① David wants to learn English well. ② Tim is considered a good student. ③ The air conditioner works well. ④ Flu, a common disease, has no cure. 2. 代词 代词可分为 7 大类:
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汉译 名词 代词 形容词 数词 动词 副词 冠词 介词 连词 感叹词

缩写式 n. pron. adj. num. v. adv. art. prep. conj. inter.

例词 pen we great four write quickly a, the from and, unless Oh, well

词义 钢笔 我们 伟大的 四 写 快 从… 和;除非 噢;哦

(作独立成分)

人称代词 personal pronoun 物主代词 possessive pronoun 反身代词 reflexive pronoun 指示代词 demonstrative pronoun 疑问代词 interrogative pronoun 关系代词 relative pronoun

主格 宾格 形容词性 名词性

I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, yours, theirs myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves, oneself this, that, these, those, it, such, same who, whom, whose, which, what who, whom, whose, which, that, as some, something, somebody, someone, any, anything,

不定代词 indefinite pronoun

anybody, anyone, no, nothing, nobody, no one, every, everything, everybody, everyone, each, much, many, little, a little, few, a few, other, another, all, none, one, both, either, neither

3. 形容词:用来描写或修饰名词(代词)的词。在句中可作定语、表语和补语等。 ① I spent a sleepless night. (作定语,修饰 night) ② I am glad to see you. (作表语,描写 I ) ③ Please get everything ready for the test. (作补语) 试一试 标出句中形容词并写出其汉语意思 ① A good boy must behave himself. ② It is nice of you to give me so much help. ③ The room was found empty. _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________

4. 数词:表示数目多少货顺序先后的词。可分为基数词和序数词,在句中可作主语、表语、 宾语、定语、同位语或状语。 ① 作主语 Thirteen is an unlucky number. ② 作表语 She was the fifth to arrive. ③ 作宾语 The shirt is worth 300 yuan. ④ 作定语 August is the eighth month of the year. ⑤ 作同位语

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Are you two reading? ⑥ 作状语 He came second in the race. 5. 动词 动词是表示动作或存在状态的词。动词分为:实意动词、连系动词、助动词及情态动词。 ⑴ 实意动词:实意动词又分为及物和不及物动词。能直接带宾语的叫及物动词( transitive verb); 不能直接带宾语的叫不及物动词(intransitive verb) 。两种动词在句中均作谓语。 My daughter opened the door for me. ( open 为及物动词,后带宾语 the door) We are studying in senior high school now. (study 后没有带宾语,为不及物动词) ⑵ 连系动词(linking verb)是一个表示某物或人的状态或特征的动词,后接表语。 He is a well-rounded student. The dish tastes good. 常用的连系动词有:be, become, get, turn, look, sound, smell, taste, feel, grow, seem, appear, keep, stay 等。 ⑶ 情态动词(modal verbs): 表示情感态度,在句中不能单独作谓语,只能与实意动词一 起构成谓语部分。它们有 shall, should, will, would, can, could, may, might, must, dare, need, ought to 等。 You should wash your hands before you eat. David can speak several languages. (4) 助动词 ① 协助谓语动词完成各种句型的词叫助动词(auxiliary verbs) 。助动词自身没有词义,不可 单独使用。 He doesn’t like English. ( does 是助动词,无词义;帮助主要动词变成否定意义) ② 助动词协助主要动词构成下列结构或加强语气: a. 时态。 He is singing. (助动词 be 与实意动词的-ing 形式连用构成进行时态) He has married. (助动词 have 与实意动词的过去分词形式连用构成完成时态) He will give us a lecture on how to learn English. (助动词 will 与实意动词连用构成将来时态) b. 语态。 He was sent to England. (助动词 be 与实意动词的过去分词形式连用构成被动语态) c. 疑问句。 Do you like college life? Did you learn English before you came here? d. 否定句。 I don’t like him. e. 加强语气。
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Do come to the party tomorrow evening. He did know that. 他的确知道那件事。 ③ 最常用的助动词有: a. c. be 构成进行时态或被动语态; b. have/ has/ had 构成完成时态;

明天晚上一定来参加晚会。

do/does/did 用于谓语动词是一般式的否定、疑问句中或者表示强调;

d. shall, will, should, would 构成将来时。 6. 副词 副词是用以修饰动词、形容词、其它副词以及全句的词,表示时间、地点、程度、方式等概 念;在句中常作状语。 It rained heavily. (修饰动词 rain) Learning English well is quite useful. (修饰形容词 useful) He got up early enough to catch the first train. (修饰副词 early) Hopefully, we can get home before dark. (修饰整个句子) 学以致用 猜猜下列各句划线词的词性及中文意思。 1. The heavy rains also pounded Shanghai and Zhejiang province, but no details of the damage have been released. 2. Shanghai has set up a municipal-level community service center for foreign business headquarters at Putuo district as part of its effort to promote the city’s economic growth. 3. Cancer survivors might want to try yoga to sleep better and have more energy. 4. The Junior 3 students will be experiencing relaxing summer holidays soon after the high school entrance exams in June.

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