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过去分词作定语及表语新


过去分词作定语和表语

一.过去分词构成及意义: A watched pot never boils. 心急锅不开 ①There only seemed to be powders designed to kilt snakes. ②I placed the frozen bowl over the snakes’ habitat. ③The criteria

are so strict that it is difficult to get new ideas. 过去分词短语:可以带有自己的宾语或被状语修饰。 过去分词的否定式:not /never+v-ed 过去分词的意义:一般表示完成和被动的动作。 补充: 1. Given more time, I could have done it better. 1 及物动词的-ed 形式通常带有被动完成意义或被动一般意义。 2. We should bring in advanced technology from developed countries. ②不及物动词的-ed 形式仅表示完成意义,没有被动含义。 ? 过去分词作定语、表语、宾语补足语的功能: (一) 、.过去分词做定语: 1.前置定语:单个过去分词 后置定语:过去分词短语 ①The lost time can never be found again. ②Is there anything planned for tonight. that are planned for tonight. 注:有时表强调或 left 等单个动词-ed 也能后置 ①The book left(剩余的书)are for my students. ②Among those invited(被邀请的人)were some ladies. Young people brought up in the new society can’t imagine the bitter life in the old days. 作定语时可用定语从句代替 He is a respected leader. = He is a leader__________________. Young people brought up in the new society can’t imagine the bitter life in the old days. = Yong people _________________ _____________________can’t imagine the bitter life in the old days. 口诀:分词做定语的位置 “定分”位置有二条,词前词后定分晓。 单个分词在词前,有时此规有颠倒。 分词短语在词后,“定从”和它互对照。 “现分”动作进行时,“过分”动作完成了。 注:“定分”:做定语的分词;“定从”:定语从句;“现分”:现在分词;“过分”:过去分词。 2.v-ed 和 v-ing 作定语区别 ①the risen sun 升起了的太阳 the rising sun 正在升起的太阳 ②developed countries developing countries ③boiled water 开水 boiling water 正沸腾的水

④fallen leawes 落叶 falling leaves 正在飘落的叶子 ⑤iced beer 冰冻啤酒 spoken English 英语口语 The building built (build)last year is our library. being built (build)now will be our library to be built (build )next year wiu be our library. (二)过去分词作表语: 1、多表示主语所处的状态,位于系动词之后: ①The shop has remained shut for a week. ②All of os were moved to tears at the sorrowful story. ③she looked tired with cooking. 2、比较:过去分词作表语-被动语态(过去分词作表语表示主语的状态,而被动语态则表示 被动的动作) Peter the Great is buried here 就埋葬于此。 (状语的状态) Peter the Great was buried here 被埋葬于此(被动的动作) My glasses are broken.(状态) My glasses were broken by my litter sisrter.(动作) 3、v-ed l v-ing 作表语的区别: 人作主语 物作主语 “觉得” “令人…” His lecture is interesting, which made vs interested I am interested in his lecture which is interesting. 4. 常 见 的 作 表 语 的 过 去 分 词 有 : amuse , astonished , broken,connected,closed ,covered,crowed,delighted,disappointed,dressed,drunk,experienced,gone, lost,worried,interested,tired,pleased,satisfied,surprised,married,known

二.过去分词的基本特点 :
1.从语态上讲 :过去分词一般表被动 。 2.从时态上讲 :过去分词表示已经完成的动作 ; 表示被动意义的主动结构 1.某些连系动词,如 smell; taste; feel; sound; prove 等 Cotton feels soft. (adj.) 2.某些用来表示主语内在品质或性能的及物动词,如 shut; open; move; read; write; sell; wash; clean; catch; draw; cut; photograph 等 The book sells well. (adv.) 3.某些表”发生(happen/take place), 爆发(break out) 和传播(spread)”的不及物动词 4. 不定式作定语与被修饰名词构成动宾关系时 He had an important meeting to attend. 5.在 be+adj.+to do English is difficult to learn. 6. be to blame/seek/let The house is to let.这房子是要出租的. The cause is not far to seek.原因不难找到. I felt I was to blame, too.我觉得我也应受责备.

7.sth. need/want/require doing 8.be worth doing Attention: 一些短语中过去分词和现在分词的使用是约定俗成的,应加以记忆,如:worried look (忧虑的表情),a puzzled girl (迷惑的女孩),trembling voice/lips(颤抖的嗓音/嘴唇), shaking hands(颤抖的双手),generally speaking (一般来说),judging from/by(根据……来判 断)等等。
?

过去分词作宾语补足语:

(一般是及物动词)S+V+O+OC v-ed 被动完成 1.在下面结构中常用过去分词作补语。 (1)在感观动词(see, hear, notice, watch 等)和表示心理状态的动词(feel, find 等)后。 She found the door broken in when she came back.. 已破门而入(被) 补充: See sb. do (be seen to do sth ) (动作全过程) See sb. doing (动作正在进行) See sb./Sthbeing done (被动动作正在进行) See sth.done (完成或无一定的时间性) ①when I was a boy , I used to go there and watch bicycles being repaired. (repair) ②The missing boys were last seen playing near the river.(play) ③The managers discussed the plan (that they would like to see) carried out the next year.(carried out) 2、使役动词 (keep, make, get, have, leave,have 等)后 eg. I have my watch repaired. 我想把我的手表修一下。 He spoke loudly in order to make himself heard. 它大声讲话目的是让别人听见他。 ⑴ leave sb./sth. undone 留下…未做 leave sb./sth. doing 使...一直处于...状态 leave sb. to do 留下某人做某事 leave sb. to be done 留下某事要做 eg. ①He was so careless that he went out leaving the door unlocked(unlock)他太粗心了以致于 没有锁门就出去了。 ②A good study does not necessarily have to have a happy ending, but the reader must not be left unsatisfied( satisfy ). ⑵ have sb do “让…干”指一次性全过程 have sb doing (十延续时间状语)主动,使处于反复不停的进行状态中, 否定句时或反问句中,”不听任,不容忍 反复发生。” have sth done(表被动)“请人干”,“(宾语)遭受…”“使…得以得到” I’m going to have the teacher answer this question after class. He had the car waiting outside.。他 让小汽车在外面等着。 注:have sth done 的三种不同含义: ①表示“请/让/叫别人(为自己做某马) 。” I must have my tooth pulled.(=I must let the dentist pull my tooth.我得把这颗牙给拨了。Pull my tooth.)

Mrs Brown was much disappointed to see th washing mashine she had repaired went wrong again. 布朗夫人很失望地看到她找人修理的洗衣机又坏了。 ②表示:“遭遇某种(不幸)事情”说明宾语的一种无意识的受动行为不说明“谁使(宾语) 遭遇某了”。have “受到,遭到” I had my purse stolen on th bus yesterday=my purse was stolen on the bus yesterday. ③表示“完成某马”的意思,这些可以是别人完成的,也可以是自己参与完成的 He told me he had his house repaired=He told me his house was repaired. I must have my home work finished before I go out to play.出去玩之前我必须先把作业做完。 ⑶make sb.do ( be made to do )让某人做… make oneself done 使自己被… Ican’t make myself understood(understand)in English 我无法主别人听懂我的英语。 John was made to watch (watch)the truck for a week as punishment. ⑷get sb./sth.to do 使…做… get sb./sth. doing 使…开始做… get sb./sth. done 使…被做… I couldn’t get the car to starting(start)this morning. He got his sister to help (help)him with his cloths. It is not hard to get him talking (talk); the problem is stopping him! 让他说话不难,难的是说开了止不住他。 Can you really get that old clock going (go) again? 3、like, want, wish, order 等表示“希望,要求”等意义的动词后。need, prefer, would like 当过 去分词作宾补的不定式的被动形式省略“to be”. He wanted his eggs fired(fire). 他愿意吃煎鸡蛋。 I would like this matter (to be )settled immediately. 4、{with / without 的复合结构中: With everything well arranged_(arrange), he left the office. 一切都安排妥善之后,他离开了办公室。 She has come back with her backpack filled(fill) with interesting picture-books. 她已经回来了,背包里塞满了有趣的图书。 Without any more time given(give), we couldn't finish the task in three weeks. 如果不再给我们任何时间的话,我们三星期之内完成不了任务。 ex.现在分词与过去分词作宾语补足语的区别: + sb do (经常性动作) + sb doing sth.(正在进行) + sth done(被动) EX:(A)1. I used to see these boys ____( play ) on the playground. 2. I saw them _____( play ) the computer this afternoon. 3. She was surprised to find the house _____( break ) into when she went back home. 4. Unfortunately, he got his wallet _____( steal ) on the bus. 5. He won’t have us _____( criticize ) him. 6. It’s a bad habit to leave the work ______( undo ). 7. Yesterday I caught him _____( take ) my dictionary when I went into the classroom 8. Many people spoke aloud in front of our classroom, with nobody ____( stop ) them. 9. He was looking at the screen again, with the machine ____( turn ) on.

10. The girl felt uneasy with the whole class _____( stare ) at her. 11. With the machinery _____( do ) all the work, we finished the task last month. 12. She lay on the grass with her eyes _____( close ). 13. You might catch a cold with your feet _____( expose ). 完成句子(过去分词部分) 1.The letter _____________ will reach him tomorrow. (昨天发的信他明天就能收到了) 2.They were inspecting the houses ________. (他们正在检查被暴风雨毁坏的房子) 3.The ___________ rushed into the building. (激动的人们冲进了大厦) 4.The book _______________ is still popular with young people.(这本在二战期间写的书在年 轻人中间依然受欢迎) 5.Most of the artists ________________ were from South Africa.(大部分被邀请参加会议的艺 术家们来自南非) 6.It is said that those shirts ______________ are much cheaper. (据说网上购的 T-shirt 很便宜) 7.He didn’t like these questions ______________(他不喜欢在会议上讨论的这些问题). 8.The windows ____________ are being repaired. (昨天被打破的窗户正在被修理) 9.The farmers moved into the buildings _______________(农民们搬进了沿河而建的房子里). 10.Harvard University, ________________one of the most famous universities in the world. (1636 年建立的哈弗大学是世界上最著名的大学之一)

1.playing 2.play 3.broken 4.stolen 5.criticize 6. Undone 7.taking 8. Stopping 9.turned 10.staring 11. Doing 12.closed 13.exposed 完成句子答案: 1. posted yesterday 2. damaged by the rainstorm 3. excited people 4. written in World War II 5. invited to the meeting 6. bought on the Internet 7. discussed at the meeting 8. broken yesterday 9. built along the river 10. founded in 1636


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