直接引语和间接引语详解 引述或转述别人的话称为“引语” 。直接引用别人的原话，两边用引号“ “标出，叫 做直接引语；用自己的语言转述别人的话，不需要引号这叫做间接引语， 1、人称的转变 1）直接引语中的第一人称，一般转换为第三人称，如： He said， “I am very sorry.” ——>He said that he was very sorry. 2）直接引语
中的第二人称，如果原话是针对转述人说的，转换为第一人称，如： “You should be more careful next time,” my father told me.——> My father told me that I should be more careful the next time. 3）直接引语中的第二人称，如果原话是针对第三人称说的，转换成第三人称。如： She said to her son, “I"ll check your homework tonight.” ——> She said to her son that she would check his homework that night. 4）人称的转换包括人称代词、物主代词和名词性物主代词等，如： He asked me, “Will you go to the station with me to meet a friend of mine this afternoon?” ——> He asked me whether I would go to the station with him to meet a friend of his that afternoon. 总之，人称的转换不是固定的，具体情况，具体对待，要符合逻辑。 2、时态的转换 直接引语 间接引语 直接引语 间接引语 一般现在时 一般过去时 一般过去时 过去完成时 现在进行时 过去进行时 过去完成时 过去完成时 现在完成时 过去完成时 过去进行时 过去进行时 一般将来时 过去将来时 例如： “I am very glad to visit your school”, she said. ——> She said she was very glad to visit our school. Mother asked, “Have you finished your homework before you watch TV?” ——> Mother asked me whether I had finished my homework before I watched TV. He asked the conductor, “Where shall I get off to change to a No. 3 bus?” ——> He asked the conductor where he would get off to change to a No. 3 bus. Mother asked me, “Had you finished your homework before you watched TV?” ——> Mother asked me whether I had finished my homework before I watched TV. He said， “I haven"t heard from my parents these days.” ——> He said that he hadn"t heard from his parents those days. 3、直接引语变成间接引语时，从句时态无须改变的情况 1）当主句的谓语动词是一般现在时的时候，如： He always says, “I am tired out.” ——>He always says that he is tired out. 2）当主句的谓语动词是将来时的时候，如： He will say, “I’ll try my best to help you.” ——>He will say that he will try his best to help me. 3）当直接引语部分带有具体的过去时间状语时，如：
He said, “I went to college in 1994.” ——>He told us that he went to college in 1994. 4）当直接引语中有以 when, while 引导的从句，表示过去的时间时，如： He said， “When I was a child, I usually played football after school.” ——> He said that when he was a child, he usually played football after school. 5）当直接引语是客观真理或自然现象时，如： Our teacher said to us, “Light travels faster than sound.” ——> Our teacher told us that light travels faster than sound. 6）当引语是谚语、格言时，如： He said， “Practice makes perfect.” ——>He said that practice makes perfect. 7）当直接引语中有情态动词 should, would, could, had better, would rather, might, must, ought to, used to, need 时，如： 例如： The doctor said, “You"d better drink plenty of water.” ——> The doctor said I"d better drink plenty of water. He said, “She must be a teacher.”——> He said that she must be a teacher. He said, “She ought to have arrived her office by now.”——> He said that she ought to have arrived her office by then. The teacher said, “You needn"t hand in your compositions today.”——> The teacher said we needn"t/didn"t need to/didn"t have to hand in our compositions. She asked, “Must I take the medicine?”——> She asked if she had to take the medicine. 8）此外转述中的变化要因实际情况而定，不能机械照搬，如果当地转述，here 不必 改为 there, 动词 come 不必改为 go，如果当天转述 yesterday, tomorrow, this afternoon 等均不必改 变。如： Teacher: You may have the ball game this afternoon. Student : What did the teacher say, Monitor? Monitor: He said we might have the ball game this afternoon. 4、时间状语、地点状语及某些对比性的指示代词和动词变化 1）时间状语： 直接引语 间接引语 直接引语 间接引语 now then tomorrow the next（following）day today that day next week the next（following）week（month, year） yesterday the day before two days ago two days before last week （month, year） the week（month, year）before this week that week（month, year） 2）指示代词：these 变成 those 3）地点状语：here 变成 there She said, “I won"t come here any more.”——> She said that she wouldn’t go there any more.. 4）动词：come 变成 go，bring 变成 take
5、直接引语变成间接引语，句子结构的变化 1）陈述句。用连词 that 引导，that 在口语中常省略。主句的谓语动词可直用接引语 中的 said, 也可用 told 来代替，注意，可以说 said that, said to sb. that, told sb. that，不可直接说 told that, 如： He said, “I"ll give you an examination next Monday.”——> He told us that he would give us an examination the next Monday.（不可说 told that） 此外主句中的谓语还常有： repeat, whisper, answer, reply, explain, announce, declare, think 等，又如： He said， “I"m late because of the heavy traffic.”——> He explained to us that he was late because of the heavy traffic. 如果间接引语是由 that 引导的两个或两个以上的并列从句， 第一个连词可以省略， 以 后的连词一般不省略，以免混乱。 The doctor said, “You are not seriously ill, You will be better soon.”——> The doctor said（that）I was not seriously ill and that I would be better soon. 2）直接引语为一般疑问句， （也称是否疑问句， ）间接引语用连词 whether 或 if 引导， 原主句中谓语动词 said 要改为 asked（me/him/us 等） ，语序是陈述句的语序，这一点非常重 要。 He said, “Do you have any difficulty with pronunciation?”——> He asked（me）whether/if I had any difficulty with my pronunciation. He said, “You are interested in English, aren"t you?”——> He asked whether I was interested in English. 3） 直接引语为选择疑问句，间接引语用 whether?or?表达，而不用 if?or?，也不 用 either?or?. 如： He asked, “Do you speak English or French?”——> He asked me whether I spoke English or French.. I asked, “Will you take bus or take train?”——> I asked him whether he would take bus or take train. 4）直接引语为特殊疑问句，改成间接引语时，原来的疑问词作为间接引语的连词， 主句的谓语动词用 ask（sb.）来表达，语序改为陈述句语序。如： He asked， “What"s your name?”——> He asked（me）what my name was. He asked us, “How many car factories have been built in your country?”——> He asked us how many car factories had been built in our country. 5）直接引语为祈使句时，改为间接引语，用带 to 的不定式表达，谓语动词常是 ask, advise, tell, warn, order, request 等。如 ask sb. to do， （由肯定祈使句变成）ask sb. not to do（由否定祈使句转变） ，并且在不定式短语中的时间状语、地点状语、人称及时态 都作相应的变化。如： He said， “Be seated, please.”——> He asked us to be seated. “Do be careful with your handwriting.” He said. ——> He told me to be careful with my handwriting. “Never come here again!” said the officer nearby. ——>
The officer ordered the villagers never to go there again. “Don"t touch anything in the lab without permission,” the teacher said. ——> The teacher warned the students not to touch anything in the lab without permission. 6）有些含有“建议”——>、 “劝告”——>的祈使句，可用 suggest, insist, offer 等动 词转述，如： He said, “Let"s have a rest.”——> He suggested our having a rest. He said, “Let me help you.”——> He offered to help me. 7）当直接引语形式上是疑问句，有表示请求，建议意义时，可用 ask sb. to do sth. /suggest doing/advise sb. to do sth. 等形式转述。如： “Would you mind opening the door?” he asked. ——>He asked me to open the door. “Why not going out for a walk?” he asked us. ——> He advised us to go out for a walk. 或 He suggested we go out for a walk. 8）直接引语是感叹句时，变间接引语可用 what 或 how 引导，也可用 that 引导，如： She said, “What a lovely day it is!”——> She said what a lovely day it was. 或 She said that it was a lovely day. 直接引语和间接引语练习 I. 请选出正确的答案： 1. Where was Alice’s sister? I don’t know where ________. A. was Alice’s sister C. is Alice’s sister A. did he say A. the reason why can be C. what the reason can be A. whether she will be fit for the job or not C. if she will be fit for the job 5. Is Mr. Wu from Beijing? I don’t know ________. A. where does he come from C. which city he comes from 6. Can you make sure ___________? A. that he will come here today C. will he come here today 7. Do you happen to know ________? B. when he will come here today D. whether will he come here today B. from where does he come D. what city he comes from B. he says B. Alice’s sister was D. Alice’s sister is C. he has said D. he said
2. What did he say? I don’t know what _________. 3. I don’t know ___________. B. why the reason may be D. what the reason may be B. whether or not she will be fit for the job D. what she will be fit for the job
4. I wonder ___________ .which of the following is not the right choice?
A. where is her address C. what her address is
B. in which place is her address D. the place her address is B. where I can get to the library D. how I can get to the library B. if or not would I like D. which I would like B. when did he begin to learn D. for how long he began to learn
8. Excuse me, but can you tell me ___________? A. where can I get to the library C. how can I get to the library A. how would I like C. whether I would like 10. I’d like to know ________ Chinese. A. when he began to learn C. when did he begin learning
9. John asked me _______ to visit his uncle’s farm with him.
II. 将下列句子变为间接引语： 1. “You should be more careful next time,” his father said to him. 2. Mr.Wang said,“I will leave for Shanghai on business next month, c hildren”
3. “I haven’t heard from my parents these days,” said Mary.
4. The geography teacher said to us, “The moon moves around the eart h and the earth goes round the sun.”
5. She said to him, “It’s time that you left here.”
6. Zhang Hong said to me, “Doctor Wang passed away in 1948.”
7. John said to his parents, “I had learned 500 Chinese words by the end of last term.”
8. The history teacher said to them, “The Chinese Communist Party wa s founded on July 1st , 1921.”
9. He said, “Are you a student?”
10. “Have you anything interesting I can read, George?” she said.
11. “She’s here to ask for help, isn’t she?” he asked.
12. “Where are you going?” the father asked his son.
13. “Are you sorry for what you have done?”the mother asked the nau ghty boy.
14. She said, “Did you meet this man at the station two hours ago, M r. Li?”
15. “Write your names on your papers first,” the teacher said to us .
16. “Please come here again tomorrow,” her friend said to her.
17. “Let me pack the parcel for you,” he said.
18. “Don’t make so much noise in class, boys and girls,” said the teacher.
19. “What a lovely day it is!”
20. “Happy New Year to you!” he said.
III. 把下列句子变为直接引语： 1. I told him that I had lost my money and that I would find it.
2. She asked whether I would be free the next day or not.
3. I asked her where she was going and what she was going to do the n ext day.
4. His father told him not to climb that high tree in his new coat.
5. The stranger asked me what my name was.
6. She said that she would finish her work the next day.
7. The teacher asked if we could do it.
8. The commander ordered his men not to cross the river before dawn.
9. My teacher asked whether he was coming.
10. The scientist asked me what I was doing.
答案 I. 1~5 B D C D C 6~10 A C D C A II. 1. His father told him that he should be more careful the next ti me. 2. Mr. Wang told the children that he would leave for Shanghai on bus iness the next month. 3. Mary said that she hadn’t heard from her parents those days. 4. The geography teacher told us that the moon moves around the earth
and the earth goes round the sun. 5. She told him that it was time that he left there. 6. Zhang Hong told me that Doctor Wang passed away in 1948. 7. John told his parents that he had learned 500 Chinese words by the end of last term. 8. The history teacher told them that the Chinese Communist Party was founded on July 1st, 1921. 9. He asked whether I was a student. 10. She asked George if he had anything interesting she could read. 11. He asked whether she was there to ask for help or not. 12. The father asked his son where he was going. 13. The mother asked the naughty boy if he was sorry for what he had done.
14. She asked Mr. Li whether he had met that man at the station two hours befor e.
15. The teacher told us to write our names on our papers first. 16. Her friend asked her to go there again the next/ following day. 17. He offered to pack the parcel for me. 18. The teacher told the boys and girls not to make so much noise in class. 19. He/ She exclaimed that it was really a lovely day. 20. He wished me a Happy New Year. III. 1. I said to him, “I have lost my money . I will find it.” 2. She asked , “ You will be free tomorrow, won’t you?” 3. I asked her, “Where are you going and what are you going to do to morrow?” 4. His father said, “Don’t climb this high tree in your new coat.” 5. The stranger asked, “ What’s your name?” 6. “I’ll finish my work tomorrow,” she said. 7. The teacher asked, “Can you do it ?” 8. The commander ordered his men, “Don’t cross the river before daw n.” 9. My teacher asked, “Is he coming?” 10. The scientist asked me, “What are you doing?”