Grammar and usage 学案
第一部分：重点讲解 短语动词通常以动词为中心，通常由动词加副词或介词构成。英语中大量短语动词难以从字面意义 上来判定其释义，很多时候应根据具体语境判断它们的意义。有的短语动词相当于及物动词，有的则相 当于不及物动词。 英语中有相当多的动词常和其他词类一起连用， 构成短语动词(phrasal verb)。 1. 短语动词的构成.<
(1)．动词+介词 如：bring about 引起
look about 环顾四周 seek for 寻找 burst into 闯入 turn into 使变成 look into 调查 see to 处理 devote to 贡献给 deal with 处理 glance at 匆匆一瞥 work at 干…… aim at 向…瞄准 differ from 与…不同 result from 由于 insist on 坚持 rely on 依靠 bring in 引进 hope for 希望得到 combine with 联合 lead to 导致，通向 set about 着手
照顾，照料 listen to 听 wait for 等待 insist on 坚持 look at 看 look for 寻找 meet with 遇见。 (2)． 动词+副词 如：give out 发出 give up 放弃 turn out 生产 pick out 挑选 put out 熄灭 go on 继续 come out 出来 set off 出发 bring about 引起 think over 考虑 wake up 醒来 clear away 清除掉
look after depend on(upon)依靠
put away 收起 die away 消失 call back 回电话 look back 回顾 walk back 走回 break down 坏了 calm down 平静下来 get down 咽下 come up 上来 blow up 爆炸 turn up 出现 show off 炫耀 give off 散发 take off 脱下 break out 发生 blow out 吹灭 run out 用完
(3)． 动词+副词+介词 如：look forward to 盼望，catch up with 赶上，go on with 继续 add up to 总计
from 不靠近 look down on 轻视 keep up with 赶上 get close to 接近 get out of 逃避,避免 do away with 废除 look up with 仰望,尊敬 run out of 用完 go on with 继续 离，背离
keep away make up for 弥补 get on with 相处 do well in 在…干得好 put up with 忍受 get down to 认真开始 break away from 脱
(4)． 动词+名词 如：have a look 看一看， have a try 试一试， make an appointment 约会， take place 发生， make way 前进，make a discovery 发现。 (5)． 动词+名词+介词 如：take part in 参加，take care of 看管，维护，注意，take notice of 注意，make use of 利用， pay attention to 注意，give place to 让位于，give rise to 引起，导致。 (6)． 及物动词(+直接宾语)+介词+名词 如：take ... into account / consideration 把……考虑进去。 (7)． 及物动词(+直接宾语) +介词( +介词宾语) 如：translate ... into ...把……译成……，protect ... from ...使……免受……; fix one’s eyes on ; (8)． 系动词+形容词+介词 如： be similar to ...类似于……， be familiar with ...对……熟悉， be beneficial to ...有益于……， be equal to ...等于，相当于……,be addicted to…对…上瘾
2. 短语动词使用时须注意的几点 (1) 在短语动词中,副词可以放在动词宾语前或后。但是如果宾语是代词，则应放在动词和副词之间 如： The young lovers have been trying to put some money aside for their marriage ceremony. He has put aside a little money for a rainy day. 他积蓄了一点钱以备不时之需。
When you do not understand a new word,you can look it up in this dictionary. This method is very new and you can try it out to solve the hard problem. （2）在带有介词的短语动词中，介词的宾语总是紧随其后的。 We have brought in a good harvest for three years . We’ve just come across an old friend we haven’t seen for ages. Please keep away from the scene of the accident before the police come. The manager expects everyone to get down to his work after the national holidays. （3）有些短语动词后并不需要跟宾语，这时他们相当于不及物动词。如： Mr Wang’s new car broke down and he had to go to work by bike again. The crowd broke up after the football games. 足球比赛结束后，人们四处散开。 （4）同一动词，后面跟不同的副词或介词构成意思不同的短语动词。如： break down 坏了；跨了 break up 拆散；解体；驱散 break in 闯入；插话 break off 忽然停止讲话；断绝 break out 爆发；逃出 break through 冲破；突破；战胜 不同的动词，后面跟上相同的副词或介词构成意思不同的短语。 make up 组成；构成；弥补；编造；化装 show up 带上楼；出席；露面；揭露 hold up 举起来；阻塞；耽搁；抑制感情 set up 创立；建立；树立；资助 put up 提出；举起；建造 take up 拿起；举起；开始（某）活动 （5）一些短语动词，具有多种释义，需要根据全句语境对他们作出恰当理解。如： Hurry up, children! The plane will take off very soon.(起飞) After entering the room, he took off his coat .(脱下) The boss told him that he would take two weeks off in November.（休假） The woman broke down when someone told her that her mother was dead.(崩溃) Interrupted by hackers, the computer system of that company has broken down.(瘫痪) Negotiations(谈判) between the boss and workers have broken down（失败） 常见短语： answer for 对… 负责 go without 没有也行 agree with 同意（某人） hand in 交上来 agree to 同意（建议） have nothing to do with 与… 无关 agree on 达成一致 have sth.to do with 与… 有关 aim at 瞄准 head for 朝…去 ask for 请求 help…in 在…帮助 belong to 属于 hope for 希望得到 burst into 突然…起来 introduce …to..把…介绍… begin with 以…开始 inspire…with…以…激励 base on 根据 insist on 坚持 consist of 由…组成 interfere with 妨碍 congratulate …on 祝贺 join sb.in…加入某人一起 come to an end 结束 knock at 敲（门等） compare …to 把…比作 long for 渴望 compare…with 同…相比 look up 查阅，向上看 care for 喜欢，照顾 look on/opon…as…把…看作… change …for 用…交换 learn by heart 背会 clear up 放晴 leave for 动身区去
come across 偶然遇到 call up 大电话 call for 要求，需要 call on 拜访（人） ，号召 call at 拜访（地） cure of 治愈 depend on 依靠 devote to 把…用于 engage in 从事 end with 以…结束 get on/off 上/下车 get on/along 进展 get ready for 准备好 get in 收获 grow up 长大 give in 让步，投降 go all out 竭尽全力 go through 通过 go over 复习
lie in 在于 live on 靠…生活，以…为主食 look through 翻阅，浏览 mix with 同…混合 present…with 赠送 persist in 坚持 put…into practice 实施 reply to 答复 rely on 依靠 recover from 恢复 rob …of…抢走 run over 碾过去 result from/in 由…引起；导致 remember sb. to…带…问好 set about doing 着手做 succeed in 成功… speak of 说到 share in 分担 share sth. with sb.与某人共同使用
第二部分发：练习 I. 用所给短语动词的适当形式填空 1 break in /break down/break off/break out/break through a)The old man __________in the middle of the story. b)Influenza usually ________in winter because of the cold weather. c)The robbers __________ and looted (抢劫)the warehouse.（货栈） d)The old washing machine seems to _________ again. e)They hope to __________ soon in their fight against the disease. 2 make up/turn up/set up/take up/put up a)The girl is very quick at _________ excuses. b)The young swimmer ________ a new record in the backstroke. c)Kate _______the piano when she was only five years old. d)The long-lost watch _____ down the back of the old table. e)The examination result will _____ on this board tomorrow. 3 try on/keep an eye on/rely on/insist on/look down on a)British summers are awful and we can not ______the weather. b)Will you ______ this pair of trousers ? c)We should not ______ the young men who haven’t been to college. d)Would you be kind enough to _____the lovely baby for a while? e)Last night his wife _________his wearing a black suit for the party. II. 单项填空 1. It’s ten years since the scientist _______on his life’s work of discovering the valuable chemical.
A. made for B. set out C. took off D. turned up 2. It is wise to have some money _______for age. A. put away B. kept up C. given away D. laid up 3. It was dark and we decided to ______for the night at a farm house. A. put away B. put down C. put up D. put out 4. I can hardly hear the radio. Would you please ______? A. turn it on B. turn it down C. turn it up D. turn it off 5. Don’t mention that at the beginning of the story, or it may _____ the shocking ending. A. give away B. give out C. give up D. give off 6. It was not a serious illness, and she soon _____ it. A. got over B. got on with C. got around D. got out of 7. We didn’t plan out art exhibition like that but it ______ well. A. carried out B. tried out C. kept on D. worked out 8. You can take anything from the shelf and read, but please _____ the books when you have finished with them. A. put on B. put down C. put back D. put off 9. Readers can _____ quite well without knowing the exact meaning of each word. A. get over B. get in C. get along D. get through 10. The final examination is coming up soon. It’s for us to ____ our studies. A. get down to B. get out C. get back for D. get over 11. Helen always helps her mother even though going to school ____ most of her day. A. takes up B. makes up C. saves up D. puts up 12. The village people prevented their cattle from _____ the wheat field. A. breaking in B. breaking out C. breaking into D. breaking away 13. For all these years I have been working for others. I’m hoping I’ll ______my own business someday. A. turn up B. fix up C. set up D. make up 14. Lucy ______ a lot of Japanese by playing with the native boys and girls. A. picked up B. took up C. made up D. turned up 15.Having decided to rent a flat, we _______ getting in touch with some agencies in the city. A. set up B. set down C. set out D. set about III. 翻译下列句子 1．医生要求这个病人戒掉烟和酒。 ____________________________________________________________. 2. 在入冬前,我们的蔬菜和水果就会吃完. ____________________________________________________________. 3. 我认为需要派更多的警察来调查这个案子. ____________________________________________________________. 4. 这个篮球队的每个成员都不应当被歧视. ____________________________________________________________.
第三部分：练习答案 I. 用所给短语动词的适当形式填空 1 a)broke off b)breaks out c)broke in d)have broken down e)break through 2 a)making up b)set up c)took up d)turned up e)be put up 3 a)rely on b)try on c)look down on II. 单项填空 1-5 BACCA 6-10 ADCCA 11-15 ACCAD III. 翻译下列句子 1 The doctor asked the patient to give up smoking and drinking. 2 Our vegetables and fruits will run out before winter. 3 I think that more police are needed to look into the case. 4. Every member of this basketball team should not be looked down on.