起飞 除??之外还；既??又 在地平线上 下沉 下降 就在此刻 与??不同 目的是 在过去的五年里 颠倒地，倒置地 拿起；接受；开始；继续；占据（时间、空间等） 调大；出现；到场 退出；撒手 照承诺、计划去做 建立、设立 使理解（某事） ； （将??）讲清楚 渴望，对??着迷 轮流 支付 突然发生，爆发 把??关进监狱 坚持（某种说法）
大批地 在途中 为??做准备 损坏，破裂，分解 过了一会儿 用完，耗尽 曾经，一度 继续 避开，远离 就??达成协议 尽可能地 尤其，特别 把??与??联系起来 对??有影响 详细记载 喜爱，附属于 IV 单项选择 1.- I think you should phone Jeanne and say sorry to her. -__________ . It was her fault. A. No way all. B. Not possible C. No chance D. Not at
2. It was autumn _____ his wife returned from Spain. A. since B. when C. before D. that
3. He set out soon after dark ______ home an hour later. A. arriving B. to arrive C. having arrived D. and
arrived 4. –Sorry to have interrupted you, please go on. - Where was I? - You ______ you didn’t like your father’s job. A. had said saying B. said C. were
D. had been saying 5. I don’t know wh
ere are my glasses, _______ I can’t read anything. A. with which B. by which C. without which D. in wh
ich 6. Taiwan is part of China, _______ is known to all the world. A. what B. as C. that D. such 7
. The reason _____ she explained seemed reasonable. A. why B. that C. what D. if 8.
To my _______, he was able to recite the whole poem from memory. A. a maze B. amazed C. amazement D. amazing 9. The
foreigners are ______ by the _______ achievements that the Chinese h ave made recently in socialist construction A. amazing?amazing ed?amazing on the box are very ________. B. amazed?amazed C. amaz
D. amazing?amazed 10.The instructions
se 11.He was against the law and put into _______ last month for robb ery. A. the prison son B. a prison C. prison D. pri
12.When it stopped, people got on the bus ________. B. on the turn C. by turn D. at eve
A. in turn ry turn
13. The May Fourth Movement against imperialism and feudalis
m _____ in Beijing in 1919. A. broke down e up B. broke out C. broke into D. brok
14. We firmly ______ the fundamental principles of Marxism- Len
inism. A. stand up B. stand about C. stand by D. stand b
ack 15. The pollutant will give off a large _______ of heat. A. quantity 语法归纳 1．State or activity verbs 在英语动词当中，有些动词表示动作，我们把它们称之为 activity verb ,有些 动词表示状态,我们把这类动词叫做 state verb。第一类动词可用作一般现在时 和现在进行时，而第二类动词多用于一般现在时，而不用于进行时 态 。 He gets up at six every morning. 他 每 天 早 晨 六 点 钟 起 床 。 （动 作 ） He is getting up now. 他 现 在 正 在 起 床 。 （ 动 B. sum C. number D. lot
作） It seems that yu are right.似乎你是对的。 （状态）
有些动词既可用作表示动作，也可用作表示状态，但在意义有区别。 He has two elder brothers and a younger sister.
他有两个哥哥和一个妹妹。 （状态） He is having his breakafast. 他在吃早饭。 （动作） They are holding a meeting.他们在开会。 （动作） The can holds two gallons.这个桶能装两加仑。 （状态） She is holding a large box.她提着一只大箱子（动作） I still hold that his idea is wrong. 我仍然认为他的观点是错的。 （状态） People are lying on the beach. 人 们 躺 在 海 滩
上。 The city lies on the coast. 这座城市位于海岸边。 常用表示状态的动词有： mean seem concern hate dislike detest(厌恶、憎恨) surprise major（主修） cintains hold matter depend resemble（象、类似） guess suppose imagine own belong to deserve（应受、值得） admire adore（崇拜、爱慕） appear be believe belong consist desire （期望、希望） despair doubt envy exist feel fit forget have hear hope impress （留下 印象） include involve（包括、使陷于）
keep know lack last like love need owe（感激、把?归功于） please possess9 拥有） prefer prove realize recognize remember require satisfy(满足) seat see smell sound suspect （怀疑、猜想） think understand wish etc. What do you mean? 你是什么意思？ This concerns everyone of us.这关系到我们每个人。 We hate such people.我们讨厌这样的人。 All this surprises me.这一切使我吃惊。 She majors in English.她主修英语。 The box contains a necklace.盒子里有一条项链。 Your age doesn’t matter.你的年龄没有关系。 It depends on the weather.这要看天气如何。 Jim resembles his sister.吉姆长得像他姐姐。 I guess that’s the only solution.我想这是唯一的解决办法。 We own the house.这是我们的房子。 This book belongs to me.这本书是我的。 I don’t deserve the honor.我不配得到这个荣誉。 有一些动词表示一个极为短暂的动作，也可用于一般现在时。 I declare this exhibition open.我宣布展览会开幕。 It’s a lovely place. – I agree. 这是一个招人喜欢的地方。- 我同意。 The Bible says love of money is the root of all evil.圣经说爱财是万恶
之源。 I advise you to withdraw.我劝你退出。 I promise you that I will be there.我答应你我会去。 This, I admit, is my favorite activity.这个我承认是我最喜欢的活动。 With this letter I enclose a photograph. 随信附上一张照片。 I flatly refuse to do what you say.我断然拒绝做你说的事。 I regret my ignorance on the subject.对这个问题无知我感到遗憾。 有少数表示极为短暂的动作动词，可用于进行时态，表示反复做某个动作或“即 将?” 。 He is jumping up and down.他上下地跳着。 John is nodding his head.约翰频频点头。 Why is she blinking her eyes?她为什么老眨眼睛？ The train is arriving.火车即将到达。 The Boeing 747 is taking off.那架波音 747 即将起飞。 The old man is dying.老人生命垂危。 动词 be 有时用于进行时态，表示一时的表现。 I’m being serious.我是说正经的。 I know I’m being selfish.我知道我这样做是自私的。 H is being terribly friendly to us.他对我们表现得友好之极。
限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句的区别 限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句有四大区别 一、在句中作用不同
限制性定语从句对被修饰的先行词有限定制约作用，使该词的含义更具体，更 明确。限制性定语从句不能被省略，否则句意就不完整。 非限制性定语从句与先行词关系不十分密切，只是对其作一些附加说明，不起 限定制约作用。如果将非限制性定语从句省去，主句的意义仍然完整。 二、外在表现形式不同 限制性定语从句因与先行词关系密切，所以不可以用逗号将其与主句隔开；而非 限制性定语从句与先行词关系不十分密切，所以可用逗号将其与主句隔开。 例 1. Do you remember the girl who taught us English？ 你还记得教我们英语的那个女孩吗？ 例 2. Clock is a kind of instrument which can tell people time. 钟是一种能够告诉人们时间的仪器。 例 3. This is the place where he used to live. 这就是他过去居住的地方。 例 4. Mr. Zhang， who came to see me yesterday， is an old friend of mine. 张先生昨天来看我，他是我的一位朋友。 例 5. We walked down the village street， where they were having ma rket day. 我们沿着村里的大街向前走去，村民们正在那里赶集。 析：在前三个例句中，定语从句与先行词关系密切，为限制性定语从句，不可 用逗号将其与主句隔开。在后两个例句中，定语从句与先行词关系不密切，为非 限制性定语从句，可用逗号将其与主句隔开。 三、先行词内容有所不同 大多数限制性和非限制性定语从句的先行词往往为某一个词或短语， 而特殊情 况下非限制性定语从句的先行词也可为整个主句，此时非限制性定语从句常 由 which 引导。 例 1. A middle-aged woman killed her husband， which frightened me very much. 一个中年女子杀害了自己的丈夫，这令我十分恐惧。
析：由语境可知，令“我”恐惧的内容应为“中年女子杀害了自己的丈夫”这 整个一件事，因此先行词为整个主句，此时应由 which 引导定语从句。 例 2. A five-year-old boy can speak two foreign languages ， which sur prises all the people present. 一个五岁男孩会讲两门外语，这令所有在场的人感到非常惊讶。 析：由语境可知，令所有在场的人感到惊讶的内容是“一个五岁男孩会讲两门外 语”这整个一件事，因此先行词为整个主句，此时应由 which 引导非限制性定 语从句。 四、关系词的使用情况有所不同 （一） that 不可用于引导非限制性定语从句 所有关系代词和关系副词均可引导限制性定语从句， 大多数关系代词和关系副 词可引导非限制性定语从句，但 that 不可。 例 1. 他送给他母亲一台彩电作为生日礼物，这使她非常高兴。 误： He gave his mother a color TV set for her birthday ， that please d her a lot. 正： He gave his mother a color TV set for her birthday， which ple ased her a lot. 值得注意的是，不少同学误认为只有 which 才能引导非限制性定语从句，这 个观点是不正确的。使用非限制性定语从句时，如果先行词指人，则 用 who ， which 或 whose 引导非限制性定语从句；先行词指物可用 which 引 导非限制性定语从句；先行词表时间或地点且在从句中作时间状语或地点状语 时，可用 when ， where 引导非限制性定语从句。 例 1. We'll graduate in July， when we will be free. 我们将于七月份毕业，到那时我们就自由了。 例 2. Last Sunday they reached Nanjing， where a conference was to be held. 他们上周日到达南京，有个会议要在那里举行。 （二）关系代词替代情况不同 关 系 代 词 whom 在 限 制 性 定 语 从 句 中 作 宾 语 时 可 用 who 代 替 whom ，
但 whom 在非限制性定语从句中作宾语时不可用 who 来代替。 例 1. This is the girl whom I met in the street. 的那个女孩。 析： 先行词 the girl 在限制性定语从句中作宾语，可用 who 代替 whom . 例 2. A young man had a new girl friend， whom he wanted to impress . 一个年轻的小伙子新交了一个女朋友，他想给她留下深刻的印象。 析： 先行词 a new girl friend 在非限制性定语从句中作宾语，不可用 who 代 替 whom . 在限制性定语从句中，先行词指人时可用 that 代替 who/ whom ，但在非限 制性定语从句中先行词指人时，不可用 that 代替 who/whom . 例：她有一个姐姐，她是教师。 误： She has a sister， that is a teacher. 正： She has a sister， who is teacher. （三）关系代词省略情况不同 关系代词在限制性定语从句中作宾语时可以省去， 非限制性定语从句的所有关 系词均不可省。 例 1. This is the book （which/that） he lost yesterday. 这就是他昨天丢的那本书。 析： 先行词 the book 在限制性定语从句中作宾语， 关系代词 which 或 that 可 以省略。 例 2. The book， which he lost yesterday， has been found. 他昨天丢了这本书，但现在已找到了。 析： 先行词 the book 在非限制性定语从句中作宾语， 关系代词 which 不可省。 这是我在街上遇到
注意： 在非限制性定语从句中，which 和 as 引导定语从句时的区别： a. which 引导的从句不能放在主句前， 而 as 引导的从句则既可以放在主 句前，也可以放在主句后。例如：
As (正确) Which (错误)
is often the case, he is absent.
He saw the girl, as (正确) Which （正确）
He had hoped.
b.能做关系代词， as 和 which 都可以指代一个句子， 但 as 有“正如”、 “就 像”之意，which 则没有此含义。 He is a foreigner, as I know from his accent. (as 指代一个句子， 意为“正如”、 “就 像”) He has to work on Sunday, which he doesn’t like. (which 指代一个句子，没有 “正如”、“就像”)
限定性及非限定性定语从句练习 21.The letter is from my sister, ______is working in Beijing. A. which B. that C. whom D. who 22.In our factory there are 2,000 workers, two thirds of ____are wome n. A. them B. which C. whom D. who 23.You're the only person ______I've ever met ______could do it. A. who;/ B./; whom C. whom;/ D./; who 24.I lost a book, ______I can't remember now. A. whose title B. its title C. the title of it D. the title of that 25.Last summer we visited the West Lake, ______Hangzhou is famous in the world. A. for which B. for that C. in which D. what 26.I have bought such a watch _______ was advertised on TV. A. that B. which C. as D. it 27.I can never forget the day _______ we worked together and the day ______ we spent together.
A. when; which B. which; when C. what; that D. on which; when 28.The way ______he looks at problems is wrong. A. which B. whose C. what D./ 29.This is the reason ______he didn't come to the meeting. A. in which B. with which C. that D. for which 30.This machine, ______for many years, is still working perfectly. A. after which I have looked B. which I have looked after C. that I have looked after D. I have looked after 31.The reason ______he didn't come was ______he was ill. A. why; that B.that;why C. for that;that D.for which;what 32.He is working hard, ______will make him pass the final exam. A.that B.which C.for which D.who 33.That is not the way ______I do it. A./ B.which C.for which D.with which 34.I have two grammars, ______are of great use. A. all of which B. either of which C. both of that D. both of which 35.I want to use the same tools _______used in your factory a few day s ago. A. as was B. which was C. as were D. which 36.My neigh bours used to give me a hand in time of trouble, _______ was very kind of them. A. who B. which C. that D. it 37.This is the magazine _______ I copied the paragraph. A. that B. which C. from that D. from which 38.He is not such a man _______ would leave his work half done. A. that B. which C. who D. as 39. You can depend on whatever promise _______ he makes. A. / B. why C. when D. whose 40. Smoking, _______ is a bad habit, is, however, popular.
A. that B. which C. it D. though