Learning about language
Discovering useful words and expressions 1 Find the word or expression for each of the following m
eanings from the text. 1. _________ complete change in ways revolution of thinking, working, etc. 2. ________ connected computer system network 3. ________ to make things easier simplify 4. ________ to find the answer using calculate numbers
5. _______ can be moved easily from place mobile to place 6.________ to work out the answer to a solve problem 7._______ to travel around an area to find explore out about it 8. ______ completely totally 9. _______ anyway anyhow 10. _______ activity of managing money finance
2 Complete the passage with the words below. artificial technology intelligent Web applications explore reality
My brother was very interested in
computers and enjoyed writing programs
of his own. He used to download information from the Internet and made
good use of it. He liked to explore the _______
World Wide _____ and Web
used the Internet to communicate with computer programmers all over the world. When he went to university he studied IT technology (information __________) and developed a special interest in ________ intelligence. After artificial developing special applications of the computer, __________ he hopes to design an _________ robot which intelligent can think ________ and look like a human logically being, but in ______ he has a long way to go. reality
The Present Perfect Passive Voice
A calculating machine; replace
A calculating machine has been replaced with the laptop.
The buildings; destroy; earthquake
The buildings have been destroyed in an earthquake.
1. 两种时态 1) 现在完成时(have/has + 过去分词)
时间的状语连用, 如: yesterday, two weeks
ago, in 1978, when I got there 等, 现在完成 时常与 already, always, often, ever, never, yet, not...yet, just等不表示明确
的时间副词连用, 还可以和表示时间一 直延续到目前的带since, for 的状语及包 括现在在内的词连用。如: now, today, this month, this year, recently, these few days 等。不能用在现在完成进行时态的 动词, 如: be, have, like, love, know, believe, hate等。 一般过去时则是表示过去某时发生的 动作或情况, 与现在毫无关系。
2) 现在完成进行时 (have/has + been + 现在分词) 2. 七种被动语态形式 1) 一般现在时的被动语态 (am/is/are+ 过 去分词) 如: The work is done during two days. 2) 一般过去时的被动语态 (was/were+ 过 去分词)
如: He was sent to the hospital
immediately after the accident. 3) 一般将来时的被动语态 (will/shall + be + 过去分词或 + be going to + be + 过去分词) 如: The work will be finished soon. 4) 现在进行时的被动语态 (is/am/are + being+ 过去分词) 如: The bridge is now being constructed.
5) 现在完成时的被动语态 (have/has +been
如: The radio has been repaired when
we phoned the shop. 6) 带情态动词的被动语态 (情态动词 + be +
过去分词) 如: This can be done in a few minutes.
7) 动词不定式的被动式 (to be + 过去分词)
如: It is an honor for me to be asked
to speak here.
现在完成时的被动语态表示动作发生在过去, 到现在已经完成或对现在仍有影响, 其构成是:
have/has been + done。如： 1. The dirty clothes have been washed.
2. The plan has been studied by the experts for three times.
3. The child has been taken care of by
Grandma Wang all these years.
这些年来, 这个小孩一直由王奶奶照料。 现在完成时被动态：
have / has + been + 动词过去分词
have / has + been + 动词现在分词
它们的构成的区别在最后的动词上, 被动态接 的是过去分词形式, 现在完成进行时接的是现 在分词形式。 1. 主语是行为动作的承受者。如：
The Temple of Zhang Fei has been
The door has been locked.
(我或别人现在进不去) 门已经被锁上了。 3. 动作或状态始于过去, 持续到现在, 并可能 持续下去。如：
He has been told about it for many times.
4. 用在时间和条件状语从句中, 表示将 来某时已完成的动作。如： We’ll start as soon as the work has been finished. 工作一完成我们就立即动身。
often, usually, always, never, hardly, seldom等副词置于have/has和been中间。 如: [误] Such a man has been hardly believed. [正] Such a man has hardly been believed.
2. 并不是所有动词都有被动语态 1) happen, take place, break out, belong to, cost, last等不及物动词或词组无被动语
[误] Great changes have been taken
place in China since 1978. [正] Great changes have taken place in China since 1978.
2) open, break, drop等不强调动作发出者
时常用主动语态。如： [误] The door has been opened of itself.
[正] The door has opened of itself.
The SARS patients have been taken good care of.
4. 一些特殊动词, 如borrow, finish, begin, buy, start, return, marry, open, join等 构成的现在完成时的被动语态不能与 表示一段时间的状语连用。若要表达 相应的意思, 则需改换动词或时态。如： My brother has had(不能用has bought) this bike for almost four years. How long has this book been bought? How long ago was this book bought?
(1) 不知道或没有必要说明动作的执行者是谁。 如: Some new computers were stolen
last night. 一些新电脑在昨晚被盗了。
This book was published in 1981.
(2) 强调动作的承受者, 而不强调动作的
执行者。 如: The window was broken by Mike. 窗户是迈克打破的。 This book was written by him. 这本书是他写的。
(1) 把主动语态的宾语变为被动语态的主语。 (2) 把谓语变成被动结构(be＋过去分词) (根据被动语态句子里的主语的人称和数， 以及原来主动语态句子中动词的时态来决 定be的形式)。
(3) 把主动语态中的主语放在介词by之后作宾 语, 将主格改为宾格。如：
All the people laughed at him. He was laughed at by all people. They make the bikes in the factory. The bikes are made by them in the factory. 歌诀是: 宾变主, 主变宾, by短语后面跟。 谓语动词变被动, be后“过分”来使用。
4) 双宾语动词变被动语态可将其中的 一个宾语变为主语, 另一个保留不动。
主动: I have given him the key.
被动: He has been given the key.
被动: The key has been given (to) him.
只能将宾语变为主语, 原来的宾补 保留不动, 改称主语补足语。 主动: I have asked her to help you. 被动: She has been asked to help you.
主语+has/ have been +P.P.+...
Her motorbike has been stolen.
All the offices have been linked by computer.
2. 现在完成时被动语态否定句 主语+has/ have +not+ been+ P.P.+... The task has not been finished yet. 任务尚未完成。 Many skilled workers have not been trained in the company. 这家公司并没有培养多少熟练工人。
Has he(she, it,单数名词)+been+P.P.+...?
Has a new computer been bought?
Have they been sent abroad to study Eng-lish?
4. 现在完成时被动语态特殊疑问句 疑问词+have (has)+主语+been+ P.P.+...? What has been bought by Tom? 汤姆已经买了什么东西? Who have been helped by the new computer? 谁已经得到这种新计算机的帮助? How many buildings have been built in this school?这所学校已经建造了多少座大楼? Where has the car been repaired? 这辆小汽车已经在哪里修理好了?
1. I got caught in the rain and my suit _______. (北京2007) C A. has ruined B. had ruined C. has been ruined D. had been ruined
2. Professor James will give us a lecture
on the Western culture, but when and where ___ yet. (浙江2007) A A. hasn’t been decided B. haven’t decided C. isn’t being decided D. aren’t decided
3. If Newton lived today, he would be surprised by what _____ in D science and technology. (天津2007) A. had discovered B. had been discovered C. has discovered D. has been discovered
4. Cathy is taking notes of the grammatical rules in class at Sunshine School, where she _____ D English for a year. (湖南2007) A. studies B. studied C. is studying D. has been studying
5. With the help of high technology, more and more new substances ____ in the past years. (上海2007) D A. discovered B. have discovered C. had been discovered D. have been discovered
6. When you get the paper back, pay special attention to what _____. B (四川2007) A. have marked B. have been marked C. had marked D. had been marked
1. Both my brother work at the power station that ___ in my hometown. B A. has set up B. has been set up C. was set up D. is set up
2. ---_____ the sports meet will be put off. A A. I’ve been told B. I’ve told C. I’m told D. I told
3. All the preparation for the task ____, D
and we’re ready to start.
C. had been completed
D. have been done
4. ---- How long ____ at this job? B
---- Since 1990.
A. were you employed B. have you been employed C. had you been employed D. will you be employed
5. When and where to go for the on-
salary holiday ____ yet. D
A. are not decided
B. have not been decided
C. is not being decided D. has not been decided
6. Betty____ injured since last Saturday. A A. has been B. was C. is D. has
D 7. That book _______ into at least 20 foreign languages. ?A. has said to be translated ?B. has been said to have translated ?C. is said that it had been translated ?D. is said to have been translated
注:该句的句型是:It is said that…/people
(they) said that…/that book is said to …根据句意是已经被译成了20 多种文字
8. – Hi, Tom, you look tired.
? -- Of course. I ___ the living room D
A. had painted B. painted
? C. have been painted
D. have been painting
9. --Did you move into the new house?
-- No. The rooms ___ yet. D
A. were being painted
B. are painting
C. have not painted
D. have not been painted
10. Great changes___ in my hometown B and a lot of factories ___.
A. have been taken place;
are being set up
B. have taken place; have been set up
C. are taken place; had been set up
D. took place; will set up
11. It’s said that this book___ into Chinese. D A. had translated B. has translated C. was translated D. has been translated
12. You can’t move in .The house _____. B A. is painting B. is being painted C. has painted D. has been painted
13. Millions of pounds’ worth of
damage___ by a storm which swept across A the north of England last night. (2005重庆) A. has been caused
B. had been caused
C. will be caused
D. will have been cause
14. Have you ever___ to the exhibition C which ___ for three weeks? A. gone; has been shown B. visited; shown C. been; has been on show D. went; lasted
15. ---How long ago ___ these eggs___? C --- Perhaps 15 days. A. will; hatch B. did; hatch C. were; hatched D. have; been hatched
二、改错 1. A personal computer has bought by us. A personal computer has been bought by us. 2. Many problems has been found with our new computer. Many problems have been found with our new computer.
3. A PC has been builded the way we wanted. A PC has been built the way we wanted. 4. Our computer just has been joined to the internet. Our computer has just been joined to the internet.
5. The computer was used every day since we bought it. The computer has been used every day since we bought it. 6. A lot of e-mails had written on the computer in the past 5 years. A lot of e-mails have been written on the computer in the past 5 years.
1. First as a PC and then as a laptop, I have been used _______________ (use) in offices and homes since the 1970s. 2. Over time my memory ______________ has developed (develop) so much that, like an elephant, I never forget anything I have been told __________________(told). 3. Since the 1970s many new applications have been found __________________ (find) for me.
4. I have also ___________(put) into been put
robots and used to make mobile phones
as well as _________(help) with medical help operations.
5. I ____________________(put) into have even been put
space rockets and sent to explore the
Moon and Mars.
1. They have finished the construction of the new railway lines by now.
The construction of the new railway lines has been finished by them by now.
2. We have built a new library and a gymnasium in our school this year.
A new library and a gymnasium have
been built in our school this year by us.
3. The car factory has produced a great many fine cars since the technological revolution.
A great many fine cars have been produced by the car factory since the technological revolution.
4. They have made a plan to help the poor children in the poor area. A plan has been made by them to help the poor children in the poor area. 5. The government has spent a lot of money on the Hope Project. A lot of money has been spent on the Hope Project by the government.
Enjoy a poem!
Look at the way the flowers have been planted _______________________ the grass _______________________ has been cut The paths __________________(sweep) have been swept I hope that you’ll come here again.
Look at the way has been washed her face __________________. her hair ___________________(comb) has been combed her clothes __________________. have been cleaned She’d better do them again.
Try to remember the grammar
rules and do exercises 1, 2 and
3 on page 21.