非谓语动词:a.动词不定式 b.动名词 c.分词( 现在分词过去分词)
概述：1.谓语动词：在句子中担任谓语的动词 2.非谓语动词：是动词的特殊形式，在句中可以作除谓语外的所有成分 非谓语动词使用条件 一个句子当中， 已经存在一个主句 （谓语动词） ,又没有连词的情
况下, 还有别的动词出现时。 She got off the bus, leaving her handbag on her seat. She got off the bus, butleft her handbag on her seat.
【知识点】1：动 词 不 定 式 的 时 态 和 被 动 形 式 动词不定式是非谓语动词的一种，由不定式符号(to)加动词原形构成。不定 式的形式有五种： 1．一般式 to do 例如：I like to read English. 2．进行式 to be doing 例如：He seemed to be reading something at that time. 3．完成式 to have done 例如：He seemed to have cleaned the room. 4．被动式 to be done 例如：The work is to be done soon. 5．完成被动式 to have been done 例如：The boy is said to have been sent to hospital yesterday. 【知识点】2：动词不定式的用法 I.作主语 (1)不定式做主语时，可以直接放在谓语动词之前。 To see is to believe．Not to get there in time is your fault. (2)注：常用 it 做形式主语，将 to do 放在位于之后，使句子保持平衡。 句型 1：It + 谓语 + to doIt takes us an hour _to__ get there by bus.
句型 2：It’s + n. + to doIt’s our duty _to_ help the poor. It is a great enjoyment _to_ spend our holiday in the mountains. 句型 3： It is + adj + for sb to do sth（是形容事物的性质的） It is + adj + of sb to do sth（是形容人的品质的） It is easy for me to finish this work before ten. It is a great honor for us to be present at your birthday party. It is very kind of you to give me some help. It's impolite of you to speak to the teacher like that. II.作宾语 接不定式做宾语 I want to know this matter. I don’t expect to meet you here (1) 常见动词有： like, demand, expect, promise, begin, determine, refuse, offer, fail,manage,learn, seem, intend, forget, want, prepare, pretend, refuse, plan, afford, wish 等 They wanted ___( get ) on the bus, didn’t they? professor. (2)it 作形式宾语 I find/feel to work with himinteresting ．I find/feel it interesting to work with him． Subject+ find/think/feel/make/ consider…it+adj/n + to do sth. 1.We thought ___ better ___ start early. 2.Do you consider ___ better not __ go? 3. I feel __ my duty __ change all that. 4.We think __ important _ _ obey the law. 5.I know _ _ impossible _ _ finish so much homework in a day. (3)常跟疑问词+不定式作宾语的动词: tell, advise, show, teach, find out, decide, discuss, learn, explain, know, discover, He taught us how to use the tool.No one could tell me where to get the book. I haven't decided whether to go or stay. 下列词接动名词和不定式均可，但意义不同的动词： stop to do 停下来去做 forget to do 忘记要做
He said he wished ______( be ) a
stop doing 停止做 forget doing 忘记做过
remember to do 记得要做 regret to do 遗憾要做 try to do 企图做，尽力做 go on to do 继续做（另一件事） mean to do 打算做
remember doing 记得做过 regret doing 后悔做过 try doing 试着做 go on doing 继续做（同一件事） mean doing 意味做
In some parts of London, missing a bus means _______ for another hour. A waiting B to waiting C wait D to be waiting
Boys, don't forget _____ the windows before you leave the classroom. A. closing B. closed C. to closing D. to close
She reached the top of the hill and stopped _______ on a big rock. A. to have rested B. resting C. to rest D. rest
Remember _______ the lights when you leave the office. A. to turn off B. turning off C. turn off D. to turning off
（4）不定式在介词 but,except,beside 后面时，若这些介词前有实义动词 do 的各种形 式，则后接不带 to 的不定式，否则带 to. I have no choice but _______.（wait） (5)在 cannot but, cannot choose/help but 之后接不带 to 的不定式 I can’t do anything but _______ (go )out with her. III.作宾语补足语 1. I’ll get someone ___ repair the recorder for you. 2. What caused him ___ change his mind? advise, allow, ask, beg, cause, expect, encourage, force, get, hate, invite , order, wish ,want, warn, remind, promise, permit, persuade, request+sb. to do
注意： （1）在动词 feel （一感） ，hear, listen to（二听） ，have, let, make（三让） ， notice, see, watch, observe, look at（五看）(即：吾看三室两厅一感觉)等后面的补 足语中， 不定式不带 to， 但变为被动语态后， 必须带 to。 如： They saw the boy fall off the tree. The boy was seen to fall off the tree. (2)help 后面作宾语补足语的不定式可以带 to,也可以不带 to.
I often help him （to）clean the room. I helped him (to) find his things. He is often heard ________(sing) the song. Though he often made his deskmate ______(cry), today he was made ____(cry) by his deskmate. IV．作定语 I have something to tell you. (不定式作定语) 1) 2) 3) 4) 不定式与它所修饰的词有动宾关系 Do you have anything to wash today? 不定式用来说明所修饰词的内容 I have no chance to go there. 被修饰词是不定式的逻辑主语 She is always the last to leave the room. 不定式为不及物动词且和所修饰的名词是动宾关系时，须加介词
1.The house is not big enough for us all_______. A. to live in B. to be lived in C. to live D. for living in
2. Would you please pass me the knife _______? A. to cut the fruit with with 3.I have something important to say. Please find a piece of paper（写上） 4.Excuse me，could I use your pen for a moment ？I have no pen to write with（写） V.作状语 不定式作状语可以表示目的、原因、结果。 B. to cut the fruit C. cutting the fruit D. cutting the fruit
I came here to see you． We were very excited to hear the news． He hurried to the school to find nobody there. 对比 To learn English well, he needs a good dictionary. To learn English well, a good dictionary is needed. To get there in time, he toldme to get up early. 不定式的主动形式表示被动意义 I have something important to do.In the accident, the driver was to blame. This question is difficult to answer. 【导学】二：动名词
The box is not easy to carry.
【知识点】1：动名词的基本构成 主动语态 一般式 完成式 doing having done 被动语态 being done having been done
No one likes being laughed at. I don’t remember having ever been given a chance to do it. 【知识点】2：动名词的功用 ⑴Smoking does great harm to people’s health.（作主语） ⑵ My job is looking after children.（作表语） ⑶ I have finished reading the novel.（作宾语） ⑷ We have got a swimming pool in our school.（做定语） ①It is no use crying.②It is no good objecting 常见的动词有：admit, advise, suggest, avoid, consider, delay, deny, excuse, finish, imagine, include, keep(on), mind, , practice, miss, resist. 短语: be/get used to ,can’t help/stop,can’t stand , give up, feel like, look forward to, get down to,havedifficulty/trouble(in),be busy (in),put off e.g.①She sat there without _____ (speak) ②I look forward to_____ (see) him again. ③Are you used to _____ (live) there alone? ④When my father heard the news, he couldn't help ____ (laugh). ⑤I don’t feel like _____ (go) to see the film. ⑥He was busy ____ (prepare) his lessons 主动表被动: ① The room wants _____ (clean). ② The method needs ___ (improve). ③ This pair of shoes require _____ (mend). ④ The problem needs__(work out). ⑤ The question is well worth _____ (discuss) d）动词 “like, love, hate, prefer”后接动名词表示“习惯性动作”，后接不定式表示
“心理或一次具体动作”。当用在 should, would 之后时，只跟不定式 例如： I like swimming, but I don’t like to swim this afternoon. What would you like to eat tonight? 动名词的复合结构 动名词前可以加一个 物主代词或 名词所有格来表示 这个动名词逻辑上的语 , 构成动名词的复合结构或动名词短语 a.动名词复合结构作主语时一般用名词所有格或形容词性的物主代词。 b.例如： Nixon’s visiting China marked a new year between U.S. and China diplomatic relations. 尼克松访问中国标志着中美外交关系进入一个新的时代 Their coming to help was a great encouragement to us. b. 在口语和非正式语体中，只要不是作主语，动名词复合结构中的逻辑主语常 采用名词通格或人称代词宾格。 例如： The doctor does not mind me /my eating a little meat occasionally. 【导学】三：分词 【知识点】1：分词的作用 现在分词表示：主动，动作正在进行。过去分词表
示：被动，动作已经完成。 1．作定语 Do you know the boy standing at the gate? Have you read the book written by Lu Xun？ 2．作表语 We are excited at the news. The news he told us is exciting. 3．作宾语补足语 I heard him singing a song in the classroom. We found the ground covered with snow. 4．作状语 While lying in bed, he listened to some music. Seen from the hill, the village looks move beautiful. 分词作状语时，它的逻辑主语就是句子的主语，否则分词前面必须有自己的主 语。现在分词与过去分词在作状语的区别:现在分词表主动进行，过去分词表被 动完成
1. (Seeing) from the top of the tower, we can see a beautiful factory. (Seen) from the top of the tower, the factory looks beautiful. 2.(Hearing/heardthe bad news,)/(When they heard the bad news), they couldn’t help crying.
3.(Giving/Given more time, )we could do it better. (If they had been given more attention) 4. I stood by the door, not daring to say a word. Being so angry, he couldn’t go to sleep. (Because he was so angry) 5. They came into the classroom, singing and laughing. (and they were singing laughing) 6.To serve the people well,I study hard. 【知识点】2：分词的时态 现在分词分一般式和完成式，而过去分词则没有时态形式的变化。 现在分词的一般式表示动作与谓语动词同时发生，或在谓语动词之前发生。 例如： Knowing his uncle would come, he began to make some preparations. 现在分词的完成时， 表示的动作发生在谓语动词表示的动作之前,常用作状语。 例如： Having finished his homework, he went to bed. 【知识点】3：现在分词的被动式 被动一般式 being done 被动完成式 having been done This is one of the new supermarkets being built in our city. Having been told many times, he was able to operate the machine. 【知识点】4：分词的否定形式 分词的否定式，由 not+分词构成，例如： Not having heard the news. I wrote to him again. Not knowing how to work out the maths problem, I went to the teacher for help. 【知识点】5：分词独立主格结构 当分词的逻辑主语与主句的主语不同时， 带逻辑主语的分词短语成为独立主 格结构，在句法功能上起状语作用。例如： Weather permitting, they will go and visit the science museum. The meeting being over, they all left the room. Given more time, we could do it better.
(In order to serve the people well)
The moon appearing, they decided to go on with their journey. She stood there, book in hand. Everybody at home, we sat down to dinner. 由 There being +主语这种结构多表示原因。例如： There being a lot of books to read, he often studied till midnight.因为有许多书要读， 他经常学习到深夜。 with + 复合宾语结构 （1）with + 名词 / 代词 + 形容词 Don’t speak with your mouth full. （2） with + 名词 / 代词 + 副词 The square looks more beautiful than ever with the lights on. （3）with + 名词 / 代词 + 介词短语 He was asleep with his head on his arms. （4）with + 名词 / 代词 + -ing 分词 She felt very nervous with so many people looking at her. With the old man leading, the two started toward the mountains. （5）with + 名词 / 代词 + 不定式 With five minutes to go before the last train left, we arrived here. （6）with + 名词 / 代词 + -en 分词 With his matter settled, we left the room. 【基础巩固】 1、We often provide our children with toys, footballs or basketball, ______ that all children like these things. A thinking B think C to think D thought 2、There have been several new events ______ to the program for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. A add B to add C adding D added 3、I can’t stand ______ with Jane in the same office. She just refuses ______ talking while she works. A working; stopping B to work; stopping C working; to stop D to work; to stop 4、A good story does not necessarily have to have a happy ending, but the reader must not be left ______. A unsatisfied B unsatisfying C to be satisfying D being satisfied 5、No matter how frequently ______, the works of Beethoven still attract people all over the world. A performed B performing Cto be performed D being performed 6、______ this cake, you’ll need 2 eggs,175g sugar and 175g flour. A Having made B Make C To make D Making 7、If you think that treating a woman well means always ______ her permission for things, think again. A gets B got C to get D getting 8、As the twentieth century came to a close, the raw materials for a great
national literature were at hand, waiting ______ A to use B to be used C to have used D to be using 9、It took a long time for the connection between body temperature and illness ______. A to make B to be made C making D being made 10、 The Chinese are proud of the 29th Olympic Games ______ in Beijing in 2008. A hold B holding C held D to be held 11、 ______ with so much trouble, we failed to complete the task on time. A Faced B Face C Facing D To face 12. AIDS is said ______ the biggest health challenge to both men and women in that area over the past few years. A that it is B to be C that it has been D to have been 13. Don’t sit there ______ nothing. Come and help me with this table. A do B to do C doing D and doing 14. Faced with a bill for $10,000, ______. A John has taken an extra job B the boss has given John an extra job C an extra job has been taken D an extra job has been given to John 15. He hurried to the booking office only ______ that all the tickets had been sold out. A to tell B to be told C telling D told 16. Five people won the “China’s Green Figure” award, a title______ to ordinary people for their contributions to environmental protection. A being given B is given C given D was given 17. Police are now searching for a woman who is reported to ______ since the flood hit the area last Friday. A have been missing B have got lost C be missing D get lost 18. The bird flu ______ through Asia has jumped from birds to humans at least 20 times so far,______ 16. A sweeps; killed B swept; killing C sweeping; to kill D sweeping; killing 19. The man ______ of shooting 6 school children was caught by Beijing police, the Xinhua News Agency reported on Friday. A being suspected B suspecting C suspected D to be suspected 20. The students entered the classroom, smiling and ______ , and ______ down to have their lessons. A talked; sat B talking; sitting C talking; sat D talked; sitting 21. ——Have you ever heard of an American president called Chester A.
Arhur? ——No , and he’s not mentioned in my history book at all. He seems ______ A to have been completely forgotten B having completely forgotten C to have completely forgotten D completely forgetting 22. With the magazine An Express Way to English ______ us , we will improved our language skills a lot. A helping B helped C has helped D to help 23. It displeases my parents when Richard and I stay out late at night. My parents don’t approve ______ A of Richard and me staying out late at night B of me and Richard staying out late at night C to Richards’s and my staying out late at night D when Richard and me stay out late at night 24. A communicative satellite ______ as much as 3.5 tons was sent up into space last week. A weighing B weighed C to be weighed D being weighed 25. ______ of stealing money from the bank, he was questioned by the police. A Accusing B Accused C Having accused D To accuse
如何写好非谓语动词 众所周知， 作文中出现过多的简单句会让人觉得单调乏味，句子与句子之间 的关系显得松散；而文章中过多地出现复合句又显得累赘，读起来费劲。恰当地 运用非谓语动词对简单句和复合句进行转换，不仅句型多样，句子活泼，而且读 起来结构紧凑，言简意明。 一、运用非谓语动词转换简单句 1．我为那事感到非常遗憾，开始考虑做些什么来帮一下。 I feel quite sorry for that.I begin to think about what to do to help. → 2．另一方面，我将帮着建立英语角，提供给我们学生一个练习英语口语的 平台。 On the other hand，I will help set up the English corner.I will provide us students a platform to practice our oral English.
→ 3．这儿的人都喜欢汤姆写的那本小说。 All the people here like the novel.It is written by Tom. → 4．我们应该多讲英语。我们认为这是很重要的。 We should speak more English.We think it is very important. → 5．我们应该如何提高我们的英语口语水平？这是个问题。 How should we improve our spoken English？It is a question. → [练一练] 运用非谓语动词转换短文
大城市里高楼大厦林立，房价越来越高。一方面，很多人无房居住，另一方 面，大量房子却卖不出去。不少人即使买了一套住房，恐怕也要一辈子辛辛苦苦 工作来还银行贷款。我们希望政府采取措施，关心这些收入不高的人群。(注意 比较两个段落黑体的表达） 一般表达： There are more and more tall buildings in big cities.Their prices are going up day by day.On one hand，there are still lots of people.They have no houses to live in.On the other hand，many apartments are hard to be sold out.Even if you buy an apartment，I’m afraid you have to pay off the money you borrow from the bank.You will work hard day and night all your life.I do hope our government take strong measures to solve the housing problem and take care of the people.Their incomes are low. 高级表达： There are more and more tall buildings in big cities，with their prices going up day by day.On one hand，there are still lots of people having no houses to live in.On the other hand，many apartments are hard to be sold out.Even if you have bought an apartment， I’m afraid you have to try to pay off the money borrowed from the bank，working hard day and night all your life.I do hope our government can
take strong measures to solve the housing problem，showing great concern for the people whose incomes are not high enough.