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SZL系列燃块状生物质安装使用说明书中英文版


SZL 系列燃块状生物质锅炉 SZL Series Biomass-fired Boiler

安装使用说明书 Installation instructions J.SM

无锡太湖锅炉有限公司 WUXI TAIHU BOILER


一 结构简介、主要规范

录 Content

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Brief introduction of the structure and the main criterions 二 性能特点 Special Characteristics 三 出厂简况 Conditions of delivery 安装说明 Installation 四 安装前的准备工作 Preparation before installation 五 锅炉总体的安装 The installation of the majority of the boiler 六 工地现场筑炉 Build on site 七 平台扶梯的安装 Installation of platform ladder 八 烟风道、空气预热器、除尘器的安装 Installation of the flue gas duct, the economizer and the dust collector 九 风机的安装 Installation of fan 十 炉排调速器的安装 Installation of the speed regulator 十一 出渣机的安装 Installation of the slag extractor 十二 电气控制设备的安装 Installation of electric controlling device 十三 管道、阀门仪表及附件的安装
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Installation of pipes, meters, gates and attachments 十四 水压试验 Hydraulic test 十五 锅炉油漆 Boiler painting 使用说明 Instructions 十六 烘炉和煮炉前的检查

Inspection before heating up and boiling out 十七 烘炉和煮炉

Heating up and boiling out 十八 升火

Starting up 十九 调整安全阀

Adjustment on safety valve 二十 供汽 Steam output 二十一 Operation 二十二 排污 正常运行

Blow down 二十三 停炉

Furnace stop 二十四 维护保养

Maintenance 二十五 受压元件的检验和水压试验

Inspection of compression components and hydraulic test 用户须知 User instructions

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一 结构简介、主要规范 Brief introduction of the structure and the main criterions
SZL 系列锅炉是以燃块状生物质水管蒸汽锅炉,为双锅筒纵置式。锅炉本 体由纵置的上下锅筒和两侧水冷壁、对流管束组成。炉膛上方两侧布置密排水 冷壁,下方四周为绝热炉膛。上锅筒内部设有均汽孔板、水下孔板、表面连续 排污装置等汽水分离设备。锅筒正常水位在中心线上 45mm 处,最大波动范围 ±50mm。下锅筒内部设有定期排污装置。上、下锅筒对流管束间设有二道垂 直隔墙,形成 S 型回路,使烟气流速控制合理流速的范围内。 SZL series water-pipe biomass-fired steam boiler is horizontal double-drum boiler with squamelliform stoker. The boiler proper is assembled by up and down drums and convective bank, cooling wall water tubes is placed on both sides of upper furnace. The bottom is the thermal insulation furnace. There are steam pore plate and under-water pore plate inside the top drum, on which surface has the continuous blow down device and steam-water separator. The normal water level is on the place which is 45mm above the drum centerline, the max wave range is ± 50mm. There is intermittent blow down device inside the bottom drum. Between the top and bottom drum, there are 2 vertical wall in the convection bank, which shall form the S type circle to make the flue gas in the reasonable speed range. 锅炉燃料通过斗提式上料机进入料斗,到达炉排上,进行燃烧。燃烧设备 为链带炉排。在炉排后面板及两侧都设置有拨火门,便于拨火及检修用。鼓风 机的送风经空气预热器加热成热风直接进入炉排独立风室。 从而更有利组织燃 料在炉膛中充分燃烧。炉膛中燃烧后的高温烟气由炉膛进入对流管束段,再进 入空气预热器、除尘器,由引风机抽引通入烟囱排向大气,流程图可见燃烧系 统图。 The fuel shall go into the fuel hopper through the hoisting coal feeder, then
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goes to the stoker to do the combustion job. The firing device is squamelliform stoker. There are fire doors on the rear of stoker and both sides of furnace to make the control and maintain work easy. The flue gas with high temperature from the burning in furnace shall go into the convection bank, then to the economizer, dust collector, and finally to the air thought the chimney from the ID fan. See details in the burning system chart. 本锅炉满足 TSG G0002《锅炉节能技术监督管理规程》的要求。 This boiler shall meet the requirements of TSG G0002 Boiler energy-saving technical supervision and management regulations. 锅炉主要规范(详见出厂图纸资料) Main specifications of boiler (see details on the drawing and documents)

二 性能特点 Special Characteristics
SZL 锅炉燃块状生物质水管蒸汽锅炉具有下列优点: SZL biomass-fired water-pipe steam boiler has the advantage below 1.锅炉属于水管锅炉,采用双锅筒自然循环型式,启热快,热效率高,水循 环安全可靠。 The water-pipe boiler with double-drums uses the natural circulation system, has the characteristics of fast start, high thermal efficient and stable water circling. 2.锅炉结构紧凑,受热面布置合理,出力足。 The boiler has the advantage of tight structure, reasonable heating area and outstanding output. 3.锅炉控制操作方便,自动化程度高。 The boiler has the advantage of easy control and highly automatic. 4.配套齐全,锅炉出厂到使用现场后,组装后砌筑炉墙、安装阀门、管道及 水电等即可运行,安装周期短。且具有起动升火快等特点。 The whole equipment system is complete, fast-assembled before leave factory. Only install furnace wall, valves, pipeline, and water and electricity before working. Short install periods, and fast fire rising on start.
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5.锅炉上设有检查门、检修门,检修方便。 There are the doors on the boiler to make the maintenance easy.

三 出厂简况 Conditions of delivery
SZL 系列锅炉燃块状生物质水管蒸汽锅炉出厂时, 分件包装如下: SZL biomass-fired water-pipe steam boiler’s package when leaving the factory consists of the following: 1.锅炉上部大件包括锅炉本体、固定式旋转吹灰器、保温层及上部炉墙等组 合件。下部大件包括链条炉排、检查门、检修门、支架等组合件。 Main parts in the upper part of the boiler: boiler proper, fixed spin soot blower, insulation layer and some joint part of top furnace wall. Main parts in the bottom part of the boiler: chain grate, doors and support frame. 2.空气预热器组件。Parts of economizer 3.平台扶梯组件。Parts of platform and ladder 4.落灰装置组件。Parts of ash fallen device 5.锅炉烟风道组件。Parts of boiler 6. 斗提上料机。Hoisting fuel feeder 7.鼓风机、引风机(包括电动机、风机座) 。 Primary FD fan, secondary FD fan, ID fan (included motor and fan base) 8.炉排调速箱 speed governor。 9.锅炉出渣机 slag extractor。 10.除尘器 dust collector。 11.自动控制箱及电器元件 Electric control box and electrical elements。 12.给水泵和仪表、阀门管道零件。 Water feeding pump, instruments, valves and ducting parts 13.水处理设备 Water treatment devices。 14.备品杂件 Spare parts。 15.技术文件:锅炉安装图纸、主要受压件图纸、易损零件图纸及受压元件
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强度计算书、安全阀排放能力计算书,安装使用说明书和产品质量证明书等技术 文件。 Technical documents: boiler installing pictures, easy damaged parts drawing. Degree calculation book for parts under pressure and safety valve let capability, installation directory and boiler quality certificate and technical files.

安 装 说 明 Installation directory
四 安装前的准备工作 Installation preparation
1.根据我厂提供的图样,技术资料以及用户选配的辅机资料进行锅炉房的设 计。布置。 Design and arrange the boiler room as per the drawing and technical documents we supplied. 2.锅炉安装单位,必须是具有安装能力的持证单位,锅炉安装必须有专人负 责,司炉工参加,并配备管工、钳工、起重工、冷作工、电焊工及辅助工。 The boiler installation entity has to be inspected and approved by the Provincial Labor department. The installations has to have specific personnel in charge of the

operation, joined by a boiler technician, along with pipe technician, locksmith, lifting technician, cooling technician, electric welding technician, and assistant. 3.组织有关人员学习、 熟悉 TSG G0001 《锅炉安全技术监察规程》 、 GB50273 《锅炉安装工程施工及验收规范》和 GB50041《锅炉房设计规范》等国家有关 锅炉安全技术的法律法规,锅炉图样,安装使用说明书等文件,以了解和掌握安 装运行、维护、保养等事项。 Organize workshops for the related personnel to study “Safety and technical Inspection procedures for steam boilers” and “Industrial boiler room design procedure”. Familiarize with the related information on the boiler and installation

manual along with other technical documents in order to understand and master
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installation, operation, and maintenance. 4.确定安装地点 Double-check installation location (1)安装地点最好能接近用热地点,目的在于缩短输送管路,降低基本建 设费用,减少管路散热损失。 Preferably, the installation location is close to the steam location, making the convey belt short to lower the basic construction cost, and lower the loss of energy. (2)给水和排水方便。 Convenient water in-taking and drainage. (3)锅炉在安装运输时通畅。 Convenient for the storage of fuel and residual. (4)锅炉房的布置应符合 GB50041《锅炉房设计规范》有关章节的规定, 光线充足,通风良好,地面不应积水。为保证运行和检修方便,锅炉与建筑物的 净距满足 GB50041《锅炉房设计规范》表 4.4.6 规定的要求。 The design of the boiler room should comply Chapter Eight of <Safety and technical inspection procedures for team boilers>, “The department of Labor and Human Resources. China”. There should be enough light and airy in the room and not water accumulating on the ground. For the purpose of inspection and operation, the space in front of the boiler and the side of the coal filter shall be as per requirements in “Boiler room design regulation”. 5.地基准备 Base preparation 按地基图施工,由土建部门根据锅炉载重参照当地土质条件,决定地基浇制 厚度,预挖除渣机坑,并预设妥炉排调速器、空气预热器、鼓、引风机的地脚螺 栓孔,斗提上料机立柱预埋钢板。所有预留孔均应在立柱、辅机安装就位后,再 浇灌混凝土。 地基表面应光滑平整, 表面不平度不大于 3 毫米。 地基验收合格后, 按锅炉地基图划出锅炉安装基准线,基础复验和放线及钢架应符合 GB50273《锅 炉安装工程施工及验收规范》的要求。 Construct according to the basic blueprint. The Construction Department will decide on the depth of the base based on the condition of the soil and the load of the boiler. In advance, the spiral residual

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hole should be dug along with holes of the residual and accelerator that should be buried, dusting machine and holes for aching of the fanning machine. The surface of the base should be smooth with tolerance of unevenness of less than 3 millimeters. After the bases are inspected to fit the standards, draw the baseline for boiler installation according to the boiler blueprints. 6.设备验收 Inspection of the equipments (1)锅炉运抵后,在 15 天内按制造厂的出厂清单,对零件进行清点,根据锅 炉安装图复核设备的完整性,检查锅炉大件在运输途中是否有损坏变形等情况, 如有缺件或损坏必须在一个月内(指我厂发货日期起)与我厂联系,逾期不予受 理。 After the boiler is transported, inspection and checking should be done within 15 days of the day of departing according to the list of the packing list. Base on the boiler installation graph double-check the completeness of the boiler. Check if there is any damage to the boiler in the process of transportation. Any damage or incompleteness must be reported to the factory within one month of the day the boiler left our factory. period. (2)锅炉安装前,用户单位应根据我厂提供的发货清单,进行备料,以防贻 误锅炉安装周期。 The client shall prepare the materials as per the supplied packing list before the boiler installation to avoid the installation delay. (3)锅炉运抵后,若不能立即安装,有关零部件应立即加涂防锈物,对锅炉 及耐火材料做好防雨、防潮、防冻措施,以免损坏锅炉。 When the boiler parts arrive, can not be immediately installation. The parts shall do the rust prevention work and do the rain-proof, wet-proof and cold-proof work for the refractory material. We are not responsible for anything outside the one-month

五 锅炉总体的安装 The installation of the majority of the boiler
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锅炉总体安装应遵守 GB50273《锅炉安装工程施工及验收规范》的要求。 The boiler installation shall as per the requirements of GB50273 Code for construction and acceptance of installation engineering of boiler. 1.链条炉排就位前,先将出渣机放入出渣机坑内。 Before the chain stoker is in position, first place the residual of the residual machine into the hole. 2.链条炉排就位后应校正水平,允许倾斜不大于 5 毫米,如超过可用垫铁校 正。 2. After the majority of the boiler placed on two groundsills, adjust the level of the stoker. The sloping tolerance is no greater than 5 millimeters. If the sloping exceeds the tolerance, one can use stuffing to adjust. 3.在上部组装件就位前,把两只落灰斗放在链条炉排上。把链条炉排上的起 吊用的吊环割除并磨平。 Before the upper part on its position, put 2 units of ash hopper on the stoker and remove the hanger for the stoker lifting. 4.在锅筒吊耳上起吊组装本体与链条炉排及尾部的钢架合拢, 上下两大件的 纵向中心线,偏差不大于 3 毫米,且用线锤校正上部组装本体上下锅筒中心的倾 斜度, 允许上下锅筒中心倾斜不大于 5 毫米, 否则要用垫铁在组合件交界处垫平, 并在上部组装件与下部链条炉排立柱交界处焊接。 Tow the boiler and the chain stoker and join them. The tolerance

for the center lines of the upper and bottom vertical centerline should be no greater than 3 mm. Use wire weight to correct the sloping of the The tolerance allowed for

upper assembly of the top and bottom boiler.

the sloping of the top and bottom boiler is no greater than 5 mm. Otherwise, one should use stuffing steel at the joint of the parts. 5.按图样把六只落灰斗与上部组件底板固定,且在接口处加填料,密封。 Fix the 6 units of ash hopper along with the upper parts bottom board. Place filling material at the joint.

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6.安装下锅筒排污管。 Install the blow down pipe of the bottom drum.

六 工地现场筑炉 Build on site
1.筑炉前在炉排表面铺一层麻(草)袋,防止筑炉过程中其他物品落进炉排 内。 Before the boiler building, put a layer of gunnysack on the surface of stoker to avoid something falling on the place during the building. 2.在施工现场检查耐火砖、保温砖的表面质量,外形尺寸以及损坏情况,耐 火砖、保温砖严禁浇水,雨淋,检查混凝土用各种成份是否符合图样要求,耐火 混凝土、蛭石混凝土可参照下列重量配比: Inspect the quality of the anti-fire wall at the worksite if there is any damage of the appearance and measurements. The anti-fire walls

should be kept from rain and water at all times. Fire-resistant concrete and vermiculite concrete should follow the following ratio: (1)耐火混凝土配比: (清水适量)

Composition of fire-resistant concrete: (some water) 矾土水泥 Bauxite concrete 低铝矾土细粉 0.5-1 毫米 15% 500# 15%

Low lead bauxite powder 低铝矾土骨料 1-3 毫米 35%

Low lead bauxite essence 低铝矾土骨料 3-6 毫米 35%

Low lead bauxite essence (2)蛭石混凝土配比: (清水适量)

Vermiculite concrete composition: (some water) 硅酸盐水泥 500# 40%

Silicate concrete 膨胀蛭石 60%
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Expandable vermiculite (3)硅酸铝纤维粘结剂的配制和使用: Composition and usage of Sodium silicate fiber adhesive 在 TNA 粘结剂中掺和 45-50 耐火细粉,均匀搅拌成稀糊状浆糊,用刷子均 匀刷在硅酸铝纤维和耐火砖表面,及时进行敷贴。 TNA adhesive is mixed with 45-50 fire-resistant fine powder. Mix evenly and make it into a paste. Use a brush to apply the paste evenly on the sodium silicate and the fire-resistant brick, and stick them quickly. 4.筑炉应在锅炉水压试验合格后进行。 The boiler building shall be taken after the acceptance of the hydraulic test.

七 平台扶梯的安装 Installation of platform ladder
平台扶梯按图样要求现场进行安装, 安装时平台、 托架、 短支撑、 扶梯栏杆、 支耳等焊接要牢固,组装平直,栏杆接头焊缝应光滑,转弯处应平滑、美观,安 装平台托架时,必须牢固地焊在钢架上,切忌敷焊在护板或装饰板条上。 The user will inspect the platform ladder according to the packing list. Install according to the requirements of the worksite. The

platform, supporting frame, short support, ladder fence and supporting ear should be welded steadily. and nice looking. The joint of the parts should be smooth

八 烟风道、空气预热器、除尘器的安装 Installation of the flue gas duct, the economizer and the dust collector
1.在锅炉后方安装空气预热器、除尘器,根据烟风道图纸进行烟道、空气预 热器、除尘器等安装。 Put the economizer and dust collector on the rear part of boiler and do the installation as per the flue gas duct drawing. 2.各烟道法兰面之间要嵌石棉带,保证密封,防止泄漏。 Use asbestos strips on various flanges, to make sure everything is air-tight.
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3.各组件装配完毕后, 须对烟道作漏风检查, 若发现漏风, 应用石棉带嵌实。 After the installation of all parts, make sure the tight if flue gas duct. Using asbestos strips to avoid leakage.

九 风机的安装 Installation of fan
风机的安装应遵守 GB50275《风机、压缩机、泵安装工程施工及验收规范》 的要求。 The installation of fans shall as per the requirements of GB50275 Fan, compressor, pump installation engineering construction and acceptance specification. 1. 引风机 ID fan 引风机装妥后检查有无卡住,漏气等缺陷,然后接通电源试车,检查电动机 转向是否正确,有无摩擦振动现象,电动机和轴承温度是否正常,冷态试运 转时间最大不得超过 5 分钟,并且应关闭调节门,以免因冷态超负荷运行, 引起电动机烧坏,并根据引风机样本,检查电动机电流。 After the ID fan is assembled, check to see if there is any blocking or leaking. And then connect the electricity to test, inspect if the electric motor is turning correctly. Inspect if there is any vibration, if the axis is working correctly.

Cold operation time should not exceed 5 minutes with the adjusting gate closed to avoid overload or other possibilities to burn the machine. 2. 鼓风机 FD fan 鼓风机及进风管装好后, 检查连接部位是否牢固严密, 调风门启闭是否灵活, 定位是否可靠,然后接通电源试车,检查电动机转向是否正确,有无摩擦振 动现象,电动机和轴承温度是否正常,一般振动不大于 0.1 毫米,温升不高 于室温 40℃。 After the FD fan and the fanning passage are installed, check to see if the connecting points are tight if the gates are flexible, and if the position is reliable. And then connect the electricity to see if the turning of the machine is normal, if there is any vibration of friction, and if the temperature of the machine and axis are normal. 40 ℃.
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The temperature should not be higher than room temperature

十 炉排调速器的安装 Installation of the speed regulator
与预埋螺钉耦合定位,校正水平,与前轴连接,保证轴中心线定位可靠,检 查是否加润滑油,然后接通电源试车,听其有否异常噪音。 Make sure the position of speed regulator shall be matched to the reserved bolt and connect to the front axle. Check the lubricant oil situation and take the test run to make sure there is no unusual noise.

十一 出渣机的安装 Installation of the slag extractor
先将渣机在锅炉下部组装大件(链条炉排组装大件)就位前放在地基上预留 的出渣器坑内,在锅炉就位后,将渣斗装到炉排底板法兰上。法兰接口必须衬垫 石棉带。冷态试车 2 小时以上。 Put the slag extractor on the reserved slag pitch before the boiler bottom part been on its position. Then put the slag hopper on the flange of stoker bottom guard plate. 1. There must be asbestos strips at the joint of flange. Cooling test run must more than 2 hours.

十二 电气控制设备的安装 Installation of electric controlling device
电控箱上汇集了锅炉上所有电动机(鼓风机、引风机、水泵、调速箱)的开 关按钮,用户可先把电线拉到各只电动机上,然后接通外来总电源,箱壳应保护 性接地。 电控性能起到保证安全运行的功能, 电控箱的调试及操作详见随机的 《电 气控制箱使用说明书》 。电控箱应安装在锅炉前方,靠近墙壁处,便于司炉工操 作,以利监察锅炉上各仪表的正常运行。 The electric controlling box consists of all electric machines’ switches. The

user can first connect all electric wire to the machines and then connect the main electric outlet. The box out layer should be connected to the ground. The function

of the electric box is to safely control the operation. See “The manual of the usage of electric control box” for the operation and adjusting of the electric control box. The box should be installed in the front of the boiler, near a wall.

十三

管道、阀门仪表及附件的安装 Installation of pipes, meters,
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gates and attachments
管道、阀门仪表及附件的安装应遵守 GB50273《锅炉安装工程施工及验收 规范》的要求。 The installation of pipes, meters, gates and attachments shall be as per the requirements of GB50273 Boiler installation engineering construction and acceptance specification. ⒈安装前应校验好仪表,做好阀门的试验。 Adjust equipments before the installation, and test the gates. ⒉安装管道阀门仪表时,按图样进行安装,电动泵固定在适当的位置,并应 浇制基础,接通电源后试车运转。 Install the pipeline, gates, and equipments according to the blueprints. Fix the water pump on a suitable position, with base in place first. and test run. ⒊安全阀应在水压试验后安装,安全阀应接装排汽管,将排汽导向锅炉房外 安全处。 Install the safety gates after the water pressure test, with release pipe. water be released to the safe side of the boiler. smaller than the safe gate exit to prevent frosting. ⒋排污管接至排污箱或其他安全处,管道应固定,防止排污时受冲击移位或 发生烫伤等事故。 Blow down pipe should be connected to the filth box of other safe places. The pipeline should be stopping the filtering from causing any accidents. ⒌主汽阀以外的蒸汽管道由使用单位配接, 在主汽阀管道上至少有一个补偿 弯头,否则应加装伸缩管,管道外壁预以保温。 The steam pipes other than the main steam pipe should use unit adjustment, with at least one turn on the pipeline. ⒍水位表下部泄水管必须接入安全之处, 水位表考克旋转要灵活, 不得漏水, 水位表处必须安装照明设备,便于观察。 The water pipe below the water meter has to be connected to the safe side.
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Connect electricity

Let the

The water surface should not be

The water should be flexible with no leakage. convenient observation.

There must be lighting around for

⒎装置压力表时,应使刻度盘面垂直,压力表刻度盘上应画出红线,以示锅 炉最高许可工作压力,压力表考克旋转灵活,不得漏水,疏水应畅通,压力表管 禁止保温。 When installing pressure meters, the meter should always be parallel. The

readers should have red lines indicating the highest allowable pressure of the working boiler. The meter should be flexible with no leakage. The watering giving and outing should be without blocking. 8.制造厂只供部分弯头三通零件,其余直管用户自备,按图装接。 Our factory only supplies three parts. The rest the customers must get it themselves.

十四 水压试验 Hydraulic test
锅炉管道、阀门、仪表、省煤器安装完毕后,检查和清理锅炉内部,关闭人 孔手孔,然后按 TSG G0001《锅炉安全技术监察规程》表 4-3 进行水压试验,试 验压力详见锅炉总图。 After the installation of the boiler pipe, equipment, gate and coal economic machine, inspect and clean the inside of the boiler. Close the holes, and start the water pressure test according to the standards of TSG G0001 “Safety technology and inspection guideline of steam boilers”.

十五 锅炉油漆 Boiler painting
1.锅炉安装完毕,应清除表面的油垢和缺陷。 After the boiler installation, remove the greasy dirt on the surface and defect. 2.按照前、后炉膛,对流受热面制造要求,对护板、支架、压条进行油漆二 道,护板为桔黄色,压条为深蓝色。 As per the manufacturing requirements of front & rear furnace and convection heating area, second layer painting shall be covered the guard plate, support frame and depression bar. The guard plate shall
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be orange and depression bar shall be dark blue. 3.对管道系统保温层进行去污并油漆二道,连通管道全部为蓝。 Remove the dirty of the piping insulation and cover it with second layer of painting. The connection piping shall be blue. 4. 链条炉排为银灰色,炉门为黑色。 The chain grate shall be silver-grey and doors shall be black.

使 用 说 明 Direction for Using
十六 烘炉和煮炉前的检查 Inspection before heating up and boiling out
在烘炉和煮炉前必须细检查锅炉的各零部件,检查项目如下: Before heating up and boiling out, the components of the furnace shall be carefully checked. The items for inspection are as follows: 1.燃烧系统各送气管接口、燃料接口、蒸汽管道、给水管路、排污管路是否完整。 Check all the joint of air supply, joint of fuel feed, steam piping, water supply piping and blow down piping. 2.人孔、手孔是否严密。 Check the manhole and hand hole. 3.引风机、给水设备试运转要正常。 Make sure the test run for ID fan and water feeding device is running well. 4.检查门、拔渣门是否严密。 Check the inspection door and fire door. 5.空气预热器是否严密,烟气通道是否畅通。 Check the economizer situation and flue gas duct. 6.锅炉上各种指示、检测表计是否正常。 Check all the indications and gauges on the boiler. 7.蒸汽管路、给水管、排污管路是否畅通。 Check the steam piping, water supply piping and blow down piping.
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8.链条炉排冷态试车,确保无故障。 Make a test run under the cooling chain grate to check the operation situation.

十七

烘炉和煮炉 Heating up and boiling out

锅炉各零部件安装完毕经检查和试运转后,证实各部件有安全起动的条件,即可 开始烘炉和煮炉。 After the installation of components of the furnace and inspection and trial, heating up and boiling out can be started if it is proved that all parts enjoy safe start conditions. 1.新锅炉在使用前进行烘炉,其目的在于使锅炉砖墙能够很好的缓慢地干燥起 来,在使用时不致损裂。煮炉主要目的为清除锅炉内部的杂质和油垢,煮炉时锅 炉内需加入适当的药品使炉水成为碱性炉水,去掉油垢等物。 Heating up shall be carried out on the new furnace before use. The purpose is to make the furnace brick wall can dry slowly so that it will not break during use. The purpose of boiling out is to remove the residue and oil stain inside the furnace. Proper medicine shall be added into the furnace during boiling out so as to make the water become alkaline and the oil sludge can be removed. 2. 烘炉方法 Heating up (1)将处理过的水通过水泵注入锅炉内,上水速度要缓慢,上水时间在夏季 不少于 1 小时, 在冬季不少于 2 小时, 水温不宜太高, 进水温度一般不高于 40℃, 以防止锅筒内产生过大温差应力。 使锅内水位长至水位表的 2/3 处, 关闭给水阀, 观察水位是否降低,检查人孔、手孔盖、法兰接合面及排污阀有否漏水,如有应 拧紧螺栓,关闭阀门。 Inject the water after treatment into the furnace through coal economizer. Make sure the water inlet shall be slow. The time of boiler water filling shall not be The water temperature shall not

less than 1 hour in summer, and 2 hours in winter.

be too high, no more than 400C to the maximum so as to avoid excessive temperature difference pressure. The manhole cover of the boiler and the coal economizer shall be checked during the water filling. Meanwhile the flange joint surface and sewage drainage valve shall be checked for leakage, if yes, bolt shall be screwed up. (2)先用木柴烘炉,火焰应在炉膛中央,开始文火,以后逐渐加大,间断地
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开启鼓、引风机进行机械通风。 Firewood shall be strengthened gradually in order to avoid sudden heating. During the period of which, the ID fan and FD fan shall be opened for ventilation. (3)定期移动链条炉排,防止烧坏炉排。 During the heating up period, chain grate stoker shall be move regularly so as to avoid damage the grate stoker. (4)烘炉升温根据炉膛出口处的烟气温度来控制,本锅炉在炉墙砌筑完毕, 经一般自然干燥期后进行烘炉,第一天温升不超过 50?℃,以后每天温升不超过 20℃,后期不超过 150℃,建议烘炉升温曲线,如下图所示。 The furnace temperature raising shall be controlled by the outlet flue gas temperature of the furnace. After the furnace wall built finished, the furnace shall be taken nature heating for a while. At the first day, the temperature shall no more than 50?℃, the temperature of everyday raising shall be no more than 20?℃ and at the last period no more than 150?℃. The suggestion temperature raising curve shall be as per the following chart:

烘炉升温曲线 Oven temperature curve OA—自然干燥期 OA—Notural drying period AD—木材烘炉 AD—The wood oven DE—自然冷却 DE—Notural cooling

如炉墙特别潮湿,可延长烘炉时间,并保持锅炉不起压,如锅炉压力超过 0.1MPa,应打开排汽阀放汽。 If the furnace wall is so wet, the boiler heating up time shall be extended. Make sure the boiler pressure is not high, if the pressure more than 0.1Mpa, open the air
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exhausting valve. 3.烘炉合格标准 Heating up acceptable standard: (1)炉墙经烘烤后不应有变形或裂纹,混凝土不得有塌落。 After the heating up, the furnace wall can not be deformation or crack and the concrete can not be fallen. (2)用炉墙灰浆试样法或测湿法检查烘炉是否合格。 Use the mortar specimen method or wet method to check the heating up situation. 3.煮炉可采用氢氧化钠(NaOH)或磷酸三钠(Na3PO4·12H2O)等药品,其用 量以锅炉水容积每立方米计,煮炉所用上述药物应配制成浓度为 20%的均匀溶 液,不得将固体药品直接加入锅炉。 Boiling out can use NaOH and Na3PO4·12H2O. The usage of medicine shall be as per the boiler water volume m3. The medicine for boiling out shall be mixed into 20% homogeneous solution. The solid medicine can not be injected into the boiler directly. 煮炉加药量 (kg/m? 水) Dosing table 生 锈 情 况 Rust situation 较 轻 Light 2~3 2~3 较 重 Heavy 4~5 4~5

药品 Medicine

备注 Remarks

磷酸三钠 Na3PO4·12H2O 氢氧化钠 NaOH

在烘炉的最后二天,暂停燃烧,通过上锅筒加药阀口用手掀泵或漏斗把溶液 注入锅筒内,关闭加药阀,维持中、低水位,继续加木材燃烧。 On the second day of boiler heating up, stop the burning and put the solution into the boiler by the dosing valve or hand, then close the valve and keep the middle or low water level and start the burning with wood. (1)当锅炉升至 0.4MPa 时,应维持 24 小时,然后停止燃烧让压力逐渐降
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到零,水温低于 70?℃后,开启排污阀,将炉水全部放出。 When the furnace pressure is gradually increases to 0.4Mpa, keep for about 24 hours, and then stop combustion and reduce the pressure to 0Mpa. After the

water temperature is lower than 700C, open the sewage drainage valve and discharge all the furnace water. (2)待锅炉冷却后用高压水彻底清洗锅炉,直至锅筒内没有油污铁锈时煮 炉才算合格。 After the boiler completely cooling down, washing the boiler with high pressure water until there is no greasy dirt and rust in the boiler.

十八
1.

升火 Starting up
锅炉在升火前应进行全面检查(包括有关附件管道)而后进行给水工作,

未进水前必须关闭排污阀,开启锅筒上安全阀,让锅炉内空气可以排出。 Full inspection (including concerned accessories and pipeline) shall be fully inspected before the furnace starting up. Water filling will be carried out right after, before which the sewage drainage valve must be closed and air exhaust valve opened so as to let the air exhausted from the stoker.

2.

将已处理的水通过水泵缓缓注入锅炉内,进水温度一般不高于 40℃。

当锅内水位升至水位表最低水位时,即关闭给水阀门,待锅内水位稳定后,观察 水位有否降低。 Treated water shall be slowly injected into the stoker through coal economizer. The water inlet temperature shall not be higher than 40℃ generally.

3.

升火时,从炉排两侧炉门放置木柴等引燃物(严禁铁钉带入)引燃,

开大引风机烟气调节门,增大自然通风,引燃物燃烧后,调小烟气调节门,间断 地开启引风机,待引燃物燃烧旺盛后,开始手工加大燃料量,这时可以开启鼓风
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机,当炉膛温度升至 500℃左右,通过斗提向料斗内加木材。间断开启炉排,并 在侧面拨火孔处观察着火情况,待前拱下木材连续着火后,调节鼓引风量,炉膛 负压维持在 20~30Pa,使燃烧渐趋正常。 During the starting up, the fire door shall be opened, and fire introduced substances (without iron nails) such as firewood shall be put in front of the grate stoker, and smoke and gas adjustment door of the induced draft fan shall be opened to enlarge the natural ventilation. After the introduced combustible substance catches fire, the smoke and gas adjustment door shall be turned smaller, and induced draft fan shall be opened discontinuously. After the fire booms, coal can be added manually. At this time, air blowing machine can be started, and fire door to be closed when the coal layers is burning roaring. Add some coal to the scuttle and intermitted open the grate stoke, and combustion conditions can be observed at the stirring hole at left side and stir the fire properly. When the front part is heated, introduced draft volume can be adjusted by the continuous combustion of coal. The pressure inside the furnace chamber shall remain 20~30Pa so as to make combustion normal.

4.

升火时温度增加不宜太快,避免各部分因受热不同而产生过大的热应

力,影响锅炉寿命,初次升火表气压升至工作压力的时间以 6-8 小时为宜,以后 升火时除有特殊情况需急用蒸汽外,冷炉不少于 2 小时,热炉不少于 1 小时,为 减少冷炉起动时下锅筒上下温差,可用增大下锅筒排污量来提高下锅筒下部温 度,以减少下锅筒上下部温差。 The temperature shall not be increased too fast during starting up so as to avoid excessive thermal stress on different parts due to different heat and influence the shelf life of the furnace. Starting up of the hot-water furnace is carried out under the condition that heating system has already circulation; therefore, the temperature increase after starting up will be slower than that of steam furnace.

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5.

当开启的一只安全阀内冒出蒸汽时,即关闭排安全阀,并冲洗压力表

弯管和水位表,当压力升至 0.2-0.3MPa 时,检查人孔与手孔盖是否渗漏,如有 则拧紧人孔,手孔盖螺栓,同时检查排污阀是否严密无漏水。 When pressure increases to 0.2~0.3Mpa, manhole and hand-hole cover shall be checked for leakage. If there is leakage, screw up the bolts on manhole and hand-hole cover and sewage drainage valve shall be checked to see if it is close and without leakage.

6.

当锅内气压逐渐升高时,应注意锅炉各部件有无特殊响声,如有应立

即检查,必要时应立即停炉检查,解除故障后方可运行。 When the pressure inside the furnace increases gradually, pay attention to all the parts of the furnace for special sound. If there is, inspection is required at once, and furnace can be stopped for inspection if necessary. It can only be operated after the fault is removed.

十九

调整安全阀 Adjustment on safety valve

安全阀应在初次升压时进行调整,按照 TSG G0001《锅炉安全技术监察规程》表 6-3 规定的压力进行调整和校验 (表 2) The safety valve shall be adjusted at the first pressure increasing. The regulation of TSG G0001 Regulations on Monitoring of Safety and Technology of Steam Furnace issued by the State Ministry of Labor shall be taken as reference for the adjustment and calibration of pressure. (Chart 2) 额定蒸汽压力 Mpa Rated Steam Pressure ≤ 0.8 安全阀的整定压力 Set-Point Pressure of Safety Valve 工作压力+0.03Mpa Working pressure + 0.03 MPa
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工作压力+0.05Mpa Working pressure + 0.05 MPa 1.04 倍工作压力 0.8 < P ≤ 5.9 1.04 Times Working pressure 1.06 倍工作压力 1.06 Times Working pressure 1.05 倍工作压力 > 5.9 1.05 Times Working pressure 1.08 倍工作压力 1.08 Times Working pressure

1.安全阀的开启压力。
The starting pressure of the safety valve.

例: 锅炉的工作压力为 1.6MPa, 安全阀的开启压力, 一只调整到 1.664MPa, 另一只调整到 1.696Mpa。 When the working pressure of the furnace is 1.6Mpa, the start pressure of safety valve shall be adjusted to 1.664Mpa, and another to 1.696Mpa. 2.所有安全阀经校正铅封后不能乱动。 All the safety valves shall not be moved casually after calibration and sealing. 3.切勿敲击安全阀上的任何部分,开启安全阀只能用阀上的控制杆。 Never knock at any parts on the safety valve, only the control handle can be used to open the safety valve. 4.在安全阀未校正前,锅炉绝对禁止投入运行。 The furnace is prohibited to use before the calibration of safety valve.

二十 供汽 Steam supply
当锅内气压接近工作压力,准备向外供汽,供汽前锅内水位不宜超过正常水 位。供汽时炉膛内燃烧稳定。
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When the pressure inside the furnace is close to the working pressure and is ready for steam supply outwards, the water level inside the furnace before steam supply shall not exceed the normal water level, and the combustion inside the furnace chamber shall be stable. 供汽应将总气阀微微开启,让微量蒸气进行暖管,同时将管路上的泄水阀开 启,泄出冷凝水,暖管时间根据管道长度、直径、蒸气温度等情况决定,一般不 少于 10 分钟,暖管时应注意管道的膨胀和管道支架的稳定状态情况,如发现有 不正常情况应停止暖管,消除故障和缺陷。待管路已热,管路上冷凝水逐渐减少 后, 方可全开总汽阀, 开启时宜缓缓进行。 同时应注意锅炉各部件有否异常响声, 如有应立即检查,必要时停炉检查,总汽阀完全开启后,应将总汽阀手轮退回半 圈,以防热胀后不能转动等缺点。锅炉供汽后,应再次检验附属零件,阀门仪表 有无漏水,工作是否正常,为了防止吊水(蒸气带水),在任何情况下勿使水位低 于允许的最低水位或高于允许的最高水位,同时总汽阀不宜开得过大,一般控制 在 1.5-2 圈之间,在燃烧情况正常下即可达到额定压力。 The general steam valve shall be slightly opened during steam supply so as to let a little steam heat the pipeline. Meanwhile, the outlet valve on the pipeline can be opened to let the condensed water escape. The pipeline heating time shall be decided by the situations such as pipeline length, diameter and steam temperature, normally not less than 10 minutes. Pay attention to pipeline expansion and the conditions of pipeline supports, if abnormal situation occurs, stop heating the pipeline, remove faults and defects. The general steam valves can open be opened when the cold condensed water on the pipeline reduces gradually. Slowly open the valve, and pay attention if there is special sound on each part of the pipeline, check if available, and stop the furnace if necessary. After the general steam valve is totally opened, the hand gear shall be returned for half circle so as to avoid defects such as it cannot move after heat expansion. After the steam supply of furnace, the accessory components shall be checked again, no water leakage or if working normally. In order to avoid water suspending (steam without water), under no circumstance shall the water level be lower than the allowed minimum water level or higher than the allowed highest water level. Meanwhile, the general steam valve shall not be opened too much, usually
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between 1.5~2 circles. Under the conditions of normal combustion, the rating pressure can be reached.

二十一 正常运行 Regular operation
锅炉正常运行时要求做到,锅炉内水位正常,蒸汽压力稳定,保持锅炉房的 清洁,做好交接班工作,发挥人的因素第一,加强对各机械设备和仪表的监察, 确保安全可靠,防止事故发生,注意节约燃料,司炉工应定期总结操作经验,不 断提高运行水平。 During the regular operation of the furnace, the water level inside shall be normal, and steam pressure stable. The furnace room shall be clean and shift well. Human’s factor shall be exerted to strengthen the monitor on all kinds of mechanic equipment and instrument to ensure safety and reliability and avoid the occurrence of accidents. Pay attention to save coal. Stoker shall conclude operation experience regularly so as to enhance the operation level continuously. 1.给水要求 Requirements on water supply: 锅炉给水需进行处理,水质标准必须符合 GB/T1576《工业锅炉水质》标准。 Furnace water supply shall be treated with the water quality standard in compliance with GB1576 Standard for Industrial Furnace Water Quality. 2.锅内水位 Water level inside the furnace: 经常注意锅内水位变化,使其保持在正常水位±50 毫米的范围内,不得高 于最高或低于最低水位, 水位表内的水位一般有微微晃动现象, 如水面静止不动, 则水位表内可能有堵塞情况,应立即进行冲洗。 Pay attention to the change of water level inside the furnace, which shall be kept within ± 50mm of the normal water level, not higher than the highest or lower than the lowest. The water level inside the water gauge will slight vibrate. If the water level remains unchanged, there might be block inside the water gauge, which shall be rinsed. 3.水位计 Water meter: 玻璃水位计每班应冲洗二次,并保持在安全良好的状态,玻璃水位计每班必 须校正一次。
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Plastic water meter shall be rinsed twice every two shifts, and shall be remains in good conditions. It shall be calibrated once in every shift.

4.给水设备 Water supply equipment: 所有给水泵是否正常,应在交接时开车检验,如有故障立即进行修理。 All the water pumps shall be checked to see if normal nor not. fault, repair is needed immediately. 5.蒸汽压力 Steam pressure: 经常注意压力变化,尽可能保持炉内压力稳定,勿使汽压超过最高许可工作 压力。超压线必须在压力表上刻以醒目的红线。 Pay attention to the pressure change constantly and keep the pressure inside the furnace as stable as possible. Never let the steam pressure exceed the highest allowed working pressure. 6.压力表 Pressure gauge: 压力表弯管每班应冲洗一次,监视压力表是否正常,如发现压力表损坏,应 立即停炉修理或更换。 The bend pipe of the pressure gauge shall be rinsed and washed once in every shift so as to monitor if the pressure gauge is in normal conditions. If the gauge is found to be damaged, the furnace shall be stopped for repair or change at once. 7.安全阀 Safety valve: 注意安全阀的作用是否正常, 为了防止安全阀的阀盘和阀座粘住应定期拉动 安全阀提升手柄,作排汽试验,每隔 2-4 星期应升高汽压一次,作排汽试验以校 验安全阀正常动作。 Pay attention to the function of the safety valve. In order to prevent valve disk and valve seat of the safety valve stick together, steam exhaustion test shall be carried out. The steam pressure can be increased once every 2 to 4 weeks for steam exhaustion test so as to calibrate the function of the safety valve. 8.排污阀 Blow down valve: 排污(参阅第二十二条"排污")。(Please refer to Clause 22 Blow down): 9.正常操作 Normal operation: If there is

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(1)炉膛内正常的燃烧工况应是:火焰呈亮黄色,充满整个炉膛,炉膛负压 保持 20-30Pa,锅炉在额定蒸发量运行时,排烟温度应≤170℃。 The combustion conditions inside the furnace chamber shall include even fire bed, dense and even flame, which appears orange, no fire hole for cold ventilation, smoke from the chimney appears light gray and pressure load in the furnace chamber remains 20~30Pa, and smoke exhaustion temperature ≤ 180℃. (2)必须不间断地根据用汽情况来调整锅炉负荷和调整燃烧室的运行,保证 锅炉汽压的稳定,用汽部门应与锅炉房加强联系,用汽量有变化时,最好能提前 半小时通知锅炉房,以便司炉工对锅炉用汽作相应的调整。 Steam shall be continuously used to adjust the furnace pressure and the operation of the furnace chamber so as to guaranty the stability of furnace pressure. When the furnace pressure increases, air introduction shall be added and then grate stoker speeded up, the thickness of the coal can be increased if necessary. 10.锅炉房清洁 Cleaning of furnace room: (1)锅炉房应保持清洁,锅炉房里不应堆放其他杂物。 The furnace room shall remain clean without piling of other sundries. (2)注意室内照明,对水位表,压力表尤应有良好照明,使司炉看得清楚, 经常巡视锅炉周围,检查锅炉和附属零件是否正常。 Pay attention to indoor lightening, especially for the temperature of pressure gauge so that the stoker can see clearly. Patrol inspection around the furnace is required constantly to check if the furnace and accessories are in normal conditions. 11.交接班 Staff shifts: 为了保证每班能安全可靠经济运行,司炉在交接班时要切实做好以下工作: In order to ensure safe, reliable and economic operation of each shift, the stokers shall carry out the following tasks when changing turns: (1)接班的司炉要在规定的时间前到达锅炉房,做好接班准备; The stoker who is going to take the shift shall arrive at the furnace room before the regulated time and carry out preparation for shift. (2)交接班的司炉要做到: The stokers who shift with each other shall make
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a 锅炉运行压力正常 Furnace operation pressure normal; b 炉膛内燃烧稳定 Furnace chamber burning stably; c 各机械设备运转正常 All mechanic device operate regularly; d 锅炉各附件(包括管道阀门仪表)安全灵敏可靠; All components (including pipeline, valve and instrument) of the furnace safe, reliable and flexible; e 锅炉房清洁整齐灯光明亮。 Furnace room shall keep clean, neat and light. (3)交接班双方要做到交得彻底,接得认真,同时将交接班中的情况和问题 记入运行记录薄。 The both parties of the shift shall make it thoroughly and seriously, meanwhile, they shall record the problems during shift into the operation record.

二十二 排污 Blow down
1.连续排污是使炉水的碱度不超过一定的浓度,符合炉水碱度要求,排污、 放水量应根据炉水化学分析的结果,调节排污阀或放水阀的开度来控制。 The purpose of continuous blow down is to make the alkalinity not exceed certain density and in compliance with the alkalinity requirements of the furnace water. The sewage discharge quantity shall be controlled

according to the results of chemical analysis of the furnace water as well as the opening of the adjustable blow down valve. 2.定期排污是为了排除锅筒内之沉积物,且能调整炉水含量,定期排污, 在锅炉低负荷时进行效果好。 Regular blow down and water drainage is to remove the deposits inside the boiler drum and can adjust the contents of furnace water. the furnace is under low load, when the effect is better. 3.集箱定期排污在低负荷时进行,时间应尽可能短,以免影响水的循环。 Box collection regular blow down shall be carried out under low load and as short as possible in time so as to avoid influence on water circulation. 4.锅炉排污时,应密切注意炉内水位,如有任何不正常情况,应立即停止
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It shall be carried out when

排污。 During the furnace sewage, if any abnormal conditions occur, it shall be carried out immediately. 5.如二台或二台以上锅炉使用一排污总管,而排污管上又无逆止阀门,排 污时应注意: 1. If one blow down pipe is used for 2 sets or even more than 2 sets of furnace, and there is no check return valve on the blow down pipe, something need to notice:

(1)禁止二台同时排污。 2 sets of furnace blow down at the same time is not allowable. (2)如另一台锅炉正常检修,则在排污前必须将检修中的锅炉与排污管路隔 断分开。 If one set of furnace is in maintenance, then should be separated from the blow down pipeline before implementation. 6.假如排污管端不是通过排污箱内或排污管内,并且没有保护设备,则必 须在确实知道靠近排污管端处没有人时才可以进行排污, 以免在排污时发生不幸 事故。 If the end of the sewage discharge pipeline is not connected to sewage discharge box or well and without protective equipment, sewage discharge can only be carried out when it is confirmed that there is n people near the ends of the discharge pipeline so as to avoid accidents.

7.排污时具体操作如下: The detailed operation for blow down is as follows 每台锅炉上串装有二只排污阀,排污时首先将第二只 (离锅炉远的一只 )全 开,然后微开第一只排污阀,以便预热排污管道,待道路预热后再缓缓开大第一 只排污阀, 排污完毕后必须先缓缓关小第一只排污阀, 关闭后再关第二只排污阀,
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如此操作的目的, 是用第一只控制排污, 以保持第二只严密性, 当第一只渗漏时, 仍可使第二只控制排污,排污时,如发现排污管道内有冲击声,即应将第一只关 小,直至冲击声消失为止,然后缓缓开大,排污不宜连续长时间进行,以免影响 水循环。 There are 2 blow down valves installed on each furnace. The second one (the one more faraway from the furnace) shall be entirely opened during the sewage discharge, and slightly open the first one for pre-heating the pipeline. After that,

slightly open the first sewage discharge valve, which shall be first slowly closed after the completion of sewage discharge and then the second one. The purpose of such operation is to use the first valve to discharge sewage to protect the tightness of the second one. When leakage occurs on the first one, the second one can be used to control the sewage discharge as well. During the sewage discharge, if impact noise is heard from the pipeline, the first valve shall be closed a bit till the noise disappears. Then it is opened again slightly. Sewage discharge shall not be carried out

continuously for a long time so as not to influence the water circulation. 8.排污完毕,关闭排污阀后,应检查排污阀是否严密,检查方法是:关闭排 污,过一段时间后,在离开第二排污阀的管道上,用手试摸,是否冷却,如果不 冷却,则排污阀必有渗漏。 After the blow down and the valves are closed, the sewage discharge valves shall be checked for tightness. The method is to close the sewage discharge, and touch the

pipeline on the second sewage discharge valve after some time if it is cooled down. If not, the sewage discharge valve must have leakage.

二十三 停炉 Furnace stop
1. 锅炉停炉一般分四种情况: Furnace stop might have four reasons (1) 遇到炉排卡住或炉排片断裂、 出渣机卡住等, 为了迅速地解除故障, 应进行临时故障停炉(亦称短时间压火) 。

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When the grate is blocked or broken, in order to fast remove the faults, the furnace shall be stopped temporarily (also called as short-time pressing fire).

(2)遇到星期放假或其他情况,短期内不使用锅炉时应暂时停炉。 The furnace shall be stopped when steam is not used in a short period of time during weekly off days or other conditions. (3)为了清洁,检查或修理,须将炉水放出时应完全停炉。 In order to clean, check or repair, the furnace water is needed to be drained and the furnace shall be stopped completely. (4)遇到特殊情况,为了安全可靠起见必须紧急停炉。 Urgent stop is required due to occurrence of special situations and for the sake of safety and reliability; 上述四种情况由于情况不同,要求亦不同,具体步骤分别说明如下: The detailed steps for the aforesaid four conditions are listed as follows. 2.临时故障停炉,先关闭气力输送鼓风机,切断燃料供给,关闭一次风机, 微开引风机,迅速处理有关故障。 Temporary faults stop of furnace: Stop the air blowing machine, slightly open the introduced draft fan, stop the movement of grate, the furnace shall be temporarily stopped according to the real situations and faults to be removed continuously. 3.完全停炉 Absolutely furnace stop: 完全停炉应该是有计划的,一般运行 1-3 个月应停炉一次,停炉时注意安全 和维护设备,待炉水慢慢冷却到 70℃以下时才可把炉水放出,这时须先将安全 阀抬起,让锅筒内部与大气相通,如须缩短冷却时间,亦可通过给水管道进入冷 水,同时通过排污管道放出热水,但水位不得低于正常水位。炉水放出后,然后 开启人孔,手孔,用清水冲洗水污。 There is plan for absolutely furnace stop, usually once every 1~3 months. Pay attention to the safety and maintenance on equipment. After the stop according to the aforesaid (3) steps, when the furnace water is slowly cooled down below 70℃, the water can be discharged. At this time, uplift the safety valve first so as to make the
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internal boiler drum connect with the air. If it is necessary to shorten the cooling time, water supply pipeline can be used to let the cold water in and drain hot water from the sewage drainage pipeline, but the water level shall not be lower than the normal water. After the discharge of furnace water, manhole, hand holes can be opened and clean water to be used to rinse the pollution. 4.紧急停炉 Emergency furnace stop:

锅炉运行中,遇到下列情况之一时,应采取紧急停炉,并通知有关部门。 Emergency furnace stop is implemented when one of the following situations occurs during the operation of the furnace and relative departments shall be reported. (1) 锅炉水位降低到锅炉运行规程所规定的水位下极限以下时; When the furnace water level descends to below the limit of the water level regulated for furnace operation;

(2) 不断加大向锅炉给水及采取其他措施,但水位仍继续下降; When the water level keeps descending even water supply to the furnace is strengthened and other measures are being taken;

(3) 锅炉水位已升到运行规程所规定的水位上极限以上时。 When the furnace water level ascends to over the limit of the water level regulated for furnace operation;

(4) 给水设备全部失效。 All the water supply equipment lose their effects;

(5) 所有压力表、温度表、安全阀,其中有一种全部失效。 All the water level gauge, pressure gauge and safety valves, one category all lose the effects;

(6) 锅炉的主要零件上(锅筒、集箱)发现裂纹或者出水管、水冷壁管发 生爆炸。
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Crack is found on the main parts of furnace (boiler drum or collection box), or explosion occurs on main steam pipeline, water cold wall pipeline or the pipeline of the coal economizer;

(7) 炉墙严重损坏,严重威胁锅炉运行。 Furnace wall is seriously damaged, which seriously threatens the operation of the furnace.

紧急停炉应着重防止事故扩大,具体步骤如下: Accidents shall be prevented to expand during the emergency furnace stop. Detailed steps are as follows: a.先停止鼓风机,后停止引风。 Stop air blowing and then stop air introducing; b.切断燃料供给。 Cut the fuel feeding off. c.以最快速度使炉排转动, 把炉排上的渣及未燃烬的燃料通过出渣机全部清 除掉,最后停止炉排转动。 Stop the movement of grate as fast as possible to entirely remove the cindery and coal inside the furnace chamber (coal not burned can be recycled), and then stop the grate movement.

二十四

维护保养 Maintenance

1.锅炉在运行期间应注意下列各点: Pay attention to the followings during the furnace operation: (1)不允许炉膛点火后正压燃烧,因容易烧坏检查门,防爆门等装置。 It is not allowed chamber smoking pressure combustion because it might easily burn the coal gate, fire door and arch pipeline brick stand, etc. (2)如发现炉膛内炉墙倒塌,应在 24 小时内停炉进行更换。 If front arch brick is found to be broken, stop the furnace and change within 24 hours. (3)炉排前部链轮轴和滚筒的油杯中,每班应旋紧一次对轴承加牛油。 The tallow cup in front of chain axle and roller shall be screwed up once every shift and tallow shall be added.
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(4)每班应检查炉排调速箱、出渣器头部减速箱以及引风机轴承箱内的润 滑油应保持在变动范围内,浅则应及时加油,渗油要及时消除。 Reduction gear at the head of the spiral tap machine of the speed control equipment should be checked in each shift, and the lubricant inside the gear box of the introduced draft fan shall be kept within the changeable scope, oil to be added if it is shallow and removed when oil is leaked. (5)若引风机发生剧烈振动,应停车检查,一般系内部叶轮磨损而致,应 予调换。 If severe vibration occurs on the introduced draft fan, stop for inspection. Usually it is caused by the internally worn wheel fan, which shall be changed. 2.锅炉运行期间 2-3 星期应进行检查一次。 The furnace shall be checked once every 2-3 weeks during operation. (1)炉膛内炉墙是否有损坏。 Check if the front arch is broken or fallen off. (2)水位表,阀门,管道法兰等处如有渗漏应予修复。 Water level meter, valves and pipeline flanges shall be repaired if leakage occurs. 3.锅炉运行每隔 3~6 个月后,应停炉进行全面的检查维修,除做上述 2 的各 项工作外,尚须进行下列工作: After operation for 3~6 months, the furnace shall stopped for complete inspection and maintenance. Besides the foresaid second work, the following work is to be taken: (1)打开空气预热器顶盖,清除管处结灰。 Open the top cover of the coal economizer to clean the dust in the pipeline and dismantle the bend to remove the stain inside. (2)清除锅筒内部、水冷壁管内以及二只集箱内的水垢和泥渣,并用清水 洗清。 Clean the internal boiler, water cold wall pipeline and the water stain and reside in the 2 collection boxes and rinse with water.

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(3)清除水墙壁管及锅筒着火面上的烟炱,垢灰。 Clean the smoke stain and cindery in the wall pipeline and on the boiler. (4)将锅炉内外进行检查,如受压部分的焊缝,钢板内外有无腐蚀现象, 若发现有严重缺陷应及早修理.若缺陷并不严重,亦可留待下次停炉时修理;如 发现有可疑之处,但并不影响安全生产时,应作出记录以便日后参考。 Check inside the furnace, such as the welded seam of the pressure-bearing part, corrosion inside and outside the steel plates, repair if there is serious defect. the defect is not serious, it can be left for repair next time. If

If there is suspicion but

not effects on the safety production, record shall be taken for reference in the future. (5)检查完毕后可在着水面涂锅炉漆,以防腐蚀。 Paint can furnace coat in the water surface after inspection for corrosion prevention. (6)检查引风机的滚动轴承是否正常,叶轮和外壳的磨损程度.使用单位应 经常备有叶轮的备件。 Check if the rolling axle of the introduced draft fan is normal, abrasion level of the external shell of the wheel fan. the spare parts of the wheel fan. (7)必要时将炉墙及外面罩壳,保温层卸下,以便彻底检查,如发现有严 重损坏部分,必须修妥后方可继续使用,同时将检查结果及修理情况,填入锅炉 安全技术登记薄。 Unload the cover and heat preservation layer on the furnace wall for thorough inspection. If serious damage occurs, it can only be used after repair, meanwhile the inspection process and repair conditions shall be filled into the furnace safety technology registration book. 4.锅炉保温层罩壳(外包皮)及锅炉底座, (包括炉排底板下平面和鼓风管)每年 至少要油漆一次。 The cover (external shell) of the heat preservation layer and the bottom seat of the furnace (including the plane and air outlet pipeline below the bottom plates of the grate) shall be painted at least once a year. The unit using them shall often prepare

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5.锅炉长期不用的保养方法:有干法和湿法两种,停炉一个月以上,应采用干 保养法,停炉一个月以下可采用湿保养法。 The maintenance for furnace not under use for a long time has two methods, i.e. dry method and wet method. When the furnace is stopped for over 1 month, the dry maintenance method shall be adopted, and the west one is for the stop less than 1 month. (1)干保养法 Dry maintenance method: 锅炉停炉后放去炉水,将内部污垢彻底清除,冲洗干净,在炉膛内微火烘干 (注意不要大火)然后将 10-30 毫米块状的生石灰分盘装好,放置在锅筒内,不使 生石灰与金属接触,生石灰的重量,以锅筒容积每立方米 8 公斤计算。然后将所 有的人孔,手孔,管道阀门关闭,每三个月检查一次,如生石灰碎成粉状,须即 更换,锅炉重新运行时应将生石灰和盘取出。 After the stop of furnace, discharge the furnace water; thoroughly clean the internal stain and rinse. Heat the chamber with light fire (not turn to big fire). Then

put quicklime of 10~13mm block into plates and put into boiler. Never let lime contact metal. The weight of the quicklime is calculated as 8kg/M3 of the capacity of boiler. Then close all the manholes, hand holes and pipeline valves, check once very 3 months. If the quicklime is changed into power, it shall be changed. Take out the quicklime and the plate when the furnace is re-operated. (2)湿保养法 Wet maintenance method: 锅炉停炉后放出炉水,将内部污垢彻底清除,冲洗干净,重新注入已处理的 水至全满,将炉水加热到 100 度,让水中的气体排出炉外,然后关闭所有阀门, 锅炉维持比大气常压高的压力,采用“氮帽”或高位水箱来达到此压力,气候寒 冷的地方不可采用湿保养法,以免炉水结冻损坏锅炉。 After the stop of furnace, discharge the furnace water; thoroughly clean the internal stain and rinse. Re-inject the treated water to full, and heat the furnace water to 100℃, and let the gas inside the water exhausted outside the furnace. Close all the valves. Wet maintenance method cannot be adopted in cold places so s to avoid freezing of furnace water damage the furnace.

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二十五

受压元件的检验和水压试验 Inspection of compression components and hydraulic test

1.根据 TSG G0001《锅炉安全技术监察规程》 ,锅炉如有下列情况之一时, 就应对各受压元件进行内外检查和水压试验。 According to Regulations on Monitoring of Safety and Technology of Steam Furnace, if one of the following situations occurs, internal and external inspection on the compression components and hydraulic test shall be carried out. (1)新装,改装和移装后。 Newly installed, moved. (2)停止运行一年以上,需要恢复运行时。 Stopped for more than 1 year, and operation is to be recovered. (3)受压元件经重大修理后。 When the compression components have been seriously repaired or reformed. (4)根据锅炉运行情况,对设备状态有怀疑必须进行检验时。 According to the operation conditions of the furnace, if there is doubt on the equipment condition, and inspection is necessary. 2.检验前应使锅炉完全停炉,彻底清除内部水垢,外部烟垢,必要时尚须拆 除炉墙外面罩壳和保温材料,检查重点如下。 Stop the furnace entirely before inspection. Clean the internal stain, outside smoke and stain dismantle the external cover and moisture materials if necessary. The inspection emphasis is as follows: (1)锅筒的焊缝管孔等是否正常,有无渗漏情况。 If there is defects on the welding seam or tube hole on the drum, especially the check the leaking situation. (2)锅炉钢板内外有无腐蚀起槽变形等现象。 If there is the corrosion or transform situation in or outside the boiler guard plate. (3)水冷管壁有无弯曲变形腐蚀胀大情况。
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If there is concave, bend of the water cooling wall tube. (4)给水管,排污管和锅筒连接处有无缺点。 If there is defect on at the contacting place of boiler or the water-feeding piping or blow-down piping. 3.如腐蚀严重,做起压试验前还应作强度计算。 If corrosion is very serious, do the intensity calculation before super hydraulic testing. 4. 试验压力按下表:(P=锅炉工作压力) The pressure for the hydraulic test is as follows: (P means the boiler pressure) 锅炉本体: Furnace body 1.5P 但不小于 0.20Mpa P+0.4Mpa 1.25P (P<0.8MPa) (P=0.8~1.6MPa) (P>1.6MPa)

Demountable economizer

5. 水压试验步骤: Steps of hydraulic test 锅炉水压试验按 JB/T1612《锅炉水压试验技术条件》进行。 The test shall be taken as per the JB/T1612 Technical condition of the boiler pressure test. (1)水压试验应在周围气温高于 5℃时进行,低于 5℃必须有防冻措施,进 水温度应保持在 20~70℃,温度过低易使锅炉外壁凝有露水,与发生渗水等不严 密情况会混淆不清,增加检查困难,温度过高则会引起不均匀的胀缩,且外表温 度太高能使水滴蒸发,使渗漏处不易发现。 During the hydraulic test, the water inlet temperature shall be kept at about 20~70℃. If the temperature is too lower, dew might occur on the external wall of

the furnace, and leakage might occur to make it not compact and increase the difficulties for inspection. Excessive high temperature might cause uneven

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expansion. The extreme high temperature on the external surface might vaporize the steam and make leakage not easily found. (2)水上满后,逐渐升高压力 0.4MPa 时,即进行一次严密性检查,必要时 可紧一次法兰,人孔门和手孔盖的螺钉。 When water is fully filled, increase the pressure to 0.4Mpa, a compactness inspection shall be carried out. Screw up the flange, manhole door and bolts on the hand hole cover if necessary. (3)水压试验时,水压应缓缓地升降,当水压上升到工作压力时,应暂停升 压,检查有无漏水或异常现象,然后再升压到试验压力,保持 20 分钟,若压力 没有下降,即降至工作压力进行检查。 During the hydraulic test, the water pressure shall be slowly dropped or increased. When the water pressure increases to the working pressure, stop the increasing to check if there is water leakage or abnormal phenomena. Then increase to test pressure and keep for 20 minutes. If the pressure does not decrease to working pressure, check again. (4)发现任何渗漏情况都应做上记录,以便降低到大气压时进行修理。 Any leakage shall be recorded so as to make it convenient for repair when it is dropped to the air pressure. 6.水压试验符合下列情况,即认为合格。 It will be considered qualified if the hydraulic test meets with the following situations: (1)受压元件金属和焊缝上没有任何水珠和水雾。 No water bubble or dew on the compression components metal and welded seam; (2)水压试验后用肉眼观察没有发现残余变形。 No residue or deformation is found by eye observation after the test; 7.安全措施及注意事项。 Safety measures and instructions (1)严格禁止压力超过 0.4MPa 时紧法兰螺钉。 It is prohibited to screw up the flange bolts when the pressure is over
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0.4Mpa; (2)在水压试验时应有特别标志,避免人多嘈杂的情况下发生危险。 Special marks shall be available during hydraulic test so as to avoid risks; (3)有压力时不得有人站在焊口法兰及阀门的正前面。 It is not allowed to stand in front of the welded flange and valves when facing pressure.

用 户 须 知 User instructions
1.用户需向制造查询有关本锅炉的技术资料时,应说明合同及总图号。 When users inquire the manufacturer for the technical information about the furnace, the contract and general drawing number shall be clarified. 2.对锅炉制造厂查询,应注明锅炉编号(在锅炉铭牌上)。 Furnace number (on the nameplate of the furnace) shall be marked for inquiry on the furnace manufacturer. 3.锅炉如有转移,必须将所有技术文件同时移交。 If furnace is to be moved, all the relative technical files shall be transferred at the same time.

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