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从一道高考题谈谈独立主格结构的用法


从一道高考题谈谈独立主格结构的用法
先请看一道高考题:(2005 湖南卷 34 题) I send you 100 dollars,the rest——in a year。 A. follow B. followed C. to follow D. being followed

答案是 C。该题考察独立主格结构的用法,现笔者拟对此用法小结,以飨读

者。 再看两个例句 The sale usually takes place outside the house, with the audience ____on benches,子 chairs or boxes. (CET 4 2000,1) A having seated seated B seating C seated D having been

本题考察的是 with 引导的分词的独立结构,seat 一般用被动形式表示主动 意思,所以用过去分词,答案为 C。 seat 可以用于如下句中: He came in and was seated in the chair. Please come in and be seated. So many directors____, the board meeting had to be put off. (CET 4 2000,6) A were absent absent B being absent C been absent D had been

本题考察的是分词的独立结构,主语与分词之间是主谓关系,因此选择 B。 当分词作状语时,其逻辑主语一般应与句子的主语一致。如果不一致的话, 分词前面可以带有自己的逻辑主语(名词或代词) ,构成分词的独立结构(或称为带 逻辑主语的分词结构)。分词独立结构可表示伴随情况、陪衬动作、附加说明以 及表示时间、原因、条件等。先看一些有关独立主格结构的句子。 The moon has no light of its own, only sunlight shining on it.(附加说明) She rushed out the room, the little baby carried in her arms.(伴随动作) Maggie ran back to the kitchen, eggs held carefully in her hand.(伴随动作)

They being blind men,how could they see the elephants?(=As they were blind men...)(表示原因) Circumstances changed, it is necessary for you to make a new plan. (表示 原因) A force acting through a distance, work is done. (表示条件) Both bright side and dark side considered, you will have the confidence to overcome this difficulty. (表示条件) All flights savings been cancelled because of the snowstorm, many passengers could do nothing but take the train. there be 句型和 it 也能引出分词独立结构,作状语修饰主句,there 和 it 相 当于分词的逻辑主语。例如: There being nothing else to do, we went home. There having been no rain, the plants withered. It being impossible for most students to turn in their papers as scheduled, the teacher decided to give them another two days. 从以上例句,我们可以知道独立主格结构,它是由一个相当于主语的名词或 代词加上非谓语动词、形容词(副)词、或介词短语构成的一种独立成分。该结 构不是句子,也不是从句,所以它内部的动词不能考虑其时态、人称和数的变化, 它与其主句之间既不能通过并列连词连接也不能有从句引导词引导,常用逗号与 其主句隔开 独立主格结构在很多情况下可以转化为相应的状语从句或其他状语 。 形式,但很多时候不能转化为分词形式,因为它内部动词的逻辑主语与主句主语 不一致。在做这类题目时一定要小心判断,不能粗心大意。 下面我们从几个方面来更好地理解独立主格结构: (一): 独立主格结构的构成: 名词(代词)+现在分词、过去分词; 名词(代词)+形容词; 名词(代词)+副词; 名词(代词)+不定式; 名词(代词) +介词短语构成。

(二) 独立主格结构的特点: 1)独立主格结构的逻辑主语与句子的主语不同,它独立存在。 2) 名词或代词与后面的分词,形容词,副词,不定 式,介词等是主谓关系。 3)独立主格结构一般有逗号与主句分开。 (三)独立主格结构的作用: 1) 做时间状语。例如: The test finished, we began our holiday. = When the test was finished, we began our holiday. 考试结束了,我们开始放假。 President assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow. = After the president was assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow.总统被谋杀 了,举国上下沉浸在悲哀之中。 2)作条件状语。例如: Weather permitting, we are going to visit you tomorrow.=If weather permits,we are going to visit you tomorrow。如果天气允许,我们明天去看你。 3) 作原因状语。例如: His money lost ,he had to go home on foot。由于它的钱丢了,他不得不 步行回家。 =Because his money was lost ,he had to go home on foot。 There being no classes,we didn?t go to school。由于今天没有课,我们没 有去上学。 =Because there were no classes,we didn?t go to school。 4)作伴随状语。例如: He came into the room, his ears red with cold.他回到了房子里,耳朵冻坏 了。 He came out of the library, a large book under his arm.他夹着本厚书,走 出了图书馆。

(四)与 with 复合结构的比较。 “with+宾语+宾语补足语”用法与独立主各结构基本相同,可以理解为是 with 的独立主各结构,即 “with+宾语+现在分词/过去分词/形容词/副词/不定式/介词 短语”。例如: He stood there, his hand raised= He stood there, with his hand raise 典型例题:The murder was brought in, with his hands ___ behind his back。 A. being tied B. having tied C. to be tied D. Tied

答案 D. with +名词(代词)+分词+介词短语结构。由于本句中名词"手"与分 词"绑"是被动关系,因此用过去分词,选 D. (五)注意:独立主格结构使用介词的问题: 1) 当介词是 in 时 其前后的两个名词均不加任何成分 , (如物主代词或冠词) , 也不用复数。但 with 的复合结构不受此限制。例如: A robber burst into the room, knife in hand. ( hand 前不能加 his)。 2) 当表人体部位的词做逻辑主语时,及物动词用现在分词,不及物动词用 过去分词如: He lay there, his teeth set, his hand clenched, his eyes looking straight up. 典型例题:Weather_______________, we'll go out for a walk. A permitted B permitting C permits D for permitting

案 B. 本题中没有连词,它不是复合句,也不是并列句。句中使用了逗号, 且 we 小写,可知其不是两个简单句。能够这样使用的只有独立主格或 with 的复 合结构。据此判断,本句中使用的是独立结构,其结构为:名词+分词。 由于 permit 在这里翻译为'天气允许',表主动,应用现在分词,故选 B。如果不会判 断独立结构作状语的形式,不妨将句子改为条件句,例如本句改为 If weather permits, we'll go out for a walk.然后将 if 去掉,再将谓语动词改为非谓语动词即 可。下面来试一试你掌握了多少: 1、逻辑主语+V-ing 1.__________no bus, we had to walk home. A .There being was B .Being C .Having been D .There

2._______no bus, we had to walk home. A .As there being was 3._______Sunday, the library doesn't open. A .Being been B .There being C .It being D .Having B .As there was C .Being D .There

4.______Sunday, the library doesn't open. A .As it being 2、逻辑主语+V-ed 1._________, the train started. A .The signal given given D .The signal giving B .Giving the signal C .The signal being B .Being C .It is D .As it is

2.__________, the train started. A .After having given the signal C. Giving the signal B .After the signal given C D .After the signal was given

3._________, the text became easier for us to learn. A .Explaining new words C .Being explained new words B .New words explained D .Having explained new words

4.______________, the text became easier for us to learn. A. When new words were explained C .New words explaining 3、逻辑主语+形容词(副词) 1.___________, the patient can leave the hospital. A .Better conditions B .Conditions better C .Conditions are better D .Being better conditions B .Explaining new words

D .Being explained new words

2._________, the patient can leave the hospital. A .If better conditions B .If conditions better C .If conditions are better D.Being better conditions 3.________, we?d like to go outing. A .Being Sunday Sunday OK B .Sunday OK C .Sunday is OK D .If

4.___________, we?d like to go outing. A .If Sunday is OK D.A,B and C B .Sunday being OK C .Sunday

OK

5._________, you can wait a while. A .The play being still on play D.A and B B .The play still on C Being still on the

6._________, so you can wait a while A .The play is still on B .The play being still on D .The play still on 4、逻辑主语+介词短语 1.The boy followed the nobleman here, ___________. A .a sword in hand hand D .sword in hand B .a sword in his hand B .Being a sword in C. As the play is still

on

2.The boy followed the nobleman here ___________. A .with a sword in his hand C .with a sword being in hand 3.He left the office, __________. A .tears being in eyes eyes D .with tears being in eyes 4.He left the office __________. B .tears in eyes C .being tears in B .with a sword in hand D .a sword being in hand

A .with tears being in eyes B .with tears in her eyes C .being tears in eyes D .tears being in eyes 二、独立主格结构训练题 1.________ no bus, we had to walk home. A .There being B 2._________Sunday, the library doesn't open. A .It being B .As it is C .Being D.A and B B .As there was C .There was D.A and

3.____________, I had to ask for two days? leave. A .Mother being ill and C 4.____________, we have to work late into the night. A .The exam near near D. A,B and C B .The exam being near C .As the exam is B .Bother ill C .As mother was ill D. A,B

5.__________, the train started. A .The signal given signal D.A and B B .After the signal was given C .Given the

6.__________, the text became easier for us to learn. A. New words explained B .When new words were explained D .all above

C .When teacher explained new words

7.___________, we'll go to visit the Great Wall. A .Weather permitting permitting D.A and B B .If weather permits C .If

8._________, the patient will recover himself soon. A .If the treatment is in time B .The treatment in time C The treatment being in time D.A,B and C

9.We have lessons every day, ___________. A .Sunday included including D .all the above B .Sunday including C .Sunday is

10.The boy fell asleep,___________. A .cap on head head D. all the above B .with a cap on head C .a cap on was on

11.Father came home,_________ A .a dog following him D .all the above B .a dog followed him C .being followed by a

dog

12. The problem——,they all went home happily。 A. settling B. to be settled C. settled D to settle。

13.A lot of work ——,he had no time to talkwith us。 A. done B to do C doing D to be doing

14.-Everyone——their seats,the meeting began。 A taken B taking C having taken D to take

15.——,Mother had to stay at home and looked after him。 A. Being ill B He was ill C Tom being ill D To be ill

16.———,there is no school。 A It is Sunday being Sunday B It was Sunday C It will be Sunday D It

17.——,all the students ran out of the classroom。 A Class was over class over B Class is over C Class over D When

18.——,everything has changed。 A. Time goes on time went on B Time going on C As time going on D With

19.He was lying on the grass ,his hands——under his head。 A crossing crossed B crossed C was crossing D were

20.The storm ——their house,they had to live in a cave。 A destroyed destyoyed B destyoying C having destroyed D being

21.He entered the room, ——。 A his nose was red with cold C his nose red with cold B and his nose red with cold D his nose been red with cold

22.Here are the first two vollemes,the third one——next month。 A to come out come out B coming out C will come out D having

23.All things ——,I think we ought to give the job to Mike。 A considering coneidered B considered C having considered D Are


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独立主格结构高考题 | 独立主格结构的用法 | 独立主格的用法 | 主格和宾格的用法 | 主格宾格所有格用法 | 主格的用法 | 主格宾格的用法 | 主格宾格所有格的用法 |