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2014届高考英语(人教版)二轮复习教材细盘点课件 必修一 Unit5 Nelson Mandela—a modern hero



第二部分 必修一 Unit5



教材细盘点

Nelson Mandela—a modern hero

devote(三年1考);equal(三年2 常考单词 考);vote; escape; reward

冷点词汇

quality

; 常考短语 turn to(三年2考); in trouble attack; lose only 的倒装(三年1考); the first 常考句式 time

heart; set up

(一)基础单词(根据提示写单词) 1.Russia won the bid for the 2018 World Cup because they

got most votes (投票).
2.This business company was founded (建立) in 1724. 3.He examined the quality (质量) of the books carefully. 4.They succeeded in escaping from the burning bus, which was a terrible experience.

5.Sitting there waiting, I felt grateful that someone had been
willing to help. (2012· 安徽完形) 6.The enemy planes attacked the city, causing many deaths. 7.The boy was rewarded for bringing back the lost dog. 8.He was sentenced to three years in prison.

(二)重点单词
Ⅰ.根据提示写出下列单词的适当形式 9. active adj.积极的;活跃的→ actively adv.积极地;活跃 地→ activity n.活动 10. devote vt.献身;专心于→ devoted adj.忠实的;深爱的

→ devotion n.关爱;献身;奉献;忠诚
11. peaceful adj.和平的;平静的;安宁的→ peacefully adv. 和平地;平静地;安宁地→ peace n.和平;平静;和睦

12. violence n.暴力;暴行→ violent adj.暴力的;猛烈的

13. equal adj.相等的;平等的→ equality n.平等;相等
→ equally adv.同样地;相等地;公平地

14. educate vt.教育;训练→ educated adj.受过教育的;有
教养的→ education n.教育→ educator n.教育工作

者;教育家

Ⅱ.语境填词

15.The old teacher devoted all his life to educating his
devoted students and he was admired for his devotion to his education cause.(devote; educate) 16.All men are born equal , so everyone hopes to be treated equally because equality is the basic demand. (equal)

17.A wave of violence spread throughout the whole country
and some people became so violent that they set fire to cars.(violence)

18.After years of fighting the people longed for peace . They all want to live peacefully and happily. Before the war,
they led a peaceful life in the countryside.( peace) (三)帮你记单词——“人物特点”高级词 1.generous 慷慨的 _______ 有信心的 ________ 2.energetic 4.ambitious _________ 有活力的 有雄心壮志的 _____________ 富有创造力的 _____________ 聪明的 3.intelligent _______ 5.confident 7.devoted

6.creative

有献身精神的 8.enthusiastic ___________ ____________ 充满热情的

(一)写出下列短语的汉语意思 1.out of work 2.as a matter of fact 3.in trouble 4.be willing to do sth. 5.turn to 失业 _____ 事实上 _______ 在(危险、受罚、痛苦、忧虑等 ____________________________ 的)处境中 _________ 愿意做某事 __________ 求助于;致力于 _______________ 当权;上台 ___________ 设立;建立 ___________

6.come to power
7.set up 8.be sentenced to

被判处??(徒刑) _________________

(二)选用以上短语填空(其中有两项是多余的)
1.With more and more factories closed down, many people have been out of work . 2. As a matter of fact , I did not know him at all. 3.If you get in trouble , don't hesitate to ask for advice. turned to 4.I tried to stand on my own two feet rather than _________ my parents. 5.More recently, the Chinese government has set upConfucius Institutes in more than 80 countries. (2012· 辽宁阅读C) 6.Having got involved in a theft, he was sentenced to five years in prison.

1.However, this was a time when one had got to have a
passbook to live in Johannesburg.

[仿写]

曾几何时,谈论天气是一个安全的话题。

There was a time when talking about the weather was a
safe topic of conversation.

2.... only then did we decide to answer violence with violence. [仿写] 只有用这种方式我们才能生活在更舒服更美丽的

环境中。(2012· 福建书面表达)
Only in this way can we live in more comfortable and beautiful surroundings. 3.I felt bad the first time I talked to a group. [仿写] 他第一次登台表演就受到热烈欢迎。

He was well received the first time he performed on the
stage.

[教材原句]

A great person is someone who devotes his/her

life to helping others. 伟人就是将他/她的一生致力于帮助别人的人。 (1)devote oneself to (2)devoted adj. be devoted to ... (3)devotion n. 献身于??;致力于?? 忠实的;深爱的 专心于??;奉献于?? 关爱;关照;奉献;忠诚

Having got the support from her family, Mary devoted
herself to her career. 得到家人的支持玛丽全力倾注于自己的事业。 From my first job at the restaurant, I learned teamwork and devotion.(2012· 湖南Writing Section B) 从我在餐馆的第一份工作中,我学会了合作与奉献。

[联想发散]

根据提示写出下面带介词to的动词短语 注意 习惯于

① pay attention to ② get used/accustomed to

③ stick to
④ get down to ⑤ object to ⑥ adapt (oneself) to

坚持
开始着手做某事 反对 适应

[层级训练] Ⅰ.[基础题] 根据语境用devote及相关短语的适当形式填空 ①Li Lei is my devoted friend. Since graduation, he has ___

been devoted to/has devoted himself to improving the education of the local people. In addition to teaching, he has devoted a lot of time to raising money to build more
schools. His devotion to his work moves the people deeply.

Ⅱ.[能力题] 句式升级
②She devoted herself to practicing for ten years and became one of the world's best longdistance swimmers. (2012· 天津阅

读表达改编) Devoting herself to practicing for ten years, she became ②-1 _______________________________________________ one of the world's best longdistance swimmers. (改为现在分
词短语作原因状语) Devoted to practicing for ten years, she became one ②-2 _____________________________________________ of the world's best longdistance swimmers. (改为过去分词 短语作原因状语)

Ⅲ.[三年高考单选题] ③(2010· 四川高考)If you have a job, ________ yourself

to it and finally you'll succeed.
A.do devote C.devoting B.don't devote D.not devoting

解析:考查特殊句型。本句为“祈使句+and+陈述句” 句型;do是对谓语动词devote的强调。

答案:A

[教材原句]
leaders.

Black people could not vote or choose their

当时黑人没有选举权,他们无权选择他们的领导人。 (1)vote for/against 成/反对 vote on vote to do sth. 投票表决 表决做某事 投票赞

(2)put ... to the/a vote

付诸表决、裁决

When it was put to a vote, they were all for the proposal.
这个建议付诸表决时,他们都表示赞成。

The US Presidential election of 2012 ended on Nov 9, and
more than half of Americans voted for Obama. 2012年美国总统竞选11月9号结束,超过一半的美国人投 票赞成奥巴马。

[层级训练] Ⅰ.[基础题] 介词填空

①People vote against Henry who often tells lies.
②Vote for the man you can trust. ③As we can't agree on this matter, let's have a vote on it. Ⅱ.[能力题] 高考作文高级表达 ④演讲结束后,我们投票选班长。(北京卷书面表达) With the speeches finished, we voted to choose the monitor. __________________________________________________

[教材原句]

But I was happy to help because I knew it

would help us achieve our dream of making black and white people equal. 但是,我乐于帮忙,因为我知道,这是为了实现我们黑人 和白人平等的梦想。

(1)be equal to sth./doing sth. 等于/胜任做某事 (2)A equals B in ... A (3)without equal (4)equality n. equally adv. 在??方面比得上B/与B相匹敌 无与伦比 平等 相等地;同等地;均等地;同样地

Such behavior is without equal in the whole history of human.
这样的行为在人类历史上找不出第二个。

The solution is equally simple:refuse to accept so many work
assignments in your private life or your working life. (2012· 浙 江阅读第二节) 解决方法同样简单:在工作之余或工作之中拒绝接受太多的 任务。

[层级训练]
Ⅰ.[基础题] 写出下列句中equal的词性和含义 ①The Tiangong- looks like a cigar standing 10.4 meters 1 tall, a height equal to that of a threestory building. adj.相等的 _________ ②He doesn't equal Zhao Benshan in talents.

v.抵得上 _________

n.同等的人 ③No one could be his equal at telling a story. __________

Ⅱ.[能力题] 一句多译
④在处理这类问题(case)上,汤姆和约翰的能力是一样的。

Tom is equal to John in the ability of dealing with ④-1 ___________________________________________ such cases. (equal adj.) Tom equals John in the ability of dealing with such ④-2 ____________________________________________ cases. (equal v.)

Ⅲ.[三年高考单选题] ⑤(2012· 福建高考)Anyone, whether he is an official or a bus driver, should be ________ respected. A.especially B.equally

C.naturally

D.normally

解析:考查副词辨析。句意:任何一个人,不管是政府官 员还是汽车司机都应该同样受到尊敬。especially“尤其; 特别”;equally“相等地”;naturally“天然地;自然地”; normally“通常; 正常地”。

答案:B

[教材原句]

It was a prison from which no one escaped.

那是个无人逃跑过的监狱。 (1)escape (doing) sth. escape from 逃避(做)某事 从??逃脱;逃避

escape one's attention/notice 逃过某人的注意 the name escapes sb. 某人记不起名字

(2)fire escape
a narrow escape

太平梯;安全梯;安全出口
九死一生;死里逃生

More and more oil is escaping from the East China Sea, which pollutes the environment badly. 越来越多的原油从中国东海流出, 严重污染了环境。 If he thought he could escape attention by sitting at the back, he was wrong.(2012· 广东语法填空) 如果他认为坐在后排就不会引起注意,那么他就错了。

[层级训练]
Ⅰ.[基础题] 完成句子 ①袭击如此突然使敌人没有时间逃跑。 had no time to So sudden was the attack that the enemy _____________ escape .

②去年我死里逃生,因此我不想再去冒生命危险了。
Last year I had a narrow escape , and I don't want to risk my life a second time.

Ⅱ.[能力题] 一句多译
③你逃避了惩罚,真幸运。

③-1 You were lucky to escape punishment .
③-2 Luckily, you escaped being punished .

[教材原句]

They said that the job and the pay from the

new South African government were my reward after
working all my life for equal rights for the Blacks.

他们说来自新南非政府的那份工作和薪水是对我一生为
黑人的平等权利而奋斗的回报。

(1)as a reward for
in reward (for ... )

作为(对某事的)报酬/奖赏
作为(??的)报答; 作为(??的)奖励

give/offer sb. a reward for sth. 为某事而给某人报酬 (2)reward sb. for ... reward sb. with sth. 为??酬谢某人 用??酬谢某人

As a reward for passing the exams, she got a new bike from her parents. 她因为通过了考试,父母给她买了一辆新自行车作为奖励。 May I offer you a reward for your kindness? (2012· 浙江完形) 对于您善意的帮助,我是否可以给您一些报酬?

[个性比较]

award, reward 名词 动词

奖品,奖金,与 意为“授予、颁发”,常用搭配: award prize用法相似 报酬、奖金或
reward 一些非金钱类

award sb. sth.=award sth. to sb. 多指因对方的工作、服务、帮助
而给予的报酬或奖赏,常用搭配:

的报酬

reward sb. for (doing) sth.

[层级训练] Ⅰ.[基础题] 选词填空: reward, award ①She was awarded the best actress in the film festival. ②How can I reward your kindness? ③She was rewarded for her efforts with a check. ④A medal was awarded to him.

Ⅱ.[能力题] 一句多译

⑤我送给他一本书来答谢他的帮助。
⑤-1 I gave him a book in reward for his help . (reward n.) ⑤-2 As a reward for his help , I gave him a book. (reward n.)

⑤-3 I rewarded him with a book for his help.
(reward v.)

[教材原句] trouble.

Elias went to see Nelson Mandela when he was in

伊莱亚斯在有麻烦时去见纳尔逊· 曼德拉。
get into trouble
get sb. into/out of trouble

陷入困境;惹麻烦
使某人陷入或摆脱困境

have trouble (in) doing sth./with sth. 做某事有困难

ask/look for trouble
take the trouble to do sth.

自找麻烦;自讨苦吃
不怕费事或困难尽力做某事

You are always getting yourself in trouble.

你总是给自己找麻烦。
Whenever we have trouble with our studies, our teachers

help us patiently.
每逢我们在学习上遇到困难,老师总是耐心辅导。

[层级训练]

Ⅰ.[基础题] 完成句子
①有麻烦时,不要犹豫,请要求帮助。 Don't hesitate to ask for help when in trouble . ②你无法想象我说服他改变主意有多么困难。 You can't imagine the trouble I had in persuading him

to change his mind.
③谢谢你不辞劳苦的帮助我们。 Thanks for the trouble you have taken to help us.

Ⅱ.[能力题] 高考作文高级表达

④让我十分担心的是我在收集信息和使用语言方面确实
有困难。(2011· 山东书面表达) What worries me a lot is that I am really having trouble _________________________________________________

in collecting information and using language. ________________________________________

[教材原句]

Why did Nelson Mandela turn to violence to

make black and white people equal? 为什么纳尔逊· 曼德拉使用暴力以使黑人和白人平等呢? I replied and turned to my mom for permission.(2010· 福建 完形) 我回答后转向母亲去请求批准。

turn around/round
turn away

转身
拒绝;不准??入内

turn down
turn off/on turn over turn up turn out

关小;拒绝
关掉/打开 翻身;翻转;移交 出现;露面;调大 证明是;结果是

[语境串记]
This morning, my grandmother turned on the radio to listen to news as usual. She felt she could not hear clearly, so she turned it up. But it was no use. She had to turn to my father for help. I saw my father turned off the radio and turned it over to see what was wrong. It turned out that the button didn't work any more. My father repaired it and told my grandmother to turn down the radio, for the neighbor's little baby was asleep at the time. 今天早上,祖母像往常一样打开收音机听新闻。她感觉听不清楚,便 把声音开大,但是没起作用,她只得求助于我父亲。我看到父亲关掉

了收音机并翻过来看哪里出了问题,原来是旋钮出错了。我父亲修好
旋钮后让祖母把声音调小,因为这个时候邻家的小孩子在睡觉。

[层级训练]
Ⅰ.[基础题] 写出下列句中turn to的含义

①He was the one I always turned to for strength.
②If you turn to page 40, you will find it.

求助于 ______ _____ 翻到 从事于 ______

③More and more people turn to computer science.

转向 ④Their talk turned to the change that had happened. _____

Ⅱ.[能力题] 翻译句子
⑤她决定拒绝这个邀请。 She decided to turn down the invitation. ___________________________________ ⑥这个决定证明是正确的。

The decision turned out to be right. _______________________________ 句式升级 She decided to turn down the invitation,which turned ⑦ ________________________________________________
out to be right. (用非限制性定语从句连接练习⑤⑥)

Ⅲ.[三年高考单选题]

⑧(2012· 湖北高考)I'm so glad you've come here to
________ this matter in person. A.lead to C.turn to B.see to D.refer to

解析:考查动词短语辨析。句意:很高兴你能来亲自负 责这起事件。B项意为“负责”,符合句意。A项意为“导 致”;C项意为“向??求助”;D项意为“参考”。

答案:B

only放在句首修饰状语(通常是副词、介词短语或从句等)

时,句子需要部分倒装,把主句中的助动词、情态动词
或系动词提到主语前面。 Only yesterday did his father tell him the truth, which was a big surprise. 昨天他父亲才把真相告诉他,这真是一个令他吃惊的消

息。

Only by shouting was he able to make people on the other side of the river hear him. 他只有靠大声叫喊才能使河对岸的人们听到他的声音。 [关键一点] only 修饰名词或代词位于句首作主语时,句

子不用倒装。
Only a few of the children haven't yet got a chance of being educated. 仍有少数儿童未得到受教育的机会。

[层级训练]

Ⅰ.[基础题] 完成句子
①直到那时她才戒掉了每天三盒香烟的习惯,摆脱了对 酒精的依赖,开始保持均衡饮食。(2010· 湖南阅读B) Only then did she kick her threepack- day cigarette ahabit, overcome her addiction to alcohol, and begin to follow a balanced diet. Ⅱ.[能力题] 高考作文高级表达 ②只有通过实践我们才能取得进步。(2012· 山东书面表达) Only by practice will we make more progress. (倒装句)

Ⅲ.[三年高考单选题] ③(2012· 天津高考)Only after Mary read her composition the second time ________ the spelling mistake. A.did she notice B.she noticed

C.does she notice

D.she has noticed

解析:考查倒装和时态。句意:只有在玛丽把作文读了 第二遍之后,她才注意到拼写错误。当“only+状语”位于 句首时,句子要用部分倒装。因此可先排除B和D。由从 句中的Mary read可知,动作发生在过去,因此选A。

答案:A

句中的the first time用作连词,用来引导时间状语从句,意

为“第一次??”。
The first time I interviewed him, he looked a bit nervous. 我第一次去采访他时,他看起来有点紧张。 引导时间状语从句的连词还有:

(1)the moment/the minute/the instant = as soon as 一??就??

(2)each/every time
next time any time last time by the time

每次??的时候
下次??时 任何时候 上次??时 到??为止

(3)有时副词也可充当连词,引导时间状语从句,它们是
instantly, immediately, directly等,都相当于as soon as。

He started the instant he heard the report. 他一听到报告就动身了。 He paid back the money he owed us immediately he returned home.

他一回到家就把欠我们的钱还上了。

[层级训练]
Ⅰ.[基础题] 完成句子 ①下次你见到父亲时,请代我问候他。 Give your father my regards next time you see him . ②十年前我第一次游玩黄山时就被它的美景迷住了。

I was attracted by the beautiful scenery of the Huangshan
the first time I visited it ten years ago.

Ⅱ.[能力题] 翻译句子

③我们第一次看到这幅图画时就被深深地感动了。
We were deeply moved the first time we saw the picture. _________________________________________________ ④我每次拜访他,他都很忙。

Each/Every time I called on him, he was very busy. ____________________________________________

1.quality n.质量;品质;性质 of high/low quality 高/低质量的

in quality

在质量上

2.attack vt.& n.进攻;攻击;抨击;(疾病等的)侵害 The police are giving an attack on drug dealers. 警方对毒品贩子发动了攻击。

3.lose heart丧失勇气或信心
lose one's heart to learn sth. by heart put one's heart into break one's heart 爱上;喜欢上 背诵;记牢 专心于 使某人很伤心

When he was a child, he lost his heart to writing poems.
With many years' putting his heart into it, it seemed as if nothing has been achieved, but he will never lose heart.

当他是个孩子时,他就喜欢上了写诗。经过多年致力于写
诗之后,他似乎一事无成,但他永不灰心。

4.set up设立;建立

The central government decided to set up a monument
to honor the brave soldiers. 中央政府决定建立一座纪念碑来缅怀英勇的先烈。

1.(2013· 马鞍山高三质检)Do you know how much time and effort they devoted ________ such a completed project? A.to complete C.completing B.completed D.to completing

解析:考查固定搭配。句意:你知道他们在这么完善的

工程上付出了多少时间和努力吗?devote ... to ...中to是
介词,故其后应该接动名词作宾语。 答案:D

2.(2013· 杭州二中模拟)We are looking into the problem. You can offer any information ________ to it.

A.similar
C.unique

B.relevant
D.equal

解析:考查形容词词义。句意:我们正在调查这个问题。 你可以提供相关信息。similar“相似的”;relevant “相关的”;unique“独特的”;equal“相等的”。

答案:B

3.(2013· 海口高三质检)Bob looked back only to find an old classmate whose name ________ him for the moment.

A.escaped
C.forgot

B.missed
D.passed

解析:考查动词词义。句意:鲍勃回头一看,结果却发 现了一位老同学,其名字他却一下子想不起来了。 escape作为及物动词有“被忘掉,没被注意到”的意思。

答案:A

4.(2013· 山东省实验中学高三质检)The bank is offering
a(n)________ to anyone who can give some information about the robbery. A.reward C.prize B.award D.bonus

解析:考查名词词义辨析。 句意:银行向任何一个提供 有关抢劫案信息的人提供一笔酬金。这里指的是因表示 感谢而提供的奖励,所以用reward。award的意思是“奖 品”、“奖金”,其义与prize近似,两者都指因为表现突 出而受奖;bonus “奖金;红利”。 答案:A

5.(2013· 厦门高三质检)Twenty people were expected,but
only ten ________. A.turned round C.turned out B.turned up D.turned to

解析:考查动词短语。句意:期望来二十人,但只有十人

来了。turn round“转过头来”;turn up“出现;露面”;
turn out“最终是;结果是”;turn to“向某人求助”。 答案:B

6.(2013· 商丘高三质检)Betty shows great interest in this

poem now, but she thought it boring ________ she read it.
A.at the first time C.for the first time B.the first time D.at first

解析:考查状语从句的连接词。句意:贝蒂现在对这首 诗很感兴趣,但是她第一次读(这首诗)时,却认为它相 当讨厌。the first time“第一次”,可用作连词,其他选项 只能在句中作状语。

答案:B

7.(2013· 合肥高三质检)________ you eat the correct foods

________ be able to keep fit and stay healthy.
A.Only if; will you C.Unless; will you B.Only if; you will D.Unless; you will

解析:“only +状语或者状语从句”置于句首时,主句 需使用部分倒装语序。 答案:A

8.(2013· 辽宁沈阳、大连模拟)We will listen to the arguments on both sides and then ________ it. A.vote on C.vote against B.vote for D.vote to

解析:考查vote与介词搭配。句意:我们听取双方的
论证后再进行表决。vote on“对??进行表决”;vote for“投票支持”;vote against“投票反对”。 答案:A

Ⅰ.根据提示翻译句子

1.我第一次(the first time)听说史蒂芬· 霍金时,就被他的奉
献(devotion)精神所感动。

The first time I heard of Stephen Hawking, I was moved ________________________________________________
by his devotion to the research. ___________________________
2.在日常生活中,他处于很大的麻烦之中(in great trouble)。

As for his daily life, he is in great trouble. ____________________________________

3.只有(only when)求助于(turn to)电脑时,他才能讲话、阅
读和写作。 Only when he turned to the computer was it possible for _________________________________________________ him to speak, read and write. __________________________ 4.他对于世界的贡献是无与伦比(have no equal)的。 His contributions to the world have no equal. ________________________________________ 5.在我看来(in my opinion),任何东西都无法回报(in reward for)他对科学的贡献。 In my opinion, nothing could be in reward for his ___________________________________________

contributions to science. _______________________

Ⅱ.加入适当过渡词,联句成篇

参考范文: The first time I heard of Stephen Hawking, I was ________________________________________________
surprised at his devotion to the research. As for his daily life, ____________________________________________________ he is in great trouble. For example, only when he turned to ____________________________________________________ the computer was it possible for him to speak,read and ____________________________________________________ write. However, his contributions to the world have no equal. ____________________________________________________ And in my opinion, nothing could be in reward for his ____________________________________________________ contributions to science. _______________________
演练知能提升 见“限时集训 (五)”

【教师用书独具】 当position, situation, stage, job等词在句中表示抽象的 地点时,其后的定语从句中关系词的选择是考试的重点, 也是考生的易错点;其选择标准为:定语从句中缺少地点 状语时,应选关系副词where;若定语从句中缺少主语或

宾语,则使用which或that。

【变式训练】 In time we reached a stage ________ was of vital importance to our reading. A.where C.who B.how D.which

解析:在这个变式题的定语从句中缺少主语,故选which。 答案:D

【教师用书独具】

在近几年定语从句的高考试题中,命题者常常使用分隔 式定语从句来增加试题的难度。这种问题的处理方式是寻找 正确的先行词。 【变式训练】 The days are gone ________ we can play day and night. A.if B.when C.which D.since 解析:变式题即为分隔式定语从句。先行词为the days;定 语从句为we can play day and night;且定语从句中缺少时间 状语,故选关系副词when。 答案:B

[教师备课参考](教师用书独具)

一、2009~2012年浙江高考短文改错考点统计与分析 年 度 考点分布 动词 名词 4 4 3 1 0 2 连词 形容词 副词 代词 冠词 介词 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 2 0 1 1 1 1 1 1

2009 2010 2011

2012

2

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

命题分析

短文改错是集语法知识与语言技能为一体的综合性英语试
题,是对考生写作能力的测试,是测试书面表达能力的一种 比较客观的方式,它能全面地考查学生对语言的评价与校正 能力以及对词汇、语法和语篇三要素的把握能力。在改错题 中,占相当大比例的是动词的形式变化,一般现在时第三人

称单数、过去式、过去分词、现在分词及被动语态等。其他
如名词单复数的变化、主谓一致、词与词之间的搭配、词法、 句法及语篇中的行文逻辑等方面的错误也会交替出现。

二、短文改错题型特点 1.短文约100个单词,文中有10处错误,一句中一般最多有

3处错误,错误类型包括词法、句法、行文逻辑等。
2.改错形式主要有多词、缺词、错词三种。 (1)多词。常见的有及物动词后多介词,抽象名词、物质名词 表泛指时前多冠词,定语从句中多代词,make等动词接 不定式作宾语补足语时多带to等。

(2)缺词。往往缺的是介词、连词、冠词等虚词。见到名词应

考虑其前是否缺冠词;见到重叠动词应考虑其间是否缺少
与之搭配的介词或其他词;见到固定搭配应考虑是否完 整,不是固定搭配的要注意行文习惯或逻辑上的错误。 (3)错词。常见的有名词单复数错误、形容词和副词比较级错 误以及形容词与副词用错、定冠词与不定冠词以及a与an

用错、动词时态错误等。

考点一

名词

对名词的考查主要在于单复数形式及可数与不可数的 辨析, 在可数与不可数方面要注意避免中文对英语的影响。 考查形式以错词为主。 例 2009· 浙江短文改错节选

One rainy day while I was walking home with one of
my friend, a truck ... 根据句中one of ...“其中之一”可知,friend应改为复 数形式friends。

考点二

冠词

对冠词的考查主要在于冠词之间的误用以及是否需 要冠词。



2012· 浙江短文改错节选

... As a result, nobody knew truth. 由句意可知,truth是特指,故应在其前面加定冠词 the。

考点三

代词

对代词的考查主要体现在指代是否一致、不定代词的用 法、定语从句中关系代词和关系副词的用法、名词性从句中 连接代词和连接副词的区别等。考查形式以错词为主,有时

也考多词或少词。
例 2012· 浙江短文改错节选

I knew that they will be worried about myself because ... 根据上下文可知“他们将担心我”,故把myself改为me。

考点四

形容词、副词及其比较级和最高级

考查点主要涉及它们之间的误用,另外考生应该注意

形容词与名词或代词的位置关系,副词与动词的位置关系,
以及形容词与副词的位置关系,还要注意形容词、副词及其 比较级、最高级的误用。考查形式以错词为主。 例 2012· 浙江短文改错节选

Unfortunate, I had an accident and hit another car ...

unfortunate是形容词,不能作为状语修饰整个句子,
所以应改为副词unfortunately。

考点五

介词

考查点主要涉及固定搭配中介词的误用,尤其是受汉
语影响,容易出错的介词的误用,还要注意是否需要介词以 及介词的正确运用问题。考查形式以错词为主,有时也考查 多词或少词。 例 2010· 浙江短文改错节选

As we left, Mother stopped on their table. 由句意知,此处表示“母亲在桌旁停下”,应该把on改

为by/at。

考点六

连词

考查点主要涉及上下文之间的逻辑关系,要注意句中的连
词、句与句之间的连词是否正确。搞清文字段落间的逻辑关 系,从而判断所用连词是表示递进关系、转折关系,还是并列 关系等。 例 2012· 浙江短文改错节选

I called my parents, so I did tell them what had happened.
由语境可知,我给父母打电话但没有告诉他们发生的事 情。前后两句为转折关系,故把so改为but。

考点七

动词

考查点主要涉及动词的时态、语态、非谓语动词(非谓
语动词的用法,如to的省略,过去分词与现在分词的误用 等)、情态动词、固定搭配等方面。 例 2011· 浙江短文改错节选

She knows what had happened, but she thanked me ...

整篇文章叙述的是过去的事情,所以此处的动词
knows应用其过去式knew。



2010· 浙江短文改错节选

“Excuse me,” she said, put her arm around the
unhappy old woman. 此句中的谓语动词是said,所以put应用其非谓语动 词形式,在此作伴随状语,且它与主语she是主动关系, 故应把put改为putting。


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