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词汇学B-小构词法


Minor Processes of Word Formation
一: Acronymy (首字母拼音法) 1. Initialism (首字母连写词) WTO=World Trade Organization WTO= World Tourism Organization ( tour---trip---journey---travel tourist Touris

m English journey of life)

WHO =World Health Organization VIP =Very Important Person BBC =British Broadcasting Corporation (broadcasting station) VOA=Voice of America

NBA =National Basketball Association (CBA WNBA WCBA) CIA =Central Intelligence Agency ( IQ= Intelligence Quotient) FBI = Federal Bureau of Investigation NCEPU =North China Electric Power University

U.N. =the United Nations MBA =Master of Business Administration ( doctor---master---bachelor Bachelor of Science—Bachelor of Arts) UFO =Unidentified Flying Objects

GDP =Gross Domestic Product (3) ID Card =Identity Card ATM =Automatic Teller Machine

L.A. =Los Angeles ( San Francisco ) U.K. = the United Kingdom (the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland)

? 2: Acronym (首字母缩拼词) SARS =Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (shopping, game, gate, tem) TOEFL =Test of English as a Foreign Language NATO =North Atlantic Treaty Organization (demonstration, Lucky, Joe)

OPEC =Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (petrol---gasoline) UNESCO = United Nation’s Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization DINK =Double Income No Kids

AIDS =Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome APEC =the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation IELTS =International English Language Testing System

二. Clipping (截短法)
1. Back-clipping advertisement---ad. (jiang, guo, hou) dormitory---dorm (roommate) laboratory---lab gymnasium---gym (impulse) kilogram---kilo

popular---pop (pop song, pop music) (Jay is popular among the young people.) examination---exam photograph---photo professor---prof. (associate professor) taxicab---taxi (cab 美语) petroleum---petrol

2. Front-clipping telephone---phone aeroplane---plane microscope---scope (microeconomics, macro-) parachute---chute helicopter---copter earthquake---quake

3. Back and Front Clipping influenza---flu (bird flu) refrigerator---fridge detective---tec

三. Blending (混合法)
1 前半部分+后半部分

smoke+ fog=smog (mist) Chinese +English=Chinglish (horse horse tiger tiger; give you some color to see) ( China English: Three Representatives, cadre)

breakfast +lunch=brunch paralyzed (people’s) +Olympics= Paralympics 2. 前半部分+前半部分 situation + comedy=sitcom (My Own Swordsman) science + fiction=sci-fi communication + satellite=comsat

? 3. 整个单词+后半部分 lunar +astronaut=lunarnaut (solar) news +broadcast=newscast talk + marathon =talkathon travel + catalogue= travelogue

4. 前半部分+整个单词 medical + care=medicare (医疗方案)

四 Back-formation(逆生法)
? A type of word-formation by which a shorter word is coined by the deletion of a supposed affix.

? editor---edit ? mass-production---mass-produce ? escalator---escalate (lift—elevator) ? resurrection---resurrect ? donation---donate (blood donor) ? loafer---loaf

? 五. Words from proper names
1. Scientists Watt, Volt, Ohm, Ampere, Hertz

2. Politicians and Statesmen Nicotine (French diplomat who introduces tobacco into France)

? 3. Places china (imported from China)(瓷器) champagne (made in Champagne, France) (liquor---alcohol---beer---wine) Watergate (the building complex in Washington D.C.) (scandal) 门: 艳照门 (冠蜥), 奶粉门, 解说门, 化妆门, 拉链门


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