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定语从句(2010-2014定语从句高考题 )


高中定语从句讲解
在复合句中充当定语的从句叫定语从句。定语从句的作用相当于形容词,用来修饰主句 中的某一名词或代词或整个主句,所以,也称作形容词性从句。被定语从句修饰的词叫先 行词,定语从句一般紧跟在它所修饰的先行词之后。在先行词和定语从句之间起连接作用 的词叫关系词。关系词有关系代词和关系副词两种。 提示: 关系词在定语从句中有三大作用 1. 连接作用——连接先行词和

定语从句。 I gave her all the money that I had. 我把我所有的钱都给了她。 ( that 连接先特词 money 和定语从句 I had) 2. 替代作用——在定语从句中替代从句所修饰的先行词。 The man who lives nest door is a famous teacher.住在隔壁的那个人是个名师。 (who 替代 the man) 3. 成分作用——在定语从句中作主语、宾语、定语或状语。 I like picrures which are painted in the traditional Chinese style. 我喜欢传统的中国画。 (which 在定语从句中作主语) 一、关系代词引导的定语从句 引导定语从句的关系代词主要有 who, whom, whose, which, that 等。 它们分别代替前面的 先行词,并在定语从句中作主语、宾语或定语。 A.Who 指人,在定语从句中作主语。 What was the name of the man who lent you the money? 借钱给你的那人叫什么名字?(定语从句修饰先行词 the man) He who laughs last laughs best. 谁笑到最后谁笑得最好。 (定语从句修饰先行词 he) The chairman of the meeting, who spoke first, sat on my right. 会议主席坐在我右边,他先发言。 (定语从句 修饰先行词 the chairman) B.Whom 指人,在定语从句中做宾语。在口语或非正式文体中,whom 可省略或可用 who 来代替, 但在介词后面以及在非限制性定语从句中只能用 whom。 There are some people whom/who we like and others whom/who we dislike. 有些人我 们是喜欢的,有些人则是我们讨厌的。 (定语从句分别修饰先行词 people, others) The people whom/who I work with are all friendly. 和我一起工作的人都很友好。 (定语从句修 饰先行词 the people) Mr. Carter, whom I spoke to on the phone last night, is very interested in our plan. Mr. Carter, to whom I spoke on the phone last night, is very interested in our plan. 昨晚我在 电话里和卡特先生交谈过,他对我们的计划很感兴趣。 (非限制性定语从句中不能用 who 代 替 whom) Two men, neither of whom I had ever seen before, came into my office. 两个人来到我 的办公室,我以前从未见过他们。 (在介词后面不用 who) C.Whose 人、物皆可,做定语,后面要紧跟被修饰的名词,先行词和后面的名词之间往往是从属 关系。 There are some people whose faces you can never forget. 有些人,他们的脸你永远难 以忘怀。 (定语从句修饰先行词 people)
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I saw some trees whose leaves were black because of the polluted air. 我看见一些树的 树叶由于空气污染而发黑。 (定语从句修饰行词 trees) D.Which 1. 指物, 在定语从句中做主语或宾语。 做宾语时常可省略。 English is a language which is easy to learn. 英语是一门容易学的语言。 (which 在定语从句中作主语,不能省略) The children like cookies (which) my wife makes. 孩子们喜欢我夫人做的饼干。(关系代词 which 作 makes 的宾语,可以省略) 2.which 引导的非限制性定语从句可以修饰前面的整个主句,相当于 and this。 Jim passed his driving test, which surprised everybody. 吉姆通过了驾驶考试,这使大家都感到惊讶。 (定语从句修饰的是整个主句,而不是 the driving test) Sheila couldn't come to the party, which was a pity. 希拉不能来参加聚会, 真遗憾。 (定 语从句修饰的是整个主句,而不是 the party) 3.which 在非限制性定语从句中有时也 可以作定语。 John stayed here for a week, during which time we visited the West Lake together. 约翰 在这里呆了一星期,在此期间我们一起游了西湖。 It might snow this weekend, in which case we won't go to Beijing. 周末可能下雪, 在这 种情况下,我们就不去北京了。 E.That 指人时,相当于 who 或 whom;指物时,相当于 which。在定语从句中作主语或宾语(做 宾语时常可省略) 。 He is the man that lives next door. 他就是住在隔壁的那个人。 (定语从句修饰先行词 the man,作主语) I don't like stories that have unhappy endings. 我不喜欢结尾悲伤的故事。 (定语从句修 饰先行词 stories,作主语) The dress (that) Ann bought doesn’t fit her very well. 安买的衣服不太合身。 (定语从 句修饰先行词 the dress,that 作宾语可省略) Is there anything (that) I can do for you? 有我能为你效劳的事吗?(定语从句修饰先行词 anything,that 作宾语,可省略) 提示: 在口语中, that 有时还可以作关系副词, 相当于 when 或 介词+which 结构。 We left the day (that) he arrived. 他来的那一天,我们就走了。 (that 替 when) He doesn't see things the way (that) we see them. 他看问题的方法和我们不一样。 (that 代替 in which) Imagine the speed (that) he drives his car! 很难想象,他开车的速度那么快! (that 代替 at which) F. As 可以在限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句中作主语或宾语。 ① 在限制性定语从句中,as 可跟在由 such, so, the same 修饰的先行词之后。 Such men as heard him were deeply moved. 听过他说话的人,都会深受感动。 (as 在定 语从句中作 heard 的主语) I've never heard such stories as he tells. 我从未听过像他 讲的这样的故事。 (as 在定语从句中作 tell 的宾语) He lifted so heavy a stone as no one else can lift. 他搬起别人都搬不起的大石头。 (as 在定语从句中 lift 的宾语) 比较: 在 the same as 结构中, as 也可用 that 代替。 但严格地说, the same as 强调相同, the same that 注重同一。 She wore the same dress as her younger sister wore. 她穿着跟她妹妹所穿的一样的衣
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裙。 (as 指的是与先行词相似的同类事物) She wore the same dress that she wore at Mary's wedding. 她穿着她在玛丽婚礼上穿过的同一条连衣裙。 (that 指的是与先行词同 一事物) ② 在非限制性定语从句中,as 可代表主句整个句子,引导的定语从句可以放在主句之前 或主句之后,一般用逗号与主句分开。 As everyone knows, Taiwan belongs to China. 众所周知,台湾属于中国的领土。 He is from the outh, as we can know from his accent. 他是南方人,这一点我们从他的 口音可以知道。 必背: 一些由 as 引导的定语从句常位于句首,已形成了固定的说法。 as is known to all 这 是众所周知的 as has been said before 如前所说 as is often the case 情况常常如 此 as may be imagined 这可以想象得出 as has been pointed out 正如已经指 出的那样 as often happens 这种情况常常发生 2.But G.介词+关系代词引导的定语从句 介词+关系代词引导的定语从句是一种非常常见但也比较复杂的定语从句结构。 1. 介 词+关系代词中介词的位置 关系代词 whom, which 在从句中作介词宾语时,可以跟介词一起放在从句与主句之间 (that, who 不可以) ,也可以把介词放在从句中有关动词的后面,使关系代词紧跟它所修饰 的先行词。 G.介词+关系代词引导的定语从句 介词+关系代词引导的定语从句是一种非常常见但也比较复杂的定语从句结构。 1. 介 词+关系代词中介词的位置 关系代词 whom, which 在从句中作介词宾语时,可以跟介词一起放在从句与主句之间 (that, who 不可以) ,也可以把介词放在从句中有关动词的后面,使关系代词紧跟它所修饰 的先行词。 He is a man of rich experience, from whom much can be learned. = He is a man of rich experience, whom much can be learned from. The school in which he once worked is a key school. =The school (which that) he once worked in is a key school. The manager in whose company I work pays much attention to improving our working conditions. =The manager whose company I'm working in pays much attention to improving our working conditions. 2.介词+关系代词的常见结构 ①介词+which whom This is the famous singer about whom we have often talked. 这就是那位我们经常谈论 的著名歌唱家。 Fortunately we had a map, without which we would have got lost. 很幸运, 我们带了一 张地图,如没有的话,我们就会迷路了。 ②名词+of+ which /whom Please pass me the book the cover of which is blue. 请把那本蓝封面的书递给我。 (也可用 whose cover) ③数词+of+ which /whom She's got three lucky pens, two of which she never uses. 她有三只幸运笔,其中两只从 未用过。

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④代词+of+ which /whom In the basket I find many apples, some of which have gone bad. 我发现篮子里有好些苹 果,有些已经坏了。 There are fifty students in our class, most of whom are from big cities. 我们班有 50 个学 生,其中大多数来自大城市。 ⑤最高级+of+ which /whom China has thousands of islands, the largest of which is Taiwan. 中国有数千个岛屿,其中 最大的 是台湾。 ⑥介词+which+名词 He usually returns home at ten, at which hour his father locks all the doors ad windows. 他通常十点钟回家,在这时候他爸爸锁好所有的门窗。 His wife got seriously ill, in which case he had to give up the chance of going abroad. 他 的妻子病得很重,在这种情况下,他不得不放弃出国的机会。 3.关系代词前介词的选择 在介词+关系代词引导的定语从句中,应注意介词的正确选择。 ①根据后面动词和介词的搭配关系选择。 The two things of which they felt proud were Jim's watch and Della's hair. 他们引以为 豪的两样东西是吉姆的手表和德拉的头发。 (feel proud of 是固定搭配词组) In the dark street there was not a single person to whom she could turn for help. 在漆黑的街道上没 有一个她可以求助的人。 (turn to sb. for help 是固定搭配词组) ②根据与前面名词的搭配关系选择。 I'll never forget the ay on which I first met him. 我永远忘不了我第一次遇见他的那一天。 (the day 前面一般用介词 on) Can you imagine a proper situation in which the expression can be used? 你能设想一个使用这个词语的场 合吗?(a situation 前面一般用 in) ③有时须同时考虑动词和介词的搭配关系及介词和名词的搭配关系。 Is that the house in which you once lived? (Live in the house) ④根据所要表达的意思来确定。 This is my pair of glasses, without which I cannot see clearly. 这是我的眼镜,离了它我 什么也看不清。 注意: 当关系代词在定语从句中作主语时, 谓语动词应与先行词的人称和数保持一致。 I, who am your best friend, will do all that I can to help you. 我是你的好朋友,我会尽我一切所 能来帮你。 The family, who are fond of music, go to the concert once a month. 这家人很爱音乐, 他们每月都去听一次音乐会。 He is one of the boys in our class who speak English well. 他是班上英语说得很好的男 生之一。 (one of +复数名词+关系代词引导的定语从句谓语动词用复数形式) He is the only one of the boys in our class who speaks English well. 他是班上唯一英语 说得很好的男生。 (the (only) one the very one the right one of +复数名词+关系代词 引导 的定语从句谓语动词用单数形式) 二、关系副引导的定语从句 引导定语从句的关系副词有 when, where 或 why 等。when, where, why 分别在定语从句 中作状语,在意义上相当于介词+which 结构,分别代替表示时间、地点或原因的先行词。
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A.when 指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语。 I still remember the day when I first came to this school. 我仍然记得我第一次来到这所学校的那一天。(when= on which) He came at a time when we needed him most. 他是在我们最需要他的时候来的。(when= at which) We will never forget the year 1949, when th People's Republic of China was founded. 我们永远忘不了 1949 年,那是中华人民共和国成立的一年。(when= in which) B.where 指地点,在定语从句中作地点状语。 I recently went back to the town where I was born. 我最近曾回过一次我出生的城市。 (where = in which) I would like to live in a country where there is plety of sunshine. 我想住在一个阳光充 足的国家。(where = in which) - 6 What's the name of the place where you spent your holiday 你度假的那个地方叫什么 名字?(where = at which) C.why 指原因,在限制性定语从句中作原因状语。 Please tell me the reason why you missed the plane. 请告诉我你误机的原因。(why = for which) Te reason why he was punished is unknown to us. 他受惩罚的原因我们都不知道。 注意: 无论是关系代词,还是关系副词,都在定语从句中取代了先行词,因此,先行词在定语 从句中不复出现。 【误】This is the book that I borrowed it yesterday. 【正】This is the book that I borrowed yesterday. 这就是我昨天借的书。 ( that 在定语从句中取代了先行词 the book,作 borowed 的宾语,因此,要去掉 it) 【误】The English Corner is the place where people often go there to practise their spoken English. 【正】 The English Corner is the place where people often go to practise their spoken English. 英语角是人们经常去练习英语口语的地方。 (where 在定语从句中取代了先 行词 the pace,作 go 的状语,因此,要去掉 there) 三、限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句 根据定语从句在句中所起的作用,可分为限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句两大类。 A.限制性定语从句 限制性定语从句是先行词在意义上不可缺少的定语,用于修饰和限定先行词。如果去掉, 主句的意思就不完整或失去意义。书写时不用逗号与先行词分开。 This is the boy who broke the window. 这就是打破窗子的孩子。 (the boy 是先行词,who broke the indow 是 限制性定语从句,明确指出 the boy 是打破窗子的那个孩子) I have a book which teaches English grammar. 我有一本讲解英语语法的书。 (a book 是先行词,which teaches English grammar 是限制性定语从句,修饰 the book) The people whom you met in the hall are from Japan. 你在大厅见到的那些人来自日 本。 (定语从句 whom you met in the hall 定先行词 the people) B.非限制性定语从句 非限制性定语从句在意义上只是一个附加修饰语,对先行词或主句作些附加的说明。如 果去掉, 主句的意思仍然清楚。 书写时往往用逗号与先行词分开。 I, who am your friend,
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will share the work with you. 我是你的朋友, 将与你分担这项工作。 (I 是先行词, who am your friend 是非限制性定语从句,对先行词 I 起附加说明的作用) New Concept English is intended for foeign students, which is known to us all. 新概念 英语是专为外国学生编写的,这是我们大家都知道的。 (which is known to us all 是非限制 性定语从句,对主句作进一步的补充说明) C.在下列情况下,通常使用非限制性定语从句。 1.当先行词表示的是世界上独一无二的人或物时。 The sun, which gives us light and heat, is a fixed star. 太阳是一颗恒星,它给我们光和热。 Last year I visted the People's Great Hall, where many important meetings are held every year. 去年我参观了人民大会堂,每年许多重要会议都要在那里举行。 2.当定语从句修饰整个主句时。 Taiwan belongs to China, as everyone knows. 众所周知,台湾属于中国的领土。 The weather was very terrible, which we hadn't expected. 天气非常糟糕,这点们没有料 到。 3. 当先行词是专有名词, 或先行词本身指示意义十分明确时。 Mr. Joe lives in Beijing now, which is quite a long way from here. 乔先生现在住在北京,那里距离这儿很远。 I congratulate my neighbour, whose son has just won the election. 我祝贺我的邻居, 他的儿 子刚刚赢得选举。 非限制性定语从句的五个“不能” (1) 关系词不能用 that (2) 关系词不能用 why,只能用 for which (3) 有且只有 as 能放整个句首,which 不能 (4) “介词+关系代词 其中的关系代词不能用 as。 介词 + which/ whom (5) 指人的关系代词作宾语时,只能用宾格 whom; 不能用 who 替换,也不能省略。 四、关系代词和关系副词的选用 引导定语从句的关系代词和关系副词的选用,比较复杂除了牵涉到所指的先行词是人还 是物, 所引导的定语从句是限制性的还是非限制性的, 以及关系词在从句中充当什么句子成 份外,还要根据习惯用法而定。 A.只用 who 1.在非限制定语从句中指人时: His mother, who loves him very much, is strict with him. 他妈妈十分地爱他, 对他要求很 严格。 2.先行词是 one, anyone, those 等指人时: One who has nothing to fear for hiself dares to tell the truth. 一个无所畏惧的人敢说真话。 Anyone who breaks the law shall be published. 任何犯法的人都将受到惩罚。 Those who are against the plan put up your hands please. 凡是反对这项计划的人,请举 手。 3.在 there/here be 开头的句子中。 Here is a boy who wants to see you. 有个男孩想见 你。 B. 只用 which whom 在下列情况下,一般不能用 that 代替 which whom。 1.在非限制性定语从句中。 The weather was very terrible, which we hadn't expected. 天气非常糟糕,这我们没有料到。 2.介词后面。 关系代词紧跟在介词或短语介词后面, 只能用 which 或 whom, 不能用 that。 He climbed
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up to the top of a large rock, from which he got a good view. 他爬到一块巨大的岩石顶上, 从那里他看到很好的景色。 (也可用 from where) Sound is a tool, by means of which people communicate with each other. 声音是工具,人们通过这个工具进行交流。 C.只用 that 1.当先行词为 everything, anything, nothing, all, none, few, little 等词时,或当 先行词被 every, any, all,some, no, little, few, much 等词修饰时。 Everything that they said was true. 他所说的一切都是真的。 He is dead and there's nothing that can be done. 他死了, 再也没有什么办法了。 There was little that we could do to help her. 我们没有什么能帮助她的。 These walls are all that remain of the ancint city. 这些墙是这座古城所残存下来的全部。 提示: something 后面可用 which 引导定语从句。 There is something(which/ that) I'd like to tell you. 有些事我想告诉你。 2.当先行词被序 数词或形容词最高级修饰时。 The first place (that) they visited in London was the Big Ben. 在伦敦他们参观的第一个地 方是大本钟。 She was probably the hardest working student (that) I have ever taught. 她也许是我教学生 中学习最勤奋的。 3.当先行词被 the very, the only 修饰时。 This is the very grammar book (that) I want to buy. 这正是我要买的语法书。 Beauty is the only thing (that) Emily can be proud of. 美丽是埃米莉唯一能骄傲的东西。 4. 当先行词为 who 或前面有 who, which 等疑问代词时。 Who that has common sense will believe such nonsense? 有常识的人谁会相信这种无聊的事情? Who is the man that is standing by the gate? 站在门口的那个人是谁? Which is the T-shirt that fits me most? 哪件 T 恤衫最合我的身? 5.当先行词为人与事物或动物时。 The driver and his car that fell into the river have not yet been discovered. 掉入河里的司 机与车都还没有找到。 The boy and his dog that were believed to be lost in the wood were rescued this morning. 被 认为在森林里迷路的孩子与狗,今天早上已经获救了。 6.先行词在定语从句中做表语时。 She is no longer the sweet girl (that) she used to be. 她再也不是过去那个甜美的女孩了。 He is not the man (that) he seems. 他这人不貌相。 D.关系副词与关系代词的选择 当先行词是表示时间、地点或原因的名词时,定语从句用关系副词还是关系代词来引导, 要根据关系词在定语从句中所担当的句子成分来决定。 I will never forget the days when we spent our holidays together. 我永远忘不了我们一起 度假的日子。 (when 作状语) I will never forget the days which we spent together. 我永 远忘不了我们一起度过的日子。 (which 作 we spent 宾语) I know a place where we can have a picnic. 我知道一个我们可以野炊的地方。 (where 作 状语) I know a place which is famous for its beautiful natural scenery. 我知道一个以自然景色 优美而闻名的地方。 (which 作主语) E.关系词的省略 在下列情况下,关系代词或关系副词在非正式文体中可以省略。 1.关系代词 that, which, who, whom 在定语从句中做宾语时,常可省略。 Are these keys (that which) you were looking for? 这是你正在寻找的钥匙吗? The man
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(who that) I was sitting net to on the plane talked all the time. 飞机上坐在我旁边的那个人 一直在喋喋不休。 2.以 the way 为先行词的限制性定语从句通常由 in which 或 that 引导,而且通常可以省略。 I don't like the way (that in which) she walks. 我不喜欢她走路的样子。 The way (that in which) he answered the questions was surprising. 他回答这些问题的方式令惊奇。 3.在 the time when, the place where, the reason why 结构中,when, where, why 可省略。 I shall never forget the day (when) we first met. 我永远不能忘记我们第一次见面的那一天。 That's the place (where) he stayed when he was in the country. 那就是他在乡下呆过的地方。 F.定语从句与强调句型的区别 1. 强调句型中的 it 是个引导词, 本身没有意义。 如果去掉 it is/was that, 句子结构仍然完整, 句意也完整。定语从句中的 it 是指示代词,做主句的主语。如果去掉 it is/was that,句子结 构不完整,意思也完整。 It is a question that needs careful consideration. 这是一个需要慎重考虑的问题。 (定语从句) It is novels that she enjoys reading. 她喜欢阅读的是小说。 (强调句) 2.在强调句中被强调的部分还可以是副词、介词短语或从句;在定语从句中先行词一般是 名词、代词或名词短语。 Was it in this palace that the last emperor died (强调句型) 那位末朝皇帝是在这个宫殿 里死的吗? Was it this palace where the last emperor died (定语从句) 这是那位末朝皇帝死的宫殿 吗? 3.有些强调句型中含有一个定语从句,这往往给理解带来一定的难度。解决方法是仔细分 析 that 或 who 在句中的作用。 It was in the lab that was set up last year that they finished the experiment. 他们是在去年建 造的实验室里完成这个实验的。 (that was set up last year 是定语从句,that 在从句中作主语, 并可被 which 替换) It was the students who came from our school that won the first prize in the contest. 是来自 我们学校的学生获得了竞赛一等奖。 (who came rom our school 是定语从句,who 在从句中 作主语) G.定语从句与同位语从句的区别 1.定语从句是形容词性的,其功能是修饰先行词,起限定作用。而同位语从句等同于它 所修饰的名词,是名词性的,其功能是对所修饰的名词作补充说明。 It is a fact (that) you can't deny. 这是一个你不能否认的事实。 (定语从句) It is a fact that she has done her best. 她 尽了最大的努力,这是事实。 (同位语从句) 2.在定语从句中,that 代先行词,在从句中不仅起连接作用,还充当某个句子成分,在 作宾语时通常可省略。而在同位语从句中,that 只起连接主句和从句的作用,无意义,在从 句中不充当句子成分,一般不可省。 The news (that) we heard spread all over the school campus. 我们听到的消息传遍了校园。 (定语从句) The news that Mr. Li will be our new English teacher is true. 李先生将是我们的新英语老 师这个消息是真的。 (同位从句)

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2010-2013 定语从句高考题
2010 年高考试题 1.As a child, Jack studied in a village school, ________ is named after his grandfather. A. which B. where C. what D. that 2. I refuse to accept the blame for something _____ was someone else’s fault. A. who B. that C. as D. what 3. In China, the number of cities is increasing _____ development is recognized across the world. A. where B. which C. whose D. that 4. After graduating from college, I took some time off to go travelling, ______ turned out to be a wise decision. A. that B. which C. whose D. where 5. The girl arranged to have piano lessons at the training center with her sister ___ she would stay for an hour. A. where B. who C. which D. what 6. Children who are not active or_______ diet is high in fat will gain weight quickly. A. what B. whose C. which D. that 7. - Can you believe I had to pay 30 dollars for a haircut? - You should try the barber’s ___ I go. It’s only 15. A. as B. which C. where D. that 8. That’s the n ew machine _____ parts are too small to be seen. A. that B. which C.whose D. what 9. The newly-built cafe, the walls of ______ are painted light green, is really a peaceful place for us, especially after hard work. A. that B. it C. what D. which 10. I’ve become good friends with several of the students in my school _____ I met in the English speech contest last year. A. who B. where C. when D.which 11. The settlement is home to nearly 1,000 people, many of ______ left their village homes for a better life in the city. A. whom B.which C. them D. those 12. Stephen Hawking believes that the earth is unlikely to be the only planet ____life has developed gradually. A. that B. where C. which D. whose 13. The old temple _____ roof was damaged in a storm is now under repair. A. where B. which C. its D. whose 2011 年高考试题 1、 (2011 全国卷 I) 31. The prize will go to the writer ________ story shows the most imagination. A. that B. which C. whose D. what 2、 (2011 全国卷 II)7. Ted came for the weekend wearing only some shorts and a T-shirt, ____ is a stupid thing to do in such weather. A. this B. that C. what D. which 3、 (2011 北京卷)26. Mary was much kinder to Jack than she was to the others, _________, of course, make all the others upset. A. who B. which C. what D. that 4、(2011 上海卷) 39. You’ll find taxis waiting at the bus station ____ you can hire to reach your
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host family. A. which B. where C. when D. as 5、 (2011 山东卷)32.The old town has narrow streets and small houses _____are built close to each other. A. they B. where C. what D. that 6、 (2011 江西卷)34. She showed the visitors around the museum, the construction _____had taken more than three years. A. for which B. with which C. of which D. to which 7、 (2011 江苏卷)24. Between the two parts of the concert is an interval, _______ the audience can buy ice-cream. A. when B. where C. that D. which 8、 (2011 安徽卷)28. Whatever is left over may be put into the refrigerator, _____ it will keep for two or three weeks. A. when B. which C. where D. while 9、 (2011 浙江卷)8. English is a language shared by several diverse cultures, each of ____ uses it somewhat differently. A. which B. what C. them D. those 10、 (2011 浙江卷)10. A bank is the place ______ they lend you an umbrella in fair weather and ask for it back when it begins to rain. A. when B. that C. where D. there 11、 (2011 福建卷)24. She has a gift for creating an atmosphere for her students ____ allows them to communicate freely with each other. A. which B. where C. what D. who 12、 (2011 四川卷)17. The school shop, _____ customers are mainly students, is closed few the holidays. A. which B. whose C. when D. where 13、 (2011 天津卷) 10. The days are gone ________ physical strength was all you needed to make a living. A. when B. that C. where D. which 14、 (2011 陕西卷)11.I walked up to the top of the hill with my friend, _____ we enjoyed a splendid view of the lake. A. which B. where C. who D. that 15、(2011 湖南卷)25.Julie was good at German, French and Russian , all of _________ she spoke fluently. A. who B. whom C. which D. that 2012 高考试题 1.【2012 全国卷 II】⒏ That evening, ___ I will tell you more about later, I ended up working very late. A. that B. which C. what D. when 2. 【2012 安徽】 29. A lot of language learning has been discovered, is happening in the first year of life, so parents should talk much to their children during that period. A. as B. it C. which D. this 3. 【2012 重庆】 29. Sales director is a position ______communication ability is just as important as sales skills. A. which B. that C. when D. where 4.【2012 北京】26. When deeply absorbed in work, ______ he often was,he would forget all about eating or sleeping. A. that B. which C. where D. when 5.【2012 福建】23. The air quality in the city, _____ is shown in the report, has improved over the past two months. A. that B. it C. as D. what 6.【2012 陕西】14. It is the third time that she has won the race, ____ has surprised us all. A. that B. where C. which D. what 7.【2012 山东】23. Maria has written two novels, both of ___ have been made into television
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series. A. them B. that C. which D. what 8.【2012 湖南】34. Care of the soul is a gradual process ____ even the small details of life should be considered. A. what B. in what C. which D. in which 9.【2012 天津】7. I wish to thank Professor Smith, without ____ help I would never have got this far. A. who B. whose C. whom D. which 10.【2012 江西】28. By 16:30, ____ was almost closing time, nearly all the paintings had been sold. A. which B. when C. what D. that 11.【2012 四川】13. In our class there are 46 students, _____ half wear glasses. A. in whom B. in them C. of whom D. of them 12.【2012 浙江】9. We live in an age ______ more information is available with greater ease than ever before. A. why B. when C. to whom D. on which 13.【2012 浙江】17. Ellen was a painter of birds and of nature, _____, for some reason, had withdrawn from all human society. A. which B. who C. where D. whom 14.【2012 江苏】22. After the flooding, people were suffering in that area, ____ urgently needed clean water, medicine and shelter to survive. A. which B. who C. where D. what 2013 高考试题 1.【2013 陕西】16. ______ is often the case with children, Amy was better by the time the doctor arrived. A. It B. That C. What D. As 2.【2013 重庆 24】John invited about 40 people to his wedding, most of_______ are family members. A them B. that C. which D. whom 3.【2013 辽宁 34】He may win the competition, _____ he is likely to get into the national team. A. in which case B. in that case C. in what case D. in whose case 4. 【2013 福建 27】The book tells stories of the earthquake through the eyes of those _______ lives were affected. A. whose B. that C. who D. which 5.【2013 湖南 21】Happiness and success often come to those _______ are good at recognizing their own strengths. A. whom B. who C. what D. which 6.【2013 浙江 13】The museum will open in the spring with an exhibition and a viewing platform _______ visitors can watch the big glasshouses being built. A. what B. where C. when D. why 7.【2013 浙江 5】The children, _______ had played the whole day long, were worn out. A. all of what B. all of which C. all of them D. all of whom 8.【2013 江西 33】He wrote a letter _______ he explains what had happened in the accident. A. what B. which C. where D. how 9.【2013 江苏 32】The president of the World Bank says he has a passion for China, _______ he remembers starting as early as his childhood. A. where B. which C. what D. when
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10.【2013 新课标 I 卷 33】 “You can’t judge a book by its cover,” _______. A. as the saying goes old B. goes as the old saying C. as the old saying goes D. goes as old the saying 11.【2013 新课标 II 卷 4】When I arrived, Bryan took me to see the house_______ I would be staying. A. what B. when C. where D. which 12.【2013 安徽 29】 Mo Yan was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 2012, _______ made one of the Chinese people’s long-held dreams come true. A. it B. that C. what D. which 13. 【2013 天津 6】 We have launched another man-made satellite, _______ is announced in today’ s newspaper. A. that B. which C. who D. what 14.【2013 山东 31】There is no simple answer, _______ is often the case in science. A. as B. that C. when D. where 15.【2013 山东 35】Finally he reached a lonely island _______ was completely cut off from the outside world. A. when B. where C. which D. whom 16. 【2013 四川 9】 Nowadays people are more concerned about the environment _______ they live. A. what B. which C. when D. where 17.【2013 上海 38】 An ecosystem consists of the living and nonliving things in an area _______ interact with one another. A. that B. where C. who D. what 18.【2013 北京 27】Many countries are now setting up national parks _______ animals and plants can be protected. A. when B. which C. whose D. where

2010 1-5ABCBA 6-10BCCDA 11-13ABD 2011 1-5CDBAD 6-10CACAC 11-15ABABC 2012 1-5BADBC 6-10CCDBA 11-14CBBB 2013 1-5DDAAB 6-10BDCBC 11-15CDBAC 16-18DAD\

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2014 全国高考汇编之定语从句
一 (2014 安徽卷) 22. The exact year 2008. A. When B. where C. why D. which Angela and her family spent together in China was

【举一反三】Between the two parts of the concert is an interval, _______ the audience can buy ice-cream. A. when B. where C. that D. which

二 (2014 北京卷) 26. I borrow the book Sherlock Holmes from the library last week, ______ my classmates recommended to me.. A.who B. which C. when D. Where

【举一反三】The Science Museum, London’s tourist attractions. A.which B.what

we visited during a recent trip to Britain, is one of

C.that

D.where they can

三(2014 福建卷)31. Students should involve themselves in community activities gain experience for growth. A. who B. when C. which D. where

【举一反三】Those successful deaf dancers think that dancing is an activity matters more than hearing. A.when B.whose C.which D.where

sight

四(2014 湖南卷)31.I am looking forward to the day and know my feelings for her. A. as B. why C. when D. where

my daughter can read this book

【举一反三】Between the two parts of the concert is an interval, _______ the audience can buy ice-cream. A. when B. where C. that D. which

五(2014 江苏卷)22. The book has helped me greatly in my daily communication, especially at work _____________________________________________________________ impression is a must.
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a good

A. which

B. when

C. as

D. where they can see themselves

【举一反三】 It’s helpful to put children in a situation differently. A. that B. when C. which

D. where

六 (2014 江西卷) 28. Among the many dangers_-- sailors have to face , probably the greatest of all is fog . A. which B. what C. where D. when

【举一反三】That evening, _____ I will tell you more about later, I ended up working very late. A. that B. which C. what D. when

七(2014 山东卷)10. A company ______profits from home markets are declining may seek opportunities abroad. A. which B. whose C. who D. why

【举一反三】The prize will go to the writer ________ story shows the most imagination. A. that B. which C. whose D. what

八(2014 陕西卷)13. Please send us all the information _________ you have about the candidate for the position. A. that B. which C. as D. what

【举一反三】 The old town has narrow streets and small houses _____are built close to each other. A. they B. where C. what D. that

九(2014 陕西卷)15. ________ the delayed flight will take off depends much on the weather. A. Why B. When C. That D. What

【举一反三】Scientists study ____ human brains work to make computers. A. when B. how C. that D. whether

十(2014 四川卷)4. I now, we have raised 50.000 pounds for the poor children. ______ is quite unexpected. A. that B. which C. who D. it

【试题延伸】非限制定语从句一般由 which 引导,可以指代整个句子,也可以指代前句的某 一个词, 对于此类题平时的学习要多解题, 对定语从句和名词性从句的异同及概念都要了如 指掌,在解题过程中,对于做错的题目要勤于积累,并加以复习,巩固。 【举一反三】ed came for the weekend wearing only some shorts and a T-shirt, ______ is a stupid
14

thing to do in such weather. A. this B. that C. what D. which

十一 (2014 天津卷) 12. English is a language shared by several diverse cultures, _________ uses it differently. A. all of which B. each of which C. all of them D. each of them 【举一反三】It is reported that two schools, open next year. A.they both B.which both C.both of them D.both of which are being built in my hometown, will

十二 (2014 浙江卷 ) 5. I don’t become a serious climber until the fifth grade, ______ I went up to rescue a kite that was stuck in the branches of a tree. 【举一反三】Between the two parts of the concert is an interval, _______ the audience can buy ice-cream. A. when B. where C. that D. which

十三(2014 重庆卷 )9.We'll reach the sales targets in a month____we set at at the beginning of the year. A. which B.where C. when D.what

【举一反三】English is a language shared by several diverse cultures, each of ____ uses it somewhat differently. A. which B. what C. them D. those

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2014 全国高考汇编之定语从句
一 (2014 安徽卷) 22. The exact year 2008. A. When 【考点】考察定语从句 【答案】D 【解析】 本题定语从句的先行词是 the exact year, 后面的定语从句 Angela and her family spent together in China 中动词 spent 后面缺少宾语,所以使用关系代词 which 引导这个定语从句, 并在句中做宾语。Where 的先行词通常是指地点的名词,关系副词 when 的先行词通常是表 示时间的名词,why 的先行词是 the reason。ABC 三项通常在句中做状语。Which 在定语从 句里做主语,宾语或者表语。句义:Angela 和他的家人一起在中国度假确切是在 2008 年。 故 D 正确。 【试题延伸】定语从句的考查主要就是考查关系词的辨析,关系代词 that, which, whose, whom, as, who 在句中做主语,宾语,表语或者定语;where, why, when 在句中做状语。要 分析句子成分,看缺少什么成分,就选用相应的关系词。 【举一反三】Between the two parts of the concert is an interval, _______ the audience can buy ice-cream. A. when 【答案】A 【考点】考查定语从句。 【解析】句意:音乐会的两大构成部分中间有幕间休息时间,在这段时间里观众可以去买冰 激凌。When 引导的定语从句修饰 an interval,when 在从句中作时间状语。首先解析句子结 构,判断从句类型,题干说“在音乐会中间有间歇,此时你可以买冰激凌。”题干的前半部分 完整无缺,后半部分补充说明这个间歇你可以干的事,所以这是一个非限定性定语从句,先 行词为 interval,非限定性定语从句的功能就是对先行词进行补充说明。由于从句部分不缺 少主干成分,而且 interval 表时间,所以正确答案为 A. 二 (2014 北京卷) 26. I borrow the book Sherlock Holmes from the library last week, ______ my
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Angela and her family spent together in China was

B. where

C. why

D. which

B. where

C. that

D. which

classmates recommended to me.. A.who C. when 【考点】考察定语从句 【答案】B 【解析】本题考察的是非限制性定语从句,先行词是 the book Sherlock Holmes,在定语从句 中 which 指代先行词作为定语从句中的动词 recommend 的宾语。CD 两项是关系副词,不能 在句中做宾语,只能做状语。A 项 who 的先行词通常都是指人的名词。句意:上个星期我 从图书馆里借了《福尔摩斯诡异》 ,这是我的同学推荐给我的。故 B 正确。 【试题延伸】非限定性定语从句起补充说明作用,缺少也不会影响全句的理解,在非限定性 定语从句的前面往往有逗号隔开, 如若将非限定性定语从句放在句子中间, 起前后都需要用 逗号隔开。 需要注意 which 引导的非限定性定语从句是用来说明前面整个句子的情况或主句 的某一部分。 在非限定性定语从句中,关系词不能用 that。 【举一反三】The Science Museum, London’s tourist attractions. A.which 〖答案〗A 〖考点〗考查非限制性定语从句 〖解析〗 which 引导非限制性定语从句, 指代先行词 the Science Museum, 同时又在从句中作 visited 的宾语。where 为关系副词, 不能作宾语;that 不能引导非限制性定语从句;what 不 能引导定语从句。 三(2014 福建卷)31. Students should involve themselves in community activities gain experience for growth. A. who B. when C. which D. where they can B.what C.that D.where we visited during a recent trip to Britain, is one of B. which D. Where

【考点】考察定语从句 【答案】D 【解析】本题定语从句的先行词是 community activities ,后面的定语从句 they can gain experience for growth 主谓宾句子结构很完整, 所以使用关系副词来引导这个定语从句, where 在句中相当于 in which,充当状语。句义:学生应该参与社区活动,在社区活动里他们能够 获得成长的经验。AC 是关系代词,不能在句中做状语。When 的先行词通常是表示时间的
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名词。故 D 正确。 【举一反三】Those successful deaf dancers think that dancing is an activity matters more than hearing. A.when 〖答案〗D 〖考点〗考查定语从句 〖解析〗句意为 “那些成功的盲人舞蹈家认为舞蹈是一项视觉比听觉更为重要的活动。”先 行词 activity 后跟定语从句, 从句中 where 作地点状语, 意为 “在那儿, 在那种情况或场合 下”。 四(2014 湖南卷)31.I am looking forward to the day and know my feelings for her. A. as B. why C. when D. where my daughter can read this book B.whose C.which D.where sight

【考点】考察定语从句 【答案】C 【解析】本题是一个定语从句,先行词是 the day,后面的定语从句结构非常完整,所以使 用关系副词 when 在句中做时间状语,同时引导起这个定语从句。句义:我一直都在期待着 我的女儿能够阅读并理解我对她的感情的那一天。故 C 正确。 【举一反三】Between the two parts of the concert is an interval, _______ the audience can buy ice-cream. A. when 【答案】A 【考点】考查定语从句。 【解析】句意:音乐会的两大构成部分中间有幕间休息时间,在这段时间里观众可以去买冰 激凌。When 引导的定语从句修饰 an interval,when 在从句中作时间状语。首先解析句子结 构,判断从句类型,题干说“在音乐会中间有间歇,此时你可以买冰激凌。”题干的前半部分 完整无缺,后半部分补充说明这个间歇你可以干的事,所以这是一个非限定性定语从句,先 行词为 interval,非限定性定语从句的功能就是对先行词进行补充说明。由于从句部分不缺 少主干成分,而且 interval 表时间,所以正确答案为 A. 五(2014 江苏卷)22. The book has helped me greatly in my daily communication, especially at work _____________________________________________________________
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B. where

C. that

D. which

a good

impression is a must. A. which B. when C. as D. where

【考点】考察定语从句 【答案】D 【解析】 本题定语从句的先行词是 work,后面的定语从句 a good impression is a must 的句子 结构很完整,所以使用关系副词在句中做状语,同时也引导起这个定语从句。句意:在日常 交流中这本书书帮助了很多,尤其是在需要有良好印象的工作之中。AC 两项都是关系代词 在句中不能做状语,when 的先行词通常都是指时间的名词。故 D 正确。 【试题延伸】where 引导定语从句时,是表示地点或者抽象意义“在…方面”,本身在从句部 分充当地点状语。并且有些时候一些词会很抽象的用作地点,比如,case,stage,position, state,activity,business,occasion,situation,point,work 等,但也要视情况而定。 【举一反三】 It’s helpful to put children in a situation differently. A. that 〖答案〗D 〖考点〗考查定语从句。 〖解析〗先行词是 situation, 指物, 亦可指地点, 关系词在从句中做地点状语, 用关系副词 where, 选 D。把孩子放在他们能够另眼看自己的环境里是有益的。 六 (2014 江西卷) 28. Among the many dangers_-- sailors have to face , probably the greatest of all is fog . A. which B. what C. where D. when B. when C. which D. where they can see themselves

【考点】考察定语从句 【答案】A 【解析】本题定语从句的先行词是 the many dangers,在定语从句中关系代词 which 指代先 行词在句中作为动词 face 的宾语,可以省略。CD 两项都是关系副词,在定语从句中通常只 作状语,不能做宾语。What 不是定语从句的关系词。句义:在士兵面对的很多危险中,也 许最大的危险是雾吧!故 A 正确。 【试题延伸】 解答定语从句的关键是分析句子成分, 如果定语从句中句子成分很完整就使用 关系副词来引导;如果句子缺少主语,宾语,表语或者定语的时候就使用关系代词。同时也 要注意一些关系词的特殊用法,尤其是 that/as 的特殊用法,既要注意普遍性,也要注意特
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殊性。 【举一反三】That evening, _____ I will tell you more about later, I ended up working very late. A. that B. which C. what D. when

【答案】B 【解析】这里 that evening 是先行词,其在定语从句中作介词 about 的宾语,所以用 which。 句意:以后我将和你谈起的那个晚上,我工作到了很晚。 七(2014 山东卷)10. A company ______profits from home markets are declining may seek opportunities abroad. A. which B. whose C. who D. why

【考点】考察定语从句 【答案】B 【解析】本题定语从句的先行词是 A company,后面的定语从句中名词 profits 前面缺少定语 修饰,所以使用关系代词 whose 引导起这个定语从句,并在句中做定语。ACD 三项通常都 不能在定语从句中做定语的。Whose profits 相当于 the profits of which。句义:一个利润主要 来自国内的公司也许可以开拓国际市场。故 B 正确。 【试题延伸】 定语从句的关系代词中要特别关注: Whose 是关系词中唯一的一个可以放在名 词前面做定语的关系代词,如果缺少定语,用 whose 引导定语从句,或是 of which the+名词 /the+名词+of which。 【举一反三】The prize will go to the writer ________ story shows the most imagination. A. that 【答案】C 【考点】考查定语从句。 【解析】本题主句中的先行词 writer 和从句中的主语 story 有所属关系,译为作者的故事, 因此选 C。句子的意思是:我们的奖金会留给故事情节最富有想象力的作者。 八(2014 陕西卷)13. Please send us all the information _________ you have about the candidate for the position. A. that B. which C. as D. what B. which C. whose D. what

【考点】考察定语从句 【答案】A 【解析】本题定语从句的先行词是 all the information,后面的定语从句 you have about the
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candidate for the position 中动词 have 后面缺少宾语,所以使用关系代词 that/which;当指物的 先行词前面有 all 修饰的时候,要使用关系代词 that。关系代词 as 引导的定语从句的先行词 前面提出要有 the same 等修饰。What 不能定语从句的引导词。句义:请把你有的申请这个 职位的所有候选人的信息都发给我。故 A 正确。 【举一反三】 The old town has narrow streets and small houses _____are built close to each other. A. they 【答案】D 【考点】此题考察定语从句的引导词。 【解析】关系代词 that 代替先行词 small houses,在从句中作主语。句意为:这座古老的城 镇街道狭窄,小房子挨得很近。 九(2014 陕西卷)15. ________ the delayed flight will take off depends much on the weather. A. Why B. When C. That D. What B. where C. what D. that

【考点】考察名词性从句 【答案】B 【解析】本题是名词性从句中的主语从句。句义:被延误的航班何时起飞要取决于天气。 Why 表示原因,that 在名词性从句中不充当成分,也没有意义;What 通常要在句中做主语, 宾语或者表语。根据句义说明使用 when。故 B 正确。 【举一反三】Scientists study ____ human brains work to make computers. A. when 【答案】 B 【考点】本题考查名词性从句。 【解析】 句意为: 科学家研究人类大脑是如何工作以制造出电脑的。 根据句意, 故答案选 B。 十(2014 四川卷)4. I now, we have raised 50.000 pounds for the poor children. ______ is quite unexpected. A. that B. which C. who D. it B. how C. that D. whether

【考点】考察非限制性定语从句 【答案】B 【解析】本句中的关系代词 which 指代前面主句的内容,引导非限制性定语从句,并在从句 中作主语。That 不能引导非限制性定语从句。Who 的先行词必须是人,it 不能引导定语从 句。句意:到现在为止,我们已经为贫穷的孩子募捐到了五万英镑,这一点是完全没有预料
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到的。故 B 正确。 【试题延伸】非限制定语从句一般由 which 引导,可以指代整个句子,也可以指代前句的某 一个词, 对于此类题平时的学习要多解题, 对定语从句和名词性从句的异同及概念都要了如 指掌,在解题过程中,对于做错的题目要勤于积累,并加以复习,巩固。 【举一反三】ed came for the weekend wearing only some shorts and a T-shirt, ______ is a stupid thing to do in such weather. A. this 【答案】D 【考点】考查定语从句。 【解析】分析句子结构可知,该句为定语从句,首先排除 A 和 C;根据空前的逗号可知, 该句为非限制性定语扶句,排除 B。该从句应用 which 引导,which 在从句中作主语,代指 前丽的整个句子。 十一 (2014 天津卷) 12. English is a language shared by several diverse cultures, _________ uses it differently. A. all of which B. each of which C. all of them D. each of them 【考点】考察定语从句 【答案】B 【解析】本题是一个定语从句,先行词是 several diverse cultures,在定语从句里使用 which 指代先行词作为介词 of 的宾语。排除 CD 项,这两项并不是定语从句。A 项在定语从句中 做主语的时候,谓语动词要使用复数形式,本题定语从句中的 uses 说明 A 项是错误的。B 项中的 each 做主语,谓语动词使用单数形式。句义:英语是一个被很多不同的文化共同使 用的语言,每一种语言使用英语的方法都是不一样的。故 B 正确。 【举一反三】It is reported that two schools, open next year. A.they both 〖答案〗D 〖考点〗此处考查定语从句 〖解析〗 应用关系代词, 因此排除 A、C 两项;B 项中的 both 应置于 are 之后, 所以只有 D. 十二 (2014 浙江卷 ) 5. I don’t become a serious climber until the fifth grade, ______ I went up to
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B. that

C. what

D. which

are being built in my hometown, will

B.which both

C.both of them

D.both of which

rescue a kite that was stuck in the branches of a tree. A. when 【考点】考察定语从句 【答案】A 【解析】 本题定语从句的先行词是 the fifth grade, 后面定语从句 I went up to rescue a kite that was stuck in the branches of a tree 中主谓宾句子结构很完整, 所以使用过膝副词来引导定语从 句,因为先行词是一个表示时间的名词,所以使用 when 来引导这个定语从句。直到五年级 我才成为一个很认真的攀登者,在那时我登高去拿下一个卡在树枝上的风筝。Where 的先行 词必须是一个表示地点的名词,why 的先行词是 the reason,关系代词 which 在句中做主语, 宾语或者表语。故 A 正确。 【举一反三】Between the two parts of the concert is an interval, _______ the audience can buy ice-cream. A. when 【答案】A 【考点】考查定语从句。 【解析】句意:音乐会的两大构成部分中间有幕间休息时间,在这段时间里观众可以去买冰 激凌。When 引导的定语从句修饰 an interval,when 在从句中作时间状语。首先解析句子结 构,判断从句类型,题干说“在音乐会中间有间歇,此时你可以买冰激凌。”题干的前半部分 完整无缺,后半部分补充说明这个间歇你可以干的事,所以这是一个非限定性定语从句,先 行词为 interval,非限定性定语从句的功能就是对先行词进行补充说明。由于从句部分不缺 少主干成分,而且 interval 表时间,所以正确答案为 A. 十三(2014 重庆卷 )9.We'll reach the sales targets in a month____we set at at the beginning of the year. A. which B.where C. when D.what 【考点】考察定语从句 【答案】A 【解析】本题考察的是定语从句中关系词的选择。本题定语从句的先行词是 the sales target, 后面的定语从句中动词 set 后面缺少宾语,所以使用关系代词 which 指代先行词,在句中作 为动词 set 的宾语。句意:一个月后我们就将实现年初的时候设定的销售目标。BC 两项都 是关系副词,它们在句中通常都作为状语。What 不是定语从句的关系词。故 A 正确。
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B. where

C. which

D. why

B. where

C. that

D. which

【试题延伸】定语从句是高考从句中必考的语法,在阅读文章中出现的频率也很高。关键在 于分析句子结构,定语从句中如果既不缺主语,也不缺宾语和表语,就要考虑是否用关系副 词或 whose 作定语,意为“谁的”。至于如何判断缺不缺主或是宾语,尤其是缺宾语的情况, 要将先行词带到定从中谓语动词之后看是否符合逻辑搭配, 如符合则缺宾语, 如不符合就不 缺。 【举一反三】English is a language shared by several diverse cultures, each of ____ uses it somewhat differently. A. which 【答案】A 【考点】考查定语从句。 【解析】本句中的先行词是 several diverse cultures,先行词在从句中做 each of 的宾语,所有 应用关系代词 which。 B. what C. them D. those

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定语从句解题策略 定语在句子中起修饰限定作用。定语的标志是“的” 。因此英语中多用形容词作定语。如果 一句话作定语就被称作定语从句。 从句结构:先行词(多为名词或代词)+关系词+从句(陈述语序) 先行词即定语从句所修饰的词,多为名词,也可以是代词。也可以说定语从句是名词或者 代词后的从句。 关系词分为关系代词和关系副词 指人 who/ that (做主语,宾语,表语) whom (宾语,表语) whose (定语) 关系代词 指物 which/that (主,宾,表), whose(定语) 关系词 关系副词 指时间 when 指地点 where 指原因 why 作状语 指物时关系代词 which 和 that 的区别 一般情况下二者可以互换 eg. I love this book which/that my brother bought for me. 定语从句中关系词必须用 that 的情况: 1. 被修饰的先行词是不定代词 all,much,something,everything,nothing,none,the one 等时, (注意:表示人的不定代词即可用 that 也可用 who/whom) 。 如: Anyone who/that doesn’t like this film must tell me. Do you have something that is very difficult to understand? All(that)I can do is to give him some hope. 2. 被修饰的先行词还有一些特定意义的修饰词,如:the only,the very,the right,any, every,no,all,much,many,little,few 等, 如: The only thing (that) we know is that the universe is very big. Any bus that can go there is OK. This is just the/the very/the right book I am looking for. There are few cars that are driving slowly. Every car that has a high price is worth what it costs. 3.句子中出现过 which 或 who 之类的词,为了避免重复,要用 that。 如:Who is the man that is speaking? The factory which produces shoes that are very good has gone bankru. 4. 关系代词在从句中作表语时, 多用 that。 如: She is not the girl that she was three years ago. 5.先行词被形容词最高级、序数词等修饰时,应用 that。如: Tang Guoqiang has become one of the best actors that appear on Chinese screens. 6. 先行词既有人又有物或 time, 如:Can you tell me the people and events(that)you saw in Britain? The man and his dog that looked odd came to me quietly. Each time that he came here, he would like to talk with her. 7.一个句子中有两个定语从句时,如第一个从句中已用 who,第二个从句中宜用 that。如: The man who is at table is his brother that has been serving in the army. 8. 当先行词是 to be 的表语, 或关系代词本身是从句的表语时, 关系代词应用 that。 如: 1) It's a song that is very popular.
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2)My hometown is no longer the place that it used to be. 9.当主句以 There be 开头时,关系代词应用 that。如: There is a seat in the corner that is still free. 10.当一个句子中含有两个定语从句时,如前一个已用关系代词 which,后一个关系代词宜 用 that。如: I'll borrow a book which tells about the heroic deeds that the PLA did in the battles against the invaders. 但两个定语从句的结构如果平行,一个定语从句中用关系代词 that,另一个定语从句也应 重复 that。如: He told me to read a book that is very short,and that is very interesting. 11. 与 the same (指同一物) 连用, 构成 the same. . . that. . . 结构时, 关系代词只能用 that。 如: This is the same museum that you once visited. 注意: the same. . . that. . . 结构中的 that 不能用 as 代替,因为 the same. . .as. . .与 the same. . .that. . .的含义不同。 关系代词必须用 which 的情况: 紧跟介词作宾语时,即介词+ which The building in which Han Mei studied was very old. 此类解题技巧是:记住与 which 相关的用法即可。其他的均用 that。 考点:关系词的选择 定语从句解题技巧: 1. 先看从句所缺句子成分。缺主,宾,表,定语,用关系代词。 不缺主,宾,表,定 (即缺状语)用关系副词。 注意:缺宾语时,可以将谓语动词与先行词连读,能搭配的即是缺宾语;反之缺状语。 2. 再看先行词的指代。 缺关系代词时,看先行词指人还是指物。 缺关系副词时,看先行词指时间,地点还是原因。 注意:why 的先行词只有 the reason. 如: 1. This is the village _____ I was born. 2. This is the village _____ I visited last year. 3. I still remember the days_____ we spent together. 4. I still remember the days______ we had a good time together. A. which/that B. when C. where D. what 解析:1. 选 C 先看从句句子成分:从句为主系表结构,即不缺主,表,用关系副词。 先行词 the village 指地点,用 where。 2. 选 A 先看从句句子成分:句子主语为 I,visit 是及物动词,后必须要有宾语。因此, 此句缺宾语,用关系代词。 先行词 the village 指物,用 which/that 3.选 A 先看从句句子成分:句子主语为 we,spent 是及物动词,后必须要有宾语。因此,此句缺 宾语,用关系代词。 先行词 the days 指物,用 which/that 4. 选 C 先看从句句子成分:从句为主谓宾结构,即不缺主,宾,用关系副词。 先行词 the days 指时间,用 when。

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