非谓语动词主要包括不定式、动名词和分词。非谓语动词一直是高考中的热点。解答非 谓语动词的题目时，一定要解析句子结构，确定所设空是谓语动词还是非谓语动词，以及非 谓语动词在句子中充当的功能(如状语、定语或宾补)；找准相关动词的逻辑主语，确定该动 词与逻辑主语是什么关系(主动还是被动)；搜索句子中相关的时间信息，确定非谓语动词的 恰当形
式。 非谓语 功能 主动式 动名词 具有名词功能，常在句中作 主语，宾语 表主动和正在进行， 常在 句中作定语， 状语，宾补 表被动和已完成，常在句中 作定语，状语，补语 表将来具体某一次，常在句 中作主语，定语，状语，补 语，宾语等 被动式 完成式 一般式 完成式 一般式 进行式 完成式 一般式 进行式 完成式 形式 doing being done having done/having been done doing having done done being done having been done to do/to be done to be doing to have done/to have been done
现在 分词 过去 分词
①如果表语是不定式，主语也是不定式；表语是动名词，主语也是动名词。如： To see is to believe.＝Seeing is believing. ②动名词作主语的句型。如： It is no use/no good/useless doing sth. It is a waste of time doing(也可用 It is a waste of time to do) ③动词不定式和动名词的复合结构： 动词不定式的复合结构有两种：It is difficult/easy/possible/necessary/...for sb. to do sth.和 It is kind/wise/foolish/considerate/...of sb. to do。 动名词的复合结构是由名词所有格或“物主代词＋动名词”构成。 在口语和非正式语体 中，只要不是作主语，动名词复合结构中的逻辑主语常采用名词通格或人称代词宾格。如： His coming made me happy. I can't imagine his/him living there alone. ④动名词被动式作主语(过去分词不可作主语)。如： Being exposed to the sunlight for a long time does harm to your skin.
①It's foolish ____________________________(你相信他说的话)． ②It's impossible ____________________________(他做这样的事)． ③Do you mind ____________________________(我抽烟)? ④It's no use ____________________________(你和他争辩)． ⑤________(go) abroad is an honour to me. ⑥________(take) abroad is an honour to me. ⑦________(devote) to his work made him succeed.
①下面的动词要求用不定式作宾语： attempt(企图)， afford(负担得起)， demand(要求)， long(渴望)， desire(渴望)， expect， hope， wish，want，swear(发誓)，volunteer(自愿)，offer(提供)，fail(未能)，plan，care(关心，喜欢)， happen(碰巧)， prepare(准备)， learn(学习)， choose(选择)， hesitate(犹豫)， claim(要求)， promise， undertake(承接)，appear(似乎)，seek(寻觅)，refuse(拒绝)，decide(决定)，determine(决定)， manage(设法)，pretend(假装)，agree(同意)，bother(烦恼)，intend(想要)，wait(等待) ②下面的动词只能用动名词作宾语： acknowledge(承认)， admit(承认)， deny(否认)， mention(说到， 讲到)， tolerate/stand/bear(忍 受)，dislike(不喜欢)，advocate(提倡，主张)，appreciate(感激，欣赏)，avoid(避免)，enjoy(享 受 ) ， envy( 嫉 妒 ) ， delay( 延 迟 ) ， postpone( 延 迟 ， 延 期 ) ， escape( 逃 跑 ， 逃 避 ) ， excuse/pardon/forgive(原谅)， fancy(幻想， 爱好)， imagine(想象)， favour(造成， 偏爱)， mind(介 意 ) ， miss( 错过 ) ， finish( 完成 ) ， resist( 抵抗 ) ， risk( 冒险 ) ， involve( 包含 ) ， practise( 实践 ) ， suggest/advise/recommend( 建议 ) ， prevent( 阻止 ) ， keep( 保持 ) ， quit/abandon( 放弃，停止 ) ， understand(理解)，include(包括) ③后接动名词作宾语的动词短语和句型有： have(no/much/some/...) difficulty/trouble/a hard time(in)， take pleasure in， spend time/money (in)，waste time(in)，be worth，be busy，feel like，be committed to ④to 作为介词的短语有： look forward to，pay attention to，object to＝be opposed to，be devoted to，stick to，come close to( 差一点 ) ， get down to( 开始认真做 ) ， get/be accustomed/used to(doing), lead to ＝ contribute to(sb. doing/being done) ⑤allow，permit，forbid，advise，recommend 的用法： allow/permit/forbid/advise/recommend＋doing allow/permit/forbid/advise/recommend＋sb.＋to do 如： I don't allow smoking in my room. I don't allow him to smoke in my room.
用所给词的适当形式填空： ①We agreed ________(meet) here but so far she hasn't turned up yet. ②The discovery of the new evidence led to the thief ________(catch)． ③Janey pretended __________(write) when her mother came in. ④I can hardly imagine Peter ________(sail) across the Atlantic Ocean in five days. ⑤The doctor advised him ________(stop) smoking.
①forget to do sth. 忘记要去做某事(此事未做) forget doing sth. 忘记做过某事(此事已做过或已发生) remember to do sth. 记得去做某事(未做) remember doing sth. 记得做过某事(已做) ②stop to do 停止(某件事)，目的是去做另一件事 stop doing 停止正在或经常做的事 go on to do 继续(去做另外一件事情) go on doing 继续(原先没有做完的事情) ③regret to do sth. 对要做的事感到遗憾(遗憾地要去做某事) regret doing sth. 对过去做过的事或未做过的事感到后悔(后悔做过或未做过某事) ④try to do 努力、企图做 try doing 试验、试一试某种办法 ⑤mean to do (人)打算，有意要?? mean doing (物)意味着 ⑥can't help (to) do sth. 不能帮助做某事 can't help doing sth. 情不自禁做某事
用所给词的适当形式填空： ①Don't you remember ________(see) the man before? ②I regret ________(inform) you that the meeting has been cancelled. ③Let's try ________(do) the work some other way. ④I didn't mean ________(hurt) your feeling. ⑤I'm so busy that I can't help ________(clean) the house with you. ⑥After we finished our homework，we went on ________(review) the new lesson.
①不定式作表语，一般表示具体动作，特别是表示将来的动作。 动名词作表语，表示抽象的一般性的行为。 ②如果主语是以 aim，duty，hope，idea，happiness，job，plan，problem，purpose，thing， wish 等为中心的名词，或以 what 引导的名词性从句，不定式作表语是对主语起补充说明作 用。 ③过去分词作表语，表示“感到，觉得”，现在分词作表语，表示“令人??”。此类 词有：embarrass，excite，interest，delight，disappoint，encourage，inspire，please，puzzle， satisfy，surprise，worry，convince 等。
用所给词的适当形式填空： ①His wish is ________(go) abroad. ②His hobby is________(collect) stamps. ③The most important thing is ________(negotiate) with them about the future of the plant. ④What he should do is ________(work) hard.
⑤He felt ________(embarrass)．
①下面的动词要求用不定式作宾补(动词＋宾语＋动词不定式)： ask(请， 叫)， tell(告诉)， get(使， 让)， prefer(喜欢， 宁愿)， like(喜欢)， force(强迫)， press(迫 使)， require(要求)， request(请求)， advise(劝告)， pray(请求)， remind(提醒)， beg(请求)， invite(吸 引， 邀请)， command(命令)， order(命令)， intend(想要， 企图)， drive(驱赶)， train(训练)， cause(引 起)，instruct(指示)，direct(指导)，warn(告诫)，enable(使能够)，need(需要)，urge(激励，力 说)，inspire(鼓舞)，encourage(鼓励)，want(想要)，lead(引起，使得)，teach(教)，wish(希望)。 ②感官动词，如：see，watch，observe，notice，look at，hear，listen to，feel 等。感官 动词后可接不带 to 的不定式、现在分词、过去分词作宾语补足语。 使役动词 have， make 的用法(注意 have 作为“有”的用法)： 使役动词 have 可接不带 to 的不定式、现在分词、过去分词作宾语补足语；make 后接不带 to 的不定式、过去分词、名 词、形容词作宾语补足语。 ③catch，find，get，leave，keep，set，send 后接非谓语动词作宾语补足语。
用所给词的适当形式填空： ①I often hear him ________(sing) the song. I often hear the song________(sing)． I heard him ________(sing) the song when I passed by. I heard the song ________(sing) when I passed by. ②I'm leaving for Beijing tomorrow. Do you have anything ________(take) to your son? I won't have you ________(talk) to him like that! I had him ________(repair) my bike. I had my bike ________(repair)． You shouldn't have the light ________(burn) all the night. ③His letter left me ________(feel) pretty bad. He left the work________(unfinish)． You can leave him ________(finish) the work. What she said set me ________(think)． The push sent him ________(fall) down.
分词作状语，除表示伴随之外还表示时间、让步或条件。 动词不定式作状语时，除了表示目的，还表示结果、情感或心理状态原因。尤其注意表 示特性的形容词(comfortable，difficult，easy 等)后接的不定式要用主动形式表示被动意义。
用所给词的适当形式填空： ①________(turn) to the right，you will find the hospital. ②________(give) more time，I will finish the work.
③________(wait) for a bus，I met a friend of mine. ④He was excited ________(hear) the news. ⑤He did all he could ________(help) people in need. ⑥The place he referred to is hard ________(find)．
不定式作定语，表示将来；现在分词作定语，表示正在发生或主动；过去分词作定语， 表示过去或被动。 此外，在 warning，ability，failure，determination，wish，decision 等词后面用不定式作 定语；不定式作定语还可用来修饰序数词、最高级或 no，all，any 等限定语。
用所给词的适当形式填空： ①The meeting________(hold) tomorrow is important. ②The meeting________(hold) now is important. ③The meeting ________(hold) yesterday was important.
用所给词的适当形式填空： ①________(see) from the top of the hill，the people on the street look like ants. ________(see) the scene，the people on the street let out a cry of joy. ②The room________(face) south is our classroom. The room ________(paint) white is mine. ③When I returned，I found the door ________(lock)． When I returned，I found him ________(watch) TV.
疑问词 who，what，which，when，where 和 how 后加不定式可构成一种特殊的不定式 短语。它在句中可以作主语、宾语、表语和宾语补足语。
用所给词的适当形式填空： When________(start) has not been decided.
only to do，never to do，only doing
only to do 意为“结果却”；
never to do 意为“结果却再没有”； only doing 意为“只是做”。
用所给词的适当形式填空： ①He was busy writing a story，only________(stop) once in a while to smoke a cigarette. ②He hurried there，only ________(tell) the train had left. ③He left home，never________(hear) from.
完成下列句子： ①______________ the film(看电影的时候)，he cried. ②________ the film(看电影的时候)，tears came down his face.
with 后面的宾补可以是形容词、 副词、 介词短语、 现在分词(表主动)、 过去分词(表被动)、 不定式(表将来)。with 复合结构在句中作原因或伴随状语，还可以作定语。
用所给词的适当形式填空： ①With a lot of homework ________(finish)，I can't go with you. ②With a lot of homework ________(finish)，I went home and had a rest. ③With a boy ________(help) us，we found the place easily.
独立主格结构的构成： ①名词(代词)＋现在分词(与前面构成主动关系)； ②名词(代词)＋过去分词(与前面构成被动关系)； ③名词(代词)＋不定式(表将来)； ④名词(代词)＋副词； ⑤名词(代词)＋形容词； ⑥名词(代词)＋介词短语； ⑦名词(代词)＋名词。 Weather permitting, we are going to visit you tomorrow. The test finished, we began our holiday. There being no bus, we had to walk home. He came into the room, his ears red with cold.
He came out of the library, a large book under his arm. The villagers, most of them women and children, were killed that night.
完成下列句子： ①Many people were missing，most of ________ women. ＝Many people were missing，most of ________were women. ②Time ________(permit)(＝If time permits)，we will go there. ③Time ________(give)(＝If time is given)，I will finish it alone.
评注性分词有： judging from/by( 按照??判断 ) ， considering( 就??而言 ) ， generally speaking(总的来说)，talking/speaking of(说起)。但是注意区别 judge 和 consider 作为及物动 词时的用法。
用所给词的适当形式填空： ①________(judge) from his accent，he is from Hunan. ________(judge) to be the best，he was honoured. ②________(consider) his age，he has done well. ________(consider) as one of the biggest cities in the world，Shanghai is very popular now.
be seated＝sit， be located＝lie， be dressed in＝wear， be left＝remain， be devoted to＝devote oneself to。
用所给词的适当形式填空： ①Do you know the girl________(seat) under the tree? ②There are many problems________(remain) to be solved. There are many problems ________(leave) unsolved. ③________(devote) to science，he will be remembered forever. ________(devote) all his life to science，he will be remembered forever.
当非谓语动词的动作发生在主句谓语动作之前， 要用完成式。 非谓语动词的否定式放在 不定式、动名词或分词前。
用括号里所给词的适当形式填空： ①________(see) his mother，the child smiled.
②________(see) the film many times，I know it well. ③________(show) around the lab，the visitors were taken to the library. ④His mother told him ________(not leave) his work unfinished. ⑤He looked forward ________(not cancel) the concert. ⑥________(not receive) his answer，I decided to write to him again.
有时要区分用谓语还是非谓语。 现在分词作状语， 表伴随动作和谓语动词的动作同时进 行。并列谓语之间有 and, 用在最后一个谓语前，构成 A and B, 或 A、B and C; 否则，要把 其中一个变为非谓语。
①At last, we found ourselves in a pleasant park with trees providing shade and ______ down to eat our picnic lunch. A. sitting B. having sat C. to sit D. sat ②As the light turned green, I stood for a moment, not ______， and asked myself what I was going to do. A. moved B. moving C. to move D. being moved
①Lots of rescue workers were working around the clock, ______ supplies to Yushu, Qinghai Province after the earthquake. A. sending B. to send C. having sent D. to have sent ②I explained the theory as clearly as possible, ______ to make it easy ______. A. to hope; to understand B. hoped; understood C. hoping; to understand D. to hope; to be understood
there be 结构
there＋be＋名词＋doing/done/to do； deny/appreciate/mind/imagine/admit＋介词＋there being； want/expect/hope/wish/like/hate/would like/prefer/mean/intend＋there to be。 there being 是独立主格结构。 There is no doing 意为“不可能??，无法??”。
用所给词的适当形式填空： ①There is a great deal of evidence ________(indicate) that music activities engage different parts of the brain. ②The students expected there ________(be) more reviewing classes before the final exams. ③Ann never dreams of there ________(be)for her to be sent abroad very soon. ④There ________(be) no money left, I can't buy the book.
不定式 to 后的省略
一般保留动词不定式符号 to，若 to 后有助动词 have, be, have been, 则也要保留。
①The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him ________． A. not to B. not to do C. not do it D. do not to ②In my opinion, life in the twenty－first century is much easier than ________． A. that used to be B. it is used to C. it was used to D. it used to be ③—You should have worked harder. —I know I ________． A. ought to B. ought to have C. should D. will ④—He wasn't helped yesterday. —He ought to ________． A. have B. be C. have been D. have done
不定式 to 的省略
①不定式作表语时，如果前面有实义动词 do 的形式时，to 要省略； ②不定式作感官动词和使役动词的宾语补足语时，要省略 to； ③由并列连词 and，except, but, than, or 连接两个以上的具有相同意义或功能的不定式 时，第二个动词不定式不带 to； [注]如果两个不定式表示对照或对比，则不能省略 to。如： It's easier to make a plan than to carry it out. ④动词 help 后用作宾语或宾语补足语时，不定式可以不带 to； ⑤“why not＋省略 to 的不定式(动词原形)”表示建议，意为“为什么不” ； “why ＋省略 to 的不定式(动词原形)”表示不赞成； ⑥动词不定式作 but, except 的宾语时，如果前面有实义动词 do 的形式时，要省略 to； ⑦不定式构成的特殊句式：
too 与 ready, easy, willing, eager, anxious 等形容词连用，此时不定式没有否定意义，too 相当于 very。如： I am too willing to help you. too 在 not, never, only, all, but 后，不定式表示肯定含义。
①If he takes on this work, he will have no choice but ______ an even greater challenge. A. meets B. meeting C. meet D. to meet ②—It's a long time since I saw my sister. —________ her this weekend? A. Why not visit B. Why not to visit C. Why not visiting D. Why don't visit ③The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier, ______ it more difficult. A. not make B. not to make C. not making D. do not make
连接词和不定式连用相当于一个缩短了的从句。如： She must have time in which to grow calm. She has some money in the bank, with which to help her mother.
①She had no money ________ a birthday present for her children. A. to buy with B. buying C. bought D. with which to buy ②I've worked with children before, so I know what ________ in my new job. A. expected B. to expect C. to be expecting D. expects
1. (2014· 江苏卷)The lecture ________， a lively question－and－answer session followed. A. being given B. having given C. to be given
D. having been given 2. (2014· 福建卷)________ the past year as an exchange student in Hong Kong, Linda appears more mature than those of her age. A. Spending B. Spent C. Having spent D. To spend 3. (2014· 湖南卷)________ ourselves from the physical and mental tensions，we each need deep thought and inner quietness. A. Having freed B. Freed C. To free D. Freeing 4. (2014· 浙江卷)Amie Salmon, disabled, is attended throughout her school days by a nurse ________ to guard her. A. to appoint B. appointing C. appointed D. having appointed 5. (2014· 天津卷 )Clearly and thoughtfully ________， the book inspires confidence in students who wish to seek their own answers. A. writing B. to write C. written D. being written 6. (2013· 江苏卷)Lionel Messi，________ the record for the most goals in a calendar year， is considered the most talented football player in Europe. A. set B. setting C. to set D. having set 7. (2013· 安徽卷)________ in the early 20th century， the school keeps on inspiring children's love of art. A. To found B. Founding C. Founded D. Having founded 8. (2013· 湖南卷)The sun began to rise in the sky，________ the mountain in golden light. A. bathed B. bathing C. to have bathed D. having bathed 9. (2013· 全国新课标卷)They might just have a place ________ on the writing course—why don't you give it a try? A. leave B. left C. leaving D. to leave 10. (2012· 重庆卷)We're having a meeting in half an hour.The decision ________ at the meeting will influence the future of our company. A. to be made B. being made C. made D. having been made
1. ________ on a clear day，far from the city crowds，the mountains gave him a sense of peace. A. While walking B. Walking C. He was walking D. When he was walking 2. ________ with Lei Feng，we still have a long way to go. A. Comparing B. Compared C. To compare D. Being compared 3. —Can I have the document right now? —Of course. Wait a minute and I'll have my secretary ________ it for you. A. to print B. printing C. printed D. print 4. I really like this song as it is often heard ________everywhere in China. A. singing B. sung C. having sung D. to sing 5. The door ________ tomorrow will get dry the day after tomorrow. A. painted B. to be painted C. being painted D. to paint 6. ________ that the government can lead them out of the financial crisis，people are optimistic about the future of the country. A. Convincing B. Convinced C. To convince D. Having convinced 7. He could do nothing but ________ what he had said. A. to take back B. to be taken back C. taking back D. take back 8. I flew to Paris this morning，my assistant ________ me there this Friday. A. joining B. to join C. will join D. wants to join 9. ________ Australia's relatively small population，its outstanding performance in the Olympic Games was really ________． A. Supposing；amazing B. Comparing；amazed C. Considering；amazing
D. Given；amazed 10. I came into the classroom，________ my seat and sat down to read. A. finding B. to find C. found D. to be found 11. Who would you rather ________ with you to the cinema? A. have to go B. have go C. have gone D. go 12. Many businessmen attended the Boao Forum because they knew what ________ from it. A. getting B. to be got C. got D. to get 13. She seemed ________ who I was，so I had to introduce myself. A. to not recognize B. not to recognize C. to have not recognized D. not to have recognized 14. —Have you finished your task now? —Not yet. So much time has been wasted ________ its details aimlessly this morning. A. being assessed B. to assess C. assessed D. assessing 15. I'm going through the composition he has just finished ________ the possible mistakes in it. A. correct B. to correct C. having corrected D. corrected 16. If you are caught ________，you'll be expelled from school. A. having cheated B. cheating C. to have cheated D. to cheat 17. ________ to his work resulted in his great success. A. Devoted B. Being devoted C. Devoting D. To devote 18. ________ the website of the Fire Department in your city，and you will learn a lot about firefighting. A. Having searched B. To search C. Searching D. Search 19. This is the very plan that I'd like to see ________ in the next two months.
A. carry out B. to be carried out C. being carried out D. carried out 20. On the bank of the river， we found him ________ on a beach， with his eyes ________ on a kite in the sky. A. seated；fixing B. sitting；fixing C. seated；fixed D. sitting；being fixed 21. The country has already sent up three unmanned spacecraft, the most recent ________ at the end of last March. A. has been launched B. having been launched C. being launched D. to be launched 22. —Christine, are we leaving right away or...? —But Jove insists on us ________ in her house for the night. A. staying B. to stay C. stayed D. stay 23. I remembered ________ the door before I left the office, but forgot to turn off the lights. A. locking B. to lock C. having locked D. to have locked 24. The traffic rule says young children under the age of four and ________ less than 40 pounds must be in a child safety seat. A. being weighed B. to weigh C. weighed D. weighing 25. I have a lot of readings ________ before the end of this term. A. completing B. to complete C. completed D. being completed 26. He sat calmly on the platform, ________ to answer the question. A. prepare B. preparing C. prepared D. to prepare 27. The old man sat in front of the television every evening, happy ________ anything that happened to be on. A. to watch
B. watching C. watched D. to have watched 28. Even the best writers sometimes find themselves ______ for words. A. lose B. lost C. to lose D. having lost 29. The boy often gives a satisfactory answer to the teacher's question, ________ just a minute. So he is usually the teacher's pet. A. thought B. having thought C. and to think D. thinking 30. —Who should be responsible for the accident? —The boss, not the workers. They just carried out the order as ________． A. told B. being told C. telling D. to be told