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一. 短语

Great scientists

1.put forward 提出 2. draw a conclusion 得出结论 be/get out of control 失去控制,不能操纵 4. be absorbed in 专心 被动) blame sb. for sth. 因某事责备某人 7. link.

..to... 将 … 和 … 连 接 或 联 系 起 来 die from 因…而死亡(外因) 10. make sense 有意义,说得通 11. apart from 除…之外,此外 make a contribution to 做 出 贡 献

3. be/get under control 在……控制下 beyond/lose control 无法 控 制

5. be to blame 应该受责备(用主动形式表示 6. in addition= besides= what’s more 也, 另外, 8. die of 因 … 而 死 亡 ( 内 因 )

9. lead to 导致,通向 There is no sense in doing sth. 作某事没道理 12. contribute to 为…作贡献或捐款,导致,有助于 13. be enthusiastic about/for/over 对 … 热 情 15. cure sb. of illness 治好某人… 17.be strict with sb. 对某人 19.attend to 照 顾 exposed to 暴 露 于

14. be curious about sb/sth 对某人/某事谨慎 病 要求严格 20.expose … to 16. point of view 态度,观点,看法

18.be strict in sth. 对 某 事 要 求 严 格 … 使 … 暴 露 于 … be

21.draw /reach/arrive at/come to a conclusion 得出结论 in conclusion 最后,总之

make a conclusion 下结论

22.apart from 除……之外 1. = besides 并未排除

2. = except/except for 真正意义上的排除在外 23. make sense 讲得通,有意义,能被理解 make no sense 没意 义 ,没道 理 make sense of 弄懂 … 的 意思

24.as the environment changed 随 着 环 境 的 改 变 26.neither… nor… 既不……也不…… cause 与 of 搭 配

25. deadly disease 致 命 的 疾 病

27. the cause of the disease 疾病的起因 reason 与 for 搭 配

28.look into 调 查 31.

29. remove from 搬 离

30. slow down 放 慢 速 度 , 减 缓

come to an end 结束

32. prevent / stop / keep…. from doing sth 阻止做某事 34. punish sb for sth 因…… 而惩罚某人 35. work on 从

33.make room for 腾出空间


36.at times =sometimes 有时

37. follow the instructions 按照说明书

on sb’s instruction 按照某人的吩咐

38.be concerned about/for sth 关心某事,挂念某事

show/feel concern for/about 对….表现出担心/关心…be concerned with 与…有关,涉及 as far as…be concerned …就…而言 39.(1)make sb/sth do sth =get sb/sth to do sth =have

sb/sth do sth=let sb/sth do sth (2) make sb/sth done =get sb/sth done= let sb/sth done=have sb/sth done 使某人/某物被做 二.语法点击 (1) every time 每次,每当, 起连词作用,引导一个时间状语相当于 whenever.类似的 有:the moment, the minute 一……就…… (3) have sb/sth doing sth. 使某人/某物一直做某事

a.名词词组作连词用,引导时间状语从句的有:every time, each time, any time, the last time, next time, the first time, the moment, the second, the minute, the hour, the day 等。 b. 有些副词,如 directly, instantly, immediately 也可引导状语从句 Every time I catch a cold, I have pains in my back. 我每次感冒背就痛。 The first time I climbed onto the wall, I felt very nervous. 我第一次爬到墙上去时感到很 紧张。 She let out a cry the moment she saw the snake. 她一看到蛇就叫了起来。 I left immediately the clock struck 5. 钟刚敲了五下我就离开了


(2) suggest 的用法 (a) “建议做某事”, 英语通常用 suggest doing sth Tom suggested selling the house. (b)要表示向某人提出某情况,suggest 后不能接双宾语,即不能用 suggest sb sth,而 通常用 suggest sth to sb。 如: 我向她提出一个解决问题的办法。 I suggested a way out to her. (c) suggest 后接 that 从句(注意谓语用 “should+动词原形”这样的虚拟语气形式, He suggested going by plane.

should 可省略)。如: I suggest that we (should) have lunch right now. 我建议我们现在就吃午饭。 He suggests that we should all go to see the film. 他建议我们都去看电影。 (d) suggest 后接宾语从句时,从句谓语既可用陈述语气,也可用虚拟语气,其区别 与 suggest 所表示的意思有关: 1. 若 suggest 表示“建议”, 则其后接的 that 从句谓语通常用“(should)+动词原形”这样的 虚拟语气形式. I suggested that she should go home. 我建议她回家去。 2. 若 suggest 表示“暗示”“意指”“表明”等义,则其后接的 that 从句要用陈述语气。如: What he said suggested that he was a cheat. 他说的话表明他是个骗子。
(3) only ﹢加状语(即 only 与所修饰的副词,介词或状语从句)位于句首,主句用部分倒

装,即把助动词,情态动词,或 be 动词放在主语之前。例如: Only when we had studied the data again did we realize that there was a mistake. 只有当我们再次研究了这些数据的时 候 , 我 们 才 意 识 到 出 了 一 个 错 。 // Only by working hard can we succeed 。 注意: 如果放于句首的 only 所修饰的不是状语时, 该句不用倒装。例如:Only some of the children passed the examination. 只有几个孩子通过了考试。eg: Only a week later did I

receive an answer from her. you haven’t done your best.

Only when you are forty and looking back will you realize that

4) 当具有否定意义的副词位于句首时也构成部分倒装, never, 如 neither …nor , hardly , little,seldom,hardly… when ,no sooner… than ,not only …but also ,not until…等结 构 例如:Little what you said ,I wish you had repaired it !A. did I understand B.I

understand. C.I did understand D. have I understand


这一结构在句中常作定语或状语, 作宾补的可以是介词短语、

过去分词、形容词、副词或动词不定式等。现将其基本形式归纳如下: ①with+n. / pron. +介词短语 He sat there with a smile on his face. 他微笑着坐在那里。

She went out with an umbrella in her hand . 她 手 里 拿 把 伞 出 去 了 . ②with +n. / pron. + 副 词 With Mr Smith away, we’ve got more room. With so much work

③with+n. / pron. +不定式 With nothing to do, we went to the cinema. to do, he could not go home ④with+n. / pron. + 现 在 分 词 ⑤with+n. / pron.+ 过 去 分 词 She sat there with her head bent.

The street was quiet with no buses running. In came a man with his hands tied back.

⑥With +n. / pron. +形容词 He wore a shirt with the neck open, showing his bare chest. 他穿 着一个开领的衬衣,露着胸膛。 ( 6 ) 情 态 动 词 表 推 测 ( 对 过 去 的 某 种 情 况 进 行 猜 测 即 情 态 动 词 +have done ) ①needn’t have+ 过 去 分 词 , 表 示 做 了 不 必 做 的 事 , 相 当 于 didn’t need to do ②should have+过去分词,表示应该做某事但实际上未做,译为“本应该……”should not+have+ 过 去 分 词 , 表 示 本 不 应 该 做 某 事 但 实 际 做 了 , 译 为 “ 本 不 应 该 ……”

③ought to have +过去分词,表示动作按理该发生了,但实际未发生,译为“该……”,与 should 的完成式含义类似。
(7)While walking the dog, you were careless and it got loose and was hit by a car.

此句中 while walking the dog 相当于 while (you were) walking the dog,当时间或条件 状 语 从 句 的 主 语 同 主 句 主 语 一 致 , 且 从 句 中 含 有 be 动 词 时 , 从 句 可 使 用 “when/while+doing/done”的省略式。 While working, he stopped to talk with me at times. He will not go to the party unless invited. Though (he is) young, he knows a lot. 当时间或条件状语从句的主语是 it 时,也常常将 it 和 be 省略。 If(it is) possible, I’ll go to see my grandparents this weekend. (8)“It is/was+because 从句+that…”中 because 不能换用 since 或 as. It was because she was ill that she didn’t come to school yesterday. 强调句型 it is/was…that…..可对句中的主语、宾语、表语、状语等进行强调,若强调 的主语是人,后面的 that 也可换为 who/whom. It is he who is going to speak at the school meeting. It was in the street that I met my old friend yesterday. (1) 强调句型 it is/was …that….中,用 is 还是 was 由后面的句子时态来确定。 (2) 除强调部分是人作主语或宾语时可用 who/whom 之外,一律用 that。 (3) 强调句型的一般疑问句形式为:Is/Was it…. that/who/whom…? (4) 强调句型的特殊疑问句形式为:特殊疑问词+is/was,,,it that…? (5) 判断一个句子是不是强调句型的方法: 把句中的 it is/was 和 that/who/whom 去掉, 看句子结构是否仍然完整,若完整就是,若不完整就不是。 It is 8 o’clock when I leave for school.(when 引导的时间状语从句) It is at 8 o’clock that I leave for school.(强调句式)

(9)It/This/ That is/was +the +序数词+time that…这是/那是…第…次。从句中的时态需用完 成时。如果系动词是 is,则用现在完成时,如果是 was,则用过去完成时。 It is the last cigarette (that) I have smoked today. This is the second time that you have been late this week. That was the third time I had been to Germany. (1) It’s time that sb did/should do sth. 某人该做某事了。 It’s time that we had/should have lunch. (2) It’s time for sb to do sth.是某人该做某事的时候了。 It’s time for us to have lunch. (3) the first time 第一次,用作连词,后接时间状语从句。 The first time I went to Beijing, I visited the Great Wall. (4) for the first time 第一次,用作介词短语,可单独使用。 At the beginning of the term, we met for the first time. (10)do 和 does 可用来强调一般现在时的肯定谓语,does 用于第三人称单数,其他人称用 do,did 可用来强调一般过去时的肯定谓语。强调祈使句的肯定形式也可用 do. I do love you. She does like English. He did some here yesterday. Do come here early tomorrow. (11)主语+be+adj.+to do”是固定用法,However, the situation is easy to change if you take my advice.此时,虽然 change 与 the situation 之间为动宾关系,但不定式仍然用主动形式。 可用在此结构中的形容词有 easy, hard, difficult, heavy, interesting, pleasant 等。 The problem is easy to work out. 12)keep+宾语+宾语补足语”结构中,宾语补足语可以是现在分词、过去分词、形容词或 副词,也可以是介词短语等。 I’m sorry to have kept you waiting so long. Don’t open the door. Keep it closed. The boss kept them in the classroom after school. (13) find it adj to do..中的 it 作形式宾语,adj 是宾语补足语,真正的宾语是后面的不定 式短语 to do…。此时用作宾语的不定式短语如果有自己的补足语,就用 it 代替,而把不

定式短语放在宾语补足语的后面去。这个句型的构成是:主语+动词+it+作宾语补足语的 形容词或名词等+动词不定式短语,常用这个句型中的动词有 find, feel, think, consider, make 等。 I found it quite pleasant to work with him. He feels it his duty to help others.


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