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语气—虚拟语气


英语语法
Unit 9 虚拟语气

Unit 9 语气—虚拟语气
语气
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语气(the Mood): 表示说话人对所发生的动作或所处的 状态所持的态度和看法。 英语有三种语气:陈述语气,祈使语气, 虚拟语气。 陈述语气(the Indicative Mood):表示说话人认为

他所 说的是事实。有肯定、否定、疑问、感叹等形式。
e.g. The English have a wonderful sense of humor. e.g. I don’t like this mobile phone. e.g. Will you go to the cinema this evening? e.g. What a beautiful girl!

Unit 9 语气—虚拟语气
祈使语气
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祈使语气(the Imperative Mood):表示讲话人对对方 的请求或命令,用在祈使句中。动词用原形,否定式 一律用 “don’t + 动词”。
e.g. Pass me the tea, please. e.g. Don’t switch off the light.

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1) 主语一般为第二人称 “you”,除了表示强调(通常 在否定句中)或表示对照(通常在肯定句中),主语 一般不出现。
e.g. Don’t you mention that to him again.(表强调) e.g. You take that and I will take this. (表对照)

Unit 9 语气—虚拟语气
祈使语气
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注意:由于受汉语说话习惯的影响,常易出现如下错误:

e.g. Please you tighten your safety belt.(×)
e.g. Please tighten your safety belt.(√)
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2) let’s 和 let us let’s: 讲话对象包括听话人和讲话人双方,表提出建 议,常译为 “咱们...” let us: 讲话对象只是听话人,常译为 “让我们...”.
e.g. Let’s (not) discuss this question. e.g. Let us (them) have a try.

Unit 9 语气—虚拟语气
祈使语气
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3) 祈使句可用do来加强语气。 e.g. Do tell me why you were angry. 4) 祈使句后面可接附加疑问句,通常是 “will you?”和 “won’t you?” e.g. Be quiet, will you? 5) 祈使句也可用来表条件。 e.g. Do that again and ( = If you do that again, ) I’ll call the police.

Unit 9 语气—虚拟语气
虚拟语气
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虚拟语气(the Subjective Mood):表示所说的话与事 实相反或实现的可能性极小,或表示愿望、请求及建 议等。 英语条件句:真实条件句和非真实条件句。 真实条件句:表示提出的假设完全可以成为现实,因 此谓语动词用陈述语气。 e.g. If you don’t hurry, you will miss the bus. 非真实条件句:表示所提出的假设实现可能性极小或 与事实相反,所以谓语动词用虚拟语气。 e.g. If I were you, I would accept his offer.

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Unit 9 语气—虚拟语气
非真实 条件句
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非真实条件句的形式和用法: 1. 对现在情况的假设:表示现在实际上并不存在的情 况。 e.g. The platform would collapse if all of you stood on it. e.g. If my grandfather were alive, how happy he would be to see the great achievements of New China. 2. 对过去情况的假设:表示过去实际上并没有发生或 已经发生了的事情。 e.g. If the doctor had been available, the child would have been saved.

Unit 9 语气—虚拟语气
非真实条件句
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3. 对将来情况的假设:表示将来实现可能性不大的情 况。 e.g. If it should rain tomorrow, we would stay at home. e.g. I could see the surface of the moon with my own eyes if I were to go to the moon some day. e.g. If you missed the film together, you would feel sorry for it. 非真实条件句列表

Unit 9 语气—虚拟语气
非真实条件句

注意:
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(1) 含有助动词should的虚拟条件句,也可用在主句是陈述语气 或祈使语气的句子中。 e.g. If there should be another flood, what shall we do? e.g. Ask her to leave a message if she should come. (2) if only 和 suppose (supposing) 引导的虚拟条件句。 e.g. If only I had more money, I could buy a new laptop. e.g. Supposing it were fine tomorrow, would you go swimming with us? (3) “ If it were not/ had not been for...”,虚拟条件句型,意思 为“要不是...”,相当于but for 和 without。

Unit 9 语气—虚拟语气
非真实条件句 e.g. If it were not for the leadership of the party, we could not be living a happy life today. e.g. If it had not been for your help, we would not have achieved so much in our work. (4) 连词if的省略 在正式文体中,有时可把虚拟条件句中的连词if省略,而将 were, had, should等动词(不包括行为动词)提到主语前面。 e.g. Had the doctor been available, the child would have been saved. e.g. Were I to go to the moon some day, I should see the surface of the moon with my own eyes. e.g. Should it rain tomorrow, we would stay at home.

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Unit 9 语气—虚拟语气
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(5) 含蓄条件 假设情况有时是隐含在一个由介词(如without, but for, but that等)引起的短语中,或由连词but、副词 otherwise、比较级等表示的上下文中。 e.g. Without electricity, there would be no modern industry. e.g. But for your cooperation, we could not have succeeded in our experiment. e.g. But that she was afraid, she would have said no. e.g. I would be most glad to help you, but I’m busy now. e.g. A more careful person wouldn’t have made so many mistakes. (如果再细心一点,就不会出这么多错了。)

非真实条件句

Unit 9 语气—虚拟语气
非真实条件句
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(6) 错综时间

错综时间是指主句和从句的动作不是发生在同一时间, 这时需要根据意思采用表示不同时间的动词形式。
e.g. If I were you, I would have taken his advice. e.g. If he had listened to me, he would not be in such trouble now.

Unit 9 语气—虚拟语气
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虚拟语气的其他从句
1. 用于表示要求、建议、命令等的从句
(1) 宾语从句 形式:(should) + 动词原形

虚拟语气 的 其他从句

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e.g. He insisted that John (should) do the job. (坚持要求) 该类动词包括ask (要求), advise, demand (要求), decide, insist (坚持,坚决 要求), move (提议), prefer (宁愿), propose (提议), order (下令), command (命令), require (要求), request (请求), suggest, urge (主张)等。 注意:若上述动词+宾语从句不是表示主张、建议或要求等,而是表示其他 的意义,仍需用陈述语气。如:

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Unit 9 语气—虚拟语气

虚拟语气 其他从句

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e.g. He insisted that I was wrong. (坚持说,坚持认为) e.g. The expression on her face suggests that she knows the secret. (2) 主语从句 形式:It is + 形容词/ 过去分词 + 主语从句 (用虚拟语气) e.g. It is important that you (should) learn English well. e.g. It is suggested that you (should) plant more trees here. 该类形容词或过去分词包括advisable (合理的), desirable (理想 的), essential, important, imperative (迫切的), necessary, natural, preferable (更好的), urgent (紧迫的), desired (希望的), demanded (要求的), ordered (命令的), required (要求的), suggested (建议的)等。

Unit 9 语气—虚拟语气
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虚拟语气 其他从句

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(3) 表语从句 / 同位语从句 e.g. The demand is that everyone keep a diary in English. e.g. The suggestion that he be invited to the party was accepted. 该类名词有advice(忠告), command命令), order, demand, desire(要求), request(要求), requirement(要 求), idea(意见), insistence(主张), motion(提议), proposal(提议), suggestion, plan, recommendation(劝 告), preference(偏爱)等。

Unit 9 语气—虚拟语气
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2. wish + 宾语从句

虚拟语气 其他从句

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表示与事实相反或不可实现的愿望,译为“但愿...” “...就好 了”。 (1)从句谓语动作与主句谓语动作同时发生时, 宾语从句用动词 过去式 (be 动词用 were)。 e.g. I wish that this boy weren’t so short. (2)从句谓语动作先于主句谓语动作时, 宾语从句用 had + 动词 过去分词。 e.g. She wishes her father had not been ill with lung cancer. (3)从句表示将来的愿望时,宾语从句用 would / should 等+ 动 词原形。 e.g. I wish that my son would be a famous doctor.

Unit 9 语气—虚拟语气
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注意: (1) 在 It is wished that...以及wish作名词所引起的表语和 同位语从句中也要用虚拟语气,形式同上。 (2) If only引起的感叹句,意义相当于 “How I wish + 宾 语从句”, 因此也要求用虚拟语气,形式同上。 e.g. If only my mother could come! e.g. If only it hadn’t rained yesterday!

虚拟语气 其他从句

Unit 9 语气—虚拟语气
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3. would rather/ had rather/ would as soon/ would sooner/ would prefer (宁愿) 所跟的从句 表示希望或委婉的责备。动词用过去式表示当时或将 来的情况;用完成式表示过去的情况。 e.g. I would rather you won a prize. e.g. I would prefer he hadn’t done that.

虚拟语 气 其他从 句

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4. as if/ as though引起的状语从句和宾语从句
其动词形式与wish后宾语从句中的形式相同。 e.g. She looks after the orphan as if he were her own. e.g. Nick talked about the mayor as if he had known him before.

Unit 9 语气—虚拟语气
虚拟语气 其他从句
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5. It is (about/high) time + 从句
表示要去做的事情,含建议的意味,动词用过去式。 e.g. It is high time (that) we went to school.

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6. in case/ lest/ for fear that引起的状语从句
表示 “以防,以免”,其形式为 should + 动词原形。 e.g. Take the umbrella in case it should rain. e.g. She closed the window for fear that her baby should catch a cold.

Unit 9 语气—虚拟语气
虚拟语气 其他从句
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7. 表示委婉、客气
e.g. Would you mind my sitting here? e.g. Could you tell me where the hospital is?

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8. 表示惊奇、高兴、遗憾等感情色彩
e.g. It is strange that our teacher should look so pale. e.g. You should have passed the test. e.g. It is a miracle that she should recover from the disease.

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