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各类从句详解 英语从句可以分为名词性从句、定语从句和状语从句三大类:下面我们逐一进行说明: 一、名词性从句(主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句、同位语从句) 主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句和同位语从句在复合句中的充当的成分和其名称 相同,分别作主句的主语、表语、宾语和同位语。上述这四种从句均被称为名词性从句。 所有的名词性从句均不能用逗号分开,并且它们都用相同的关联词,关联词如下: ① 主从连词:that (无意义), whether (是否), if (是否)(在句子中不充当任何成分) ② 连接代词:who (谁), whom (谁), whose (谁的), what (什么), which (哪一个) ③ 连接副词:when (什么时候), where (什么地方), how (怎样), why (为什么) 主从连词只起连接作用,连接代词和连接副词除了起连接作用外,还充当从句某一个成 分。 另外, 可以用 whatever, whichever, whoever, who(m)ever 等连接代词引导名词性从句, 来加强语气。 下面分别对各种名词性从句进行介绍 (一)主语从句(subject clause) 在主句中用作主语的主谓结构称之为主语从句。 例如: That he will come to the discussion is certain.他来参加讨论是确定的。 That the moon moves round the earth is well known to all of us.月球绕地球转动, 这是我 们大家都熟知的。 When the meeting is to be held has not yet been decide. 会议什么时候召开还没有决定。 主语从句放在句首, 句子常常显得比较笨重, 因此通常可以把 it 放在句首, 作形式主语, 而将主语从句放在后面。例如上面的句子可以分别改写为: It is certain that he will come to the discussion. It is well known to all of us that the moon moves round the earth. It has not yet been decide when the meeting is to be held. 下面再举一些例句: What they are after is profit.他们追求的是利润。 That he is still alive is sheer luck.他还活着全靠运气。 Who did the work is unknown.谁干了这工作无人知道。 Whether she will join us won’t make too much difference. It won’t make too much difference whether she will join us. 她是否参与我们的活动无关紧 要。 Which way is more effective is still a question. It is still a question which way is more effective. 哪种办法效率更高还是个问题。 (二)表语从句(predicative clause) 在主句中担当表语的主谓结构称之为表语从句。 One idea is that fish is the best brain food.有一种看法认为鱼是最好的补脑食品。

The problem is where we can hold our meeting.问题是我们可以在哪儿举行会议。 My question is how information is stored in the long-term memory.我的问题是信息是怎样储 存在长期记忆中的。 That is what he really wants.那就是他真想要的东西。 It seems that everything goes smoothly.似乎一切都进行得很顺利。 (三)宾语从句(object clause) 在主句中作谓语动词、介词及非谓语动词的宾语的主谓结构称之为宾语从句。 在引导宾语从句时,从属连词 that 在口语中和非正式文本中常省略。 (1)动词后的宾语从句 We know that a parrot can’t really speak.我们知道鹦鹉不会真的说话。 He wants to tell us what he thinks.他想告诉我们他所想的事情。 Knowing that it was going to rain, they decided to work inside the house. 知道要下雨了,于是他们决定在室内工作。(现在分词 knowing 的宾语从句) I want to know whether/if you still work in the factory. 我想知道你是否还在工厂工作。(不定式 to know 的宾语从句) The club will give whoever wins a prize. 获胜者俱乐部将颁奖。 Up to now we can’t say whether his theory can stand the test. 到目前为止我们还不能说他的理论是否经得住考验。 A little observation will show how the temperature changes. 稍加观察就可以看出温度是怎样变化的。 Do you know who lives in this room?你知道谁住在这房间里吗? (2) 介词后的宾语从句 He laughed at what they said. 她对他们说的话一笑置之。 There is disagreement among economists about what money is and how money is measured. 什么是货币以及怎样计量货币在经济学家之间存在分歧。 (3)形容词的宾语从句 有些形容词可以用 that 引导宾语从句,表示说话人对某一事物的态度并带有感情色彩。 常见的这类形容词有:afraid, amazed, astonished, aware, certain, confident, delighted, glad, grateful, happy, proud, sad, sorry, sure, surprised 等。 “害怕,惊讶,震惊,意识,确定, 自信,高兴,高兴,高兴,高兴,自豪,伤心,对不起,当然,惊讶” 例如: I am glad that you have come. 你来了,我真高兴。 I am afraid that you are wrong on this point.恐怕你在这点上是错误的。 He is quite confident that he will pass the examination.他很有信心通过这个考试。 (四)同位词从句(apposition clause) 同位语从句就是在句子中担当同位语的主谓结构。 主句中有些词义比较抽象的名词,如:belief, doubt, evidence 证据, idea, fact, hope, news,

possibility, question, thought 等,可以用 that、连接代词和连接副词引出同位语从句。 There is no doubt that a large number of people benefit from heart surgery. 毫无疑问,有许多 人得益于心脏外科手术。 I have an idea that parents should monitor 监控 the kind of television their children watch. 我有一个想法,父母应该检查孩子看电视的内容。 There is the news that some British customers will visit our company. 有消息说几个英国客 户要来我公司参观。 Is there any proof that the food of the plant differs from that of animals? 是否有任何证据可以说明植物性的食物不同于动物性的食物呢? We all know the fact that organization helps memorization. 我们都知道这样一个事实:把要记忆的材料组织起来有助于记忆。 注意:虽然 that 在同位语从句中没有什么意义,但不能省略。 区别:尽管由 that 引导的同位语从句与 that 引导的定语从句很相似,但两者有明显的区 别。 (a) that 在同位语从句中是连词,只起连接作用,无具体词义,不能在从句中充当成 分;而用 that 引导的定语从句中,that 是关系代词,在从句中充当一定成分,并有词意。 (b) 同位语从句与其先行词在逻辑上有“主系表”的关系,例如上面的第一句可以理 解为:“许多人得益于心脏外科手术是毫无疑问的”上述其它各句也是如此,而定语从 句则没有这种关系。 (五)只可用 whether 但不可用 if 的情况 if, whether 引导的名词性从句表示“是否”,其异同点如下: 相同点: (a) 用作宾语从句时,它们可互相替换。例如: I wonder if/whether you can help me.我想知道你是否能帮助我。 (b) 都可与 or 连用。例如: Please tell me if/whether they are Swedish or Danish. 诉我他们是瑞典人还是丹麦人。 不同点:(只可用 whether 但不可用 if 的情况) (a) if 不能用于在句首的主语从句。例如: Whether John will go remains a question. 约翰是否去还是一个问题。 Whether she likes the present is not clear to me. 她是否喜欢礼物我还不清楚。 但可以说 It’s not clear to me if/whether she likes the present. (因为没有在句首,所以可以用 if) (b) if 不能用于表语从句 The point is whether we should lend him the money. 问题在于我们是否应该借钱给他。 (c) if 不能引导介词的宾语从句 I worry about whether he can pass through the crisis of his illness. 我担心他是否能度过疾病的危险期。 (d) if 不能引导同位语从句 They are investigating the question whether the man is trustworthy.他们调查他是否值得信赖。

(e) if 后不能接 or not I don't care whether you like the plan or not. 我不在乎你是否喜欢该计划。 是用 if 还是用 whether 是一个考点,但能用 if 的场合一定能用 whether,反之则不然。
练习 1 1. _______ makes his shop different is that it offers more personal services. A. What B. Who C. Whatever D. Whoever

2. —It’s thirty years since we last met. w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m —But I still remember the story, believe it or not, _______ we got lost on a rainy night. A. which B. that C. what D. when

3. See the flags on top of the building? That was _______ we did this morning. A. when B. which C. where D. What

4. —Could you do me a favor? —It depends on _______ it is. A. which B. whichever C. what D. whatever

5. These shoes look very good. I wonder _______. A. how much cost they are C. how much they cost B. how much do they cost D. how much are they cost

6. Doris' success lies in the fact _______ she is co-operative and eager to learn from others. A. which B. that C. when D. why

7. Mary wrote an article on _______ the team had failed to win the game. A. why B. what C. who D. that

8. Do you have any idea _______ is actually going on in the classroom? A. that B. what C. as D. which

10. Elephants have their own way to tell the shape of an object and _______ it is rough or smooth. w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m A. / B. whether C. how D. what

11. Danny left word with my secretary _______ he would call again in the afternoon. A. who B. that C. as D. which

12. Mum is coming. What present _______ for your birthday? A. you expect she has got C. do you expect she has got B. you expect has she got D. do you expect has she got

13. The way he did it was different ________ we were used to. A. in which B. in what C. from what D. from which

14. Great changes have taken place in that school. It is no longer _______ it was 20 years ago, _______ it was so poorly equipped. A. what; when B. that; which C. what; which D. which; that

15. Some researchers believe that there is no doubt ________ a cure for AIDS will be found. A. which B. that C. what D. whether

练习 2 1. We haven’t settled the question of _______ it is necessary for him to study abroad. A. if B. where C. whether D. that

2. A warm thought suddenly came to me _______I might use the pocket money to buy some flowers for my mother’s birthday. w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m A. if B. when C. that D. which

3. There is much chance _______ Bill will recover from his injury in time for the race. A. that B. which C. until D. if

4. Please remind me _______ he said he was going. I may be in time to see him off. A. where B. when C. how D. what

5. We saw several natives advancing towards our party, and one of them came up to us. _______ we gave some bells and glasses. A. to which B. to whom C. with whom D. with which

6. With his work completed, the businessman stepped back to his seat, feeling pleased _______ he was a man of action. A. which B. that C. what D. whether

7. _______ team wins on Saturday will go through to the national championships. A. No matter what B. No matter which 8. I just wonder A. why it does C. Whatever D. Whichever

that makes him so excited. B. what he does C. how it is D. what it is

9. _______ is our belief that improvements in health care will lead to a stronger , more prosperous economy. w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m A. As B. That C. This D. It

10. Nobody believed his reason for being absent form the class _______ he had to meet his uncle at the airport. A. why B. that C. where D. because

11. The shopkeeper did not want to sell for _______ he thought was not enough. A. where B. how C. what D. which

12. He noticed that the straight part of the dance was different in the afternoon from _______ it had been in the morning. A. that B. where C. what D. which

13. I’d like to work with _______ is honest and easy to get on with. (2006 年山东模拟题) A. who B. whoever C. whomever D. no matter who

14. When you are reading, make a note of _______ you think is of great importance. A. which B. that C. what D. when

15. —Can we get everything ready by the weekend? —It all depends on _______ we can get Mr. Green’s cooperation. A. that B. what C. whether D. if

基础题 1. A 此题考察 what 引导名词性从句的用法。在此题中 what 引导主语从句,同时在从句中充



B 通过对句子的分析可知, believe it or not 是插入语, 在此句中 that 引导的是 the story 的同

位语从句。 3. D 通过对句子的分析可知,此题需要选一词来引导表语从句,而从句中的明显缺少宾语,

故只能 what 用来充当。 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. C 介词 on 后面宾语从句不完整,同时从句缺少主语,故只能由 what 来充当。 C wonder 后面的从句是疑问句应用陈述语序。即:特殊疑问词+主语+谓语动词。

B 此句主句完整,从句也完整,故用 that 引导构成与 the fact 的同位语从句。 A B why 在它引导的从句中充当原因状语,从句在主句里充当介词 on 的宾语。 what 在它引导的从句中充当主语, 同时整个从句可看成是 idea 的同位语从句, 来说明 idea

的具体内容。 9. B 本题考查定语从句以及固定短语 turn to 的用法,关系代词因为在后面定语从句中做宾语

因此省略掉,turn to sb 求助于某人。 10. B 本题根据意思以及后面与 or 的搭配关系可判断该处是“是否”,whether 引导宾语从句。 w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m 11. B 本题考查名词性从句中的同位语从句,根据下文可知 Danny 留下的口信的内容,that 引 导名词性从句。 12. C 本题考查双重疑问句,疑问词+do you think/believe/expect+句子的其他成分(句子用称 述句语序)。 13. C 本题考查固定短语 be different from 同时也考查名词性从句中的宾语从句,介词 from 后

是宾语从句,但从句中 be used to 后面少宾语,且根据上文是我们过去习惯的方法,这用 what 符合 语意。 14. A 本题考查的是名词性从句中的表语从句,后面表语从句不完整,it was 后面还缺少表语, 根据意思是“20 年前的 样子”,后面一个句子是对 20 年前的补充说明,是一个非限制性定语从句,20 年前学校设备条件不好,when 在定语从句中作时间状语。 15. B 本题考查名词性从句的同位语, doubt 后的同位语根据意思没有怀疑故选择 that 引导, that 在从句中不充当成分。 强化题



whether 引导的从句构成与名词 the question 的同位语。(原答案似乎有误)

2.C 主句完整,同时从句也不缺成分。根据句意可看出 that 引导的从句构成与 a warm thought 的 同位语。 3.A that 引导同位语从句,具体说明 chance(可能性)的内容。 4.B 句意:请提醒我他说他将什么时候走。 5.B 因先行词是 natives,故淘汰 A 和 D。又因 give sth. to sb.固定短语,所以选 B。介词 to 可放 在关系代词 whom 的前面。w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m 6.B pleased 后面缺少宾语从句,he was a man of action 句意完整,故用 that 引导。 7.D No matter what/which 只能引导让步状语从句, 排除 A 和 B。 C 和 D 的区别在于一个无范围, 一个有范围。 8.D wonder 后面的宾语从句本是 what makes him so excited:。但 what 需要被强调,故用强调 句型。 9.D 本题考查 it 作形式主语, 后面的 that 引导真正的主句从句. 10.B 本题考查同位语从句, reason 后面有 for 引导的短语, 接着后面是 that 引导的句子来说明理 由的内容. 11.C 本题考查名词性从句的宾语从句,介词 for 后接宾语从句但宾语从句中缺少主语, he thought 是插入语. 连词 what 引导宾语从句且在从句中充当主语,which 的意思不符合. 12.C 本题考查固定短语 be different from 同时也考查名词性从句中的宾语从句,介词 from 后是 宾语从句,但从句中 it had been 后面少表语,所以 what 符合语意。 13.B 本题考查名词性从句中的介词宾语从句 , 根据下文意思以及在宾语从句中作主语 , D 不能 引导名词性从句, who 表达的意思不对. w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m 14.C 本题考查名词性从句介词宾语, 宾语从句中 you think 是插入语, 故句中缺少主语,which 意 思不对,故选 what 15.C 本题考查介词宾语从句, 根据上下文意思 该处应该是”我们是否能得到 Green 先生的.


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