I. A College experience College life
Summary of task functions & teaching focus Task What?s your college life like? — interview College life of
students abroad —video watching & reading Target ? Task function Priming ? Teaching focus Ss reflect on and then share their experiences of college life Ss practise retrieving specific information by watching video clips of personal experience, and ? Language work Linguistic analysis ? A day in your college life —video making Suggestions for task administration Consolidation ? ? reading for gist and summarizing main ideas in Chinese. Ss identify the language that expresses attitudes. Ss explore the use of “where” as a connector. Ss produce a promotional video clip for a university by applying what they have learned in this section.
What’s your college life like?—interview Pair work ? ? This task is intended to arouse ss? interest in topics related to their own college life. Divide the class into pairs and ask ss to interview each other about their college life. Suggest to ss that they focus on (1) daily schedule, (2) curricular activities, and (3) extracurricular activities. ? ? Nominate some pairs to report to the class their partners? experience of college life, encouraging others to comment or add at the same time. Ask ss to find the general features of college life (in terms of the above-mentioned three aspects) shared among themselves based on the class presentation and discussion. This may serve as the basis for comparison with the college life of the students in the video clips they are going to watch in the next task.
College life of students abroad—video watching & reading
1. A Day in the life—video watching ? ? ? ? ? Play the video clips one by one once through. Remind ss to take down the key points in note form. Play the video clips a second time without showing the images to avoid ss getting distracted. Ask some ss to report to the class what they have filled in the table in complete sentence forms. Then ask ss to make comparisons between their own college life with that of the three students in the video clips in terms of daily schedule, curricular and extracurricular activities. Encourage them to express their ideas about any changes they would like to make to their own college life and justify their opinions with reasons. Notes: Video clip 1 ? ? E.M.T. = emergency medical technician 救护技术员 Bat Mitzvah: It literally means “daughter of commandment”. The word “bat” means “daughter” in Aramaic （阿拉米语） , which was the commonly spoken language of the Jewish people (and much of the Middle East) from about 500 B.C. to 400 A.D. The word “mitzvah” is Hebrew for “commandment”. The term “Bat Mitzvah” refers to two things: a. When a girl reaches 12 years old she becomes a “bat mitzvah” and is recognized by Jewish tradition as having the same rights as an adult. She is now morally and ethically responsible for her decisions and actions. (12 岁时举行的)成人仪式女孩 b. “Bat Mitzvah” also refers to a religious ceremony that accompanies a girl becoming a Bat Mitzvah. Often a celebratory party will follow the ceremony and that party is also called a bat mitzvah. 犹太女孩成人仪式 ? ? ? ? 1 Student?s name V1 Anthony University name Harvard University ? ? ? ? He lives and dines on campus. There is the freshman seminar. He can visit any of the other great Harvard schools. He hangs out with friends and tries something new every day.
Video clip 3
roller derby: competition between roller skaters 轮滑比赛，旱冰速滑赛 Durango: （美国地名）杜兰戈 Chocolate Fantasia：巧克力幻想曲，此处指巧克力制作大赛 expo: a large event where goods, especially industrial goods are displayed 展览会，博览会
Reference key: Major features of life
University of Birmingham
? ? ? ? ?
Her day usually starts in the Computer Science building. She can work at a time suitable for her. She has a software workshop this morning to do some programming. She has weekly taught labs (lab courses) in the first semester. Between lectures, she has a quick chance to catch up with friends and talk about the assignments and things that are happening this week.
She has about 20 hours of lectures, labs and tutorials of all the different modules. She also has a module called Robot Programming, in which she can put some knowledge about artificial intelligence into practice.
Fort Lewis College
? ? ? ?
She goes workout at the Student Life Center in the morning. She attends classes. She goes downtown & has lunch at the Balcony. She does internship with a company called Celebrations.
. 2. University is the best time of my life—reading & summarizing in Chinese ? ? Remind ss that this is not a translation task, so it is inadvisable to translate the passages word for word or sentence by sentence. Emphasize to ss that they need to focus on the aspects suggested in the Students? Book, namely, benefits of going to university, academic study, social life, other activities or problems. ? It is sufficient if ss manage to get the main ideas correctly.
Notes: For student A ? ? leave somebody to their own devices: 任其自由行动，任其自由发展 what with: because of, given 由于，因为
For student B ? ? ? book-bashing: devoted much time and energy in reading books (这里指仅注重学习书本知 识) from the word go: from the very beginning 从一开始 sabbatical officer: a full-time officer elected by the members of a students? union (or similar body such as students? association, Students? Representative Council or guild of students),
commonly at a higher education establishment such as a university. Sabbatical officers are usually trustees of their students? union, in its capacity as a charity, and may also sit on or form the board of directors of the union. 由学生团体选出来的代表学生的学生官员， 负责学生事 务，一般任期一年 ? ? ? ? financial fair 金融展览会 British Gas 英国天然气公司 Electricity Board 供电局 British Telecom 英国电信
Reference key: For Student A 选择上哪一所大学比选择哪个专业更困难一些，同时，还要选择住在镇上还是城里。 上大学除了获得学术资格外，还锻炼了人的社交能力， 并让你学会做人。大学赋予学 生更多的自由，学生应学会对自己的决定和行为负责，而不再是像中学那样由别人帮你做决 定。学生如果有问题，可以寻求学生咨询机构的帮助，学生也可以成为其志愿者。 上大二后，和朋友合租住房，虽然开始可能觉得要自己洗衣服、熨衣服和做饭会有些困 难，但你会很快适应，而且可以吃得更健康一些。租房子很好，但有时可能会跟房东有矛盾， 这时候你可以寻求学生福利组织的帮助。 上大学还要平衡学术学习与社会活动的关系，如果参加太多社会活动，就会影响专业学 习。一旦出现问题，需要及时调整。 生活费主要来自助学金、学生贷款、父母资助和做各种假期零工。除了房租，每周的生 活费需要 70 英镑。由于助学金越来越少，很多学生不得不依靠学生贷款而且很容易超支， 所以花钱必须特别小心。 大学是人生最美的时光，是一件积极的事情。 For Student B 大学学位让你的人生走得更远，但在大学里学到的很多东西也很重要，比如独立等，这 些取决于你的爱好和你加入的团体。 雇主不会仅仅对你的学历感兴趣，他们不愿招收书呆子，他们要的是能够与别人良好沟 通、富有合作精神的人。显然，大学开拓了人的思想，让你接触很多原来从没想过的人和事。 我从一开始就加入学联，我想做一些专业以外的事情，这样我可以不断接触新人。我负 责学生福利，我是个不喜欢只会坐着抱怨的人；有不如人意的地方，我希望能够去改变。我 现在是学联的人，这是由学生选举出来的，有一个主席和两个副主席，我负责福利方面，如 果某个问题影响很多学生，我有责任告诉他们钱该怎样花才更值。我组织了各种金融展览， 安排与各种机构的交谈。我还负责向大学汇报学生的最新动态和影响学生的各种因素，并通 过全国大学生会游说政府等。 将来我不会从事与我所学专业相关的工作，我更希望拓展我在学联的工作，尤其是平等 机会方面的工作。
If there is enough time, do the task in class. Otherwise, leave it as homework. Remind ss that one?s attitudes can often be conveyed by adjectives, verbs or descriptions of details. Ask them to go through the transcripts of the three video clips and the two reading passages to find such expressions.
Tell ss that in translating the sentences, especially the attributive clauses containing “where”, they should be aware of the differences between English and Chinese in sentence structures and translate flexibly.
Nominate some ss to read out their translations of the sentences with “where”.
Reference key: 1. Expressing attitude 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) …I still can?t believe that I?m at Harvard. (video clip 1) I really enjoy my freshman seminar. (video clip 1) I just swipe in using my ID card and work at a time that ?s suitable for me, which is really useful. (video clip 2) I didn?t need to worry though, as the course is taught from scratch. ( video clip 2) So even if you?ve never programmed before, you?ll be fine. (video clip 2) It?s a really great module with a lot of fun but I also learn a lot…(video clip 2) It?s great that it?s right here on campus. (video clip 3) The class sizes here at Fort Lewis are really great. (video clip 3) I feel like at a larger university you would get lost but at Fort Lewis you really don ?t have that problem. (video clip 3) 10) The process of being able to work all of these events from start to finish has been really beneficial to me because no two events are the same. (video clip 3) 11) It?s really great that I?ve been able to have this outside experience. (video clip 3) 12) The good thing about university life is that you are left to your own devices …(reading passage 1) 13) I?ve found it very rewarding, not only with helping other students through university life but also as an extra-curricular activity. (reading passage 1) 14) University has been the best time of my life. It?s three years of hard work and great fun. It?s a positive thing to do! (reading passage 1) 15) I think a degree helps a person to get on in life. ( reading passage 2) 16) I also think that other things you learn at university, like independence, are equally helpful. (reading passage 2) 2. The use of where 2 1）在全球化经济中，我们的互动已不受地理因素的束缚，因此，跨文化理解和沟通尤其重 要。
2）好大学可以在这两者之间取得平衡：学生既可以自由形成自己长期的世界观，又能获得 追求收入丰厚职业所需的知识和技能。 3）如果我们强迫学生选择一种非此即彼的大学体验，那么我们就失败了。 4）后两大支柱——卓越的领导才能和优秀的性格——可在校园里，尤其在各种与课程相关 的组织、俱乐部、兴趣小组和团队中随处体验到；在这些组织中，学生学习和实践如何与人 合作、分享和完善思想。 5）提供高等教育的机构必须帮助学生发展旨在实现其未来职业目标所需要的知识和技能， 提高学生在所在岗位的工作效率，使学生具备成为领导者所需的知识和技能。 3 “Where” is used to modify abstract concepts rather than concrete places. A day in your college life—video making ? ? ? If time permits, assign this work as a project work. Otherwise, just omit it. Divide the class into groups of 5-6 people each. Assign a group leader or ask ss to select one to be responsible for the coordination work. Suggest to ss that they develop a working plan in which they have to (1) work out a shooting plan, together with the details of the shooting, and (2) divide the work of script writing, directing, acting, shooting, editing etc among the group members. ? ? Ask ss to present their finished products at the end of the unit. Ask ss to assess other groups? performance in terms of information (60%), accuracy of language (20%), pronunciation and intonation (10%) and presentation effects (10%). Copy and hand out the following assessment sheet to each student at presentation session. Assessment sheet Group No. Information (60%) Accuracy of language (20%) Pronunciation and intonation (10%) Presentation effects (10%) Total (100%)
Task Task function Priming ? Teaching focus Ss practise retrieving specific information by watching a news
Summary of task functions & teaching focus More Chinese students head overseas for studies—video
watching & discussion ? Getting into universities and colleges abroad—video watching, listening & discussion ? ? Language work Linguistic analysis How to prepare for studying abroad —discussion Suggestions for task administration Consolidation Target
report. Ss reflect on the relevance of information to their own situation. Ss practise ? identifying specific information from a promotional video; listening for main ideas and specific information in a mini-lecture; reflecting on the relevant information and forming their own opinions. Ss identify language of ? ? ? persuasion and learning difficulties. Ss transfer the information and language learnt in I B in a discussion.
More Chinese students head overseas for studies—video watching & discussion Video watching & discussion
? ? ? ? ? ?
This activity aims to engage ss? interest in the topic of the increasingly popular phenomenon of Chinese ss studying abroad. Give ss 30 seconds to go over the questions before watching the video. Play the video once through. It is sufficient if ss can answer the first three questions in Activity 1 correctly. There is no need to pay attention to the details. The questions in Activity 2 are open for discussion and there is no right or wrong answers to them. If possible, update students with the latest statistics and trends of Chinese students studying abroad.
Reference key: 1 1) 2) 3) Gaokao can be taken once every year, while SAT can be taken up to 6 times a year. Agencies providing SAT training. People can afford more money; a relative lack of premium education destinations in China Getting into universities and colleges abroad—video watching, listening & discussion 1. Studying at universities or colleges in the UK—video watching ? The purpose of this activity is threefold. Firstly, it informs ss of how to apply for universities
or colleges in the UK. Secondly, it familiarizes ss with some of the language features of promotional texts. Thirdly, it provides ss with the opportunity to practise listening for specific information. ? If ss have difficulty getting the correct answers after the first viewing, play the video a second time. Key: 1) d 2) d 3) b 4) a 5) c
2. Chinese students’ learning difficulties in Australia and New Zealand—listening
? Before listening, ask ss to go over the list of possible difficulties of studying abroad. If time
permits, ss are encouraged to give their own examples of the possible difficulties.
? Play the recording once through, then check ss? choices together. If there is any disagreement
among the ss, make a note of them and leave them until after the second listening. Key: 1. a, b, c, d, e, f, i, j, l 2. 1) d 2) d 3) b 4) a 5) c
3. Is it worth studying abroad?—discussion ? Remind ss of the two questions they have to focus on during the discussion. ? Ask ss to select a member in the group to take notes of and summarize the views of the group. ? Nominate some groups to report to the class their discussion results, encouraging others to comment at the same time. Try to identify the common view of the class on this issue.
Language work 1. Identifying language of persuasion ? ? Key Language feature Example So you are thinking of studying in the UK. This video will tell you all about it. The use of the second person to address the reader directly You will find the perfect place for you. You can choose a big city like London or a small town. Coming to study in the UK means you can gain skills that employers want… … The use of specific details to The UK is a great place to study with over 300 universities and
If there is not enough time, assign it as homework. To save time, ss can just underline the sentences in the transcript.
illustrate general points
colleges and around 40,000 courses to choose from. Over 430,000 international students study in the UK universities and colleges every year.
The use of positive adjectives The use of quotations from current students
a great place, the best reputations and courses, welcoming and multicultural, fantastic support See transcript
2. Identifying language of learning difficulties ? ? Do the first activity in class. After ss finish the task, nominate some pairs to check their performance. The second activity (i.e. essay writing task) serves to consolidate ss? mastering of language used to express language difficulties. Ask ss to complete it after class and cross check with classmates. Key for Activity1 1) …may constitute one of the biggest barriers in…They usually have to… 2) …also prevents them from… 3) …are not accustomed to expressing… 4) The second learning difficulty involves psychological problems arising from… 5) The third learning difficulty comes from differences in academic norms. 6) Essay writing and case studies often become stumbling blocks for …
How to prepare for studying abroad—discussion Group work
This activity is optional depending on the time available. If there is enough time to spare, do it in class. Otherwise leave it to be discussed by ss themselves, but try to elicit some discussion results at the beginning of the next class.
Reference key: (1) Supporting documentation needed for application to a university ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Transcripts Personal statement Letter of recommendation SAT, ACT, TOEFL, GRE, GMAT, IELTS etc Differences in academic conventions Language barriers Culture shock Homesickness
(2) Language proficiency test type(s) (3) Possible difficulties you expect to encounter when studying abroad
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Financial pressure Interpersonal relationship Integration into the local society Learn more about the host country before going abroad Learn about the differences in academic conventions Seek help from fellow students, teachers or student counseling organizations Adapt to local culture and society
(4) Strategies you are going to use to cope with the difficulties
Task Task function Priming ? Teaching focus Ss activate and extend their current knowledge about the national education systems in China, the US, and the UK. Target Ss practise ? ? ? reading for specific information in an information-intensive text; listening for specific information in a lecture, identifying similarities and differences in the education systems of three countries, i.e. China, US, and the UK.
Summary of task functions & teaching focus What do you know about education systems in these countries?—role-play & blank-filling Education systems in the US and the UK—reading, listening & discussion
Language work Education system in China
Linguistic analysis Consolidation
Ss identify, distinguish and practise the use of different sentence connectors Ss write and talk about education in China, using the language they have learned in the reading and listening materials in this section.
Suggestions for task administration What do you know about education systems in these countries?—role-play & blank-filling Group work ? ? ? This task serves as a warm-up of the on-going topic of education systems of different countries. Ss are encouraged to make good use of their own knowledge about the education systems of the three countries and to make further research on the topic after class. If ss have no idea about certain question(s), they can just leave the space blank for the time
being. ? At this stage, there is no need to check ss? answers to the questions. The purpose of this task is not to get information, but to arouse ss ? interest in the incoming tasks. Reference key: China When do children start going to primary school? What courses do students follow at primary school? Chinese, mathematics, English, music, fine arts, science, PE, moral education reading, writing, mathematics, history, geography, crafts, music, science, art, physical education or gym and foreign languages How long does compulsory education last? Is there a national curriculum? Who is responsible for running the schools? The central and local governments The state government and district school board (this is actually not mentioned in the reading passage) What courses do students follow at secondary school? Chinese, mathematics, English, physics, chemistry, politics, history, geography, biology English, mathematics, general science, health, physical education, social studies or social sciences (which include American history and government, geography, world history and social problems) What are the qualifications for entering college or university? scores for Gaokao 1. a student?s high school course of study; 2. High school Grade Point Average (GPA) GCSE?s & A-levels in England, Wales and Northern Ireland; Standard Grades, Intermediate 1 & 2, Highers and
the US 5 or 6
the UK 5
basic literacy, basic numeracy, science, and other subjects (no specific information from the listening passage) 11 years (and starting from 2015, 13 years in England) Yes the government
12 years? (This is not mentioned in the reading passage)
GCSE courses and A-level courses
3. Participation in extracurricular activities 4. SAT or ACT exam scores 5. A written essay and possibly a personal interview Are there any national university entrance exams? Yes, Gaokao No. Students can choose SAT or ACT.
Advanced Highers in Scotland
Education systems in the US and the UK—reading, listening & discussion 1. The American education system—reading ? ? ? ? This task requires ss to focus on the details in specific sections of the text and understand the exact meaning of the wording. If the task has been assigned to ss ahead of time, then when they come to class, you can directly focus on the specific information. If ss? level of English is high enough, it is suggested that the reading is completed in class. In this case, give them 15 minutes to go through the passage and complete the exercises. At the end of the reading, nominate some ss to give their answers in class or check the exercises together. Reference: 1 1) All primary schools last for six years. The length of time spent at primary school varies from school district to school district and can last from 6 to 8 years. 2) Primary schools do not offer foreign languages to students. Foreign languages, which used to be taught at high schools only, are now introduced during the last few years of elementary school in some areas. 3) In the final two years of secondary education, the brightest students can take college level classes. The brightest students can also take college level classes during the last two years of high schools. 4) A student?s high school course of study is the only criterion required for admissions into universities or colleges.
Criteria for admissions into universities or colleges include high school course of study; high school Grade Point Average, participation in extracurricular activities; SAT or ACT exam scores, a written essay or a personal interview. 5) Universities train people to do a particular job. Universities provide students with advanced academic study in various fields. 6) Courses at universities are generally longer than those at vocational schools Courses at universities last at least four years, while those at vocational schools last one to three years. 7) More and more people now do the first half of their bachelor?s course at a junior college and the second half at a university. Recent years have seen an increasing number of students do their first two years of university study in their local community college or junior college, and then transfer to a university for the final two years of study. 8) To graduate from university or college, all students have to write a final thesis. Most bachelor ’s degree programs in the United States do not require students to write a final thesis. F T T F
2 Education system in the USA
Primary education age: 5 or 6 Secondary education duration: 4-6 years Tertiary education age: 17 or 18 duration: 1 to 3 or more years core curriculum courses: English mathematics general science health physical education social studies/sciences, including: American history and government, geography, world history, social problems students on a “fast track”: enriched classes and college level classes 13 university studies) advanced academic studies in: arts sciences BA/BS Degree (undergraduate university studies) MA/MS PhD (postgraduate
duration: 6-8 years common course of studies: reading writing mathematics social studies (history and geography) crafts music science physical education/gym (foreign languages)
vocational school or community college: training for specific jobs
Associate degree Job market
2. Education system in the UK—listening and note-taking ? ? ? ? The listening task consists of three parts. Listen to it once through to tick the topics mentioned. Listen to the talk a second time part by part to fill in the missing information. At the end of each part, leave some time for ss to compare notes with their partners. After the whole talk is completed, elicit ss? responses to it. If the majority of them have difficulty catching some specific points, repeat the listening for a third time. Notes: ? GCSE is the abbreviation of General Certificate of Secondary Education. 普通中等教育证书 ? Scotland?s required exams for entering higher education 1) Standard Grades: an exam in a particular subject at a lower level than Highers. Standard Grades are usually taken in a number of different subjects at the age of 16. 标准级别考试 （苏格兰学生通常在 16 岁时参加） 2) Intermediate 1 (中等教育 1) 3) Intermediate 2 (中等教育 2) 4) Highers (高等级别考试) 5) Advanced Highers (高级高等级别考试) ? Five types of Higher Education Qualifications 1) BTEC Higher National Certificates and Diplomas (BTEC HNCs/ HNDs) (BTEC 高等教育 证书和文凭) 2) Certificates and Diplomas of Higher Education (CertHE/DipHE) (高等教育证书和文凭) 3) Foundation Degrees (FdA, FdSc, FdEng) [预科学位/基础学位/准学士学位 (文科～/理 科～/工科～)] 4) undergraduate degrees (BA, BSc, BEng etc) [本科学位 (文科学士学位，理科学士学位和 工科学士学位等)] 5) postgraduate qualifications (研究生证书) ? BTEC (Business & Technology Education Council) (即英国商业与技术教育委员会的简称， 是 Edexcel 的品牌教育产品。1983 年由英国商业教育委员会和技术教育委员会合并而成。 在英国有 400 多所学院和大学开设 BTEC 课程，在全世界共有 120 多个国家、7000 多个 中心实施 BTEC 课程、教学和培训模式。BTEC 在中等和高等学历、职业和人才培训方面 具有世界领先的地位，在关键技能教育的拓展方面有着卓越的表现和权威性。其标准课 程的要求适用于世界各个国家，学生在完成了 BTEC 课程后，得到的将是具有国际水准 的、普遍承认的英国国家高等教育文凭（HND）和国内的大专文凭。是一种新型的职业 培训模式，可简单概括为：国际认可学历、国际标准资格、统一标准课程，适用世界各 国) Key: 1 a, b, c, d, e, f, h, i, j, k, l, m, n
2 Part I
Education, compulsory from age 5 to 16 (in England upper age raised to 17 from 2013 and raised again to 18 from 2015) After optional early age provision, mainstream education is provided at four levels:
1) 2) 3) 4)
? ? ? ?
primary secondary further higher
Level 1 primary: age 5 to 11 Level 2 secondary: age 11 to 16 The National Curriculum ensures that students study broadly the same subjects, but independent schools are allowed to set their own curriculum. First academic qualifications: GCSEs in England, Wales and Northern Ireland and Standard Grades in Scotland.
Part II ? ? ? ? Level 3 further education: Courses are offered in schools, sixth-form colleges and colleges of further education. Further education colleges offer education to adult and part-time students, as well as to full-time students in vocational and academic subjects. In Scottish education, there is only one year of study between the end of compulsory education and starting university whereas in the rest of the UK, the equivalent period takes two years. Part III ? ? Level 4 higher education: To qualify for higher education, students in England, Wales and Northern Ireland have to take A-level courses for two years, while those in Scotland usually take Standard Grades, Intermediate 1 and 2, Highers and Advanced Highers. ? ? The speaker mentions that there are several types of higher education, but chooses to focus on undergraduate degrees. In England, Wales and Northern Ireland, undergraduate students study for three years and are awarded bachelor ?s degrees with honours, depending on the marks gained. In Scotland, it takes three years to complete an ordinary degree and four years to gain honours. ? ? Scottish undergraduate degrees are sometimes awarded with the title master ?s, depending on the tradition within the awarding institution. Forms of classes: lectures, tutorials and seminars
3. Comparing/Contrasting education systems of the US, the UK and China—group discussion ? Before the discussion begins, try to elicit from the whole class some sentence patterns which can be used for comparing similarities and differences and write them down on the
blackboard. ? Encourage ss to air their views about the pros and cons of these education systems. The T should guard against imposing value judgments on the ss. Notes: ? Some sentence patterns for comparing differences A is/does...but B is/does... A is/does...However, B is/does... Unlike A, B is/does... A is different from B in... A is/does...while/whereas B is/does... ? Some sentence patterns for pointing out similarities: Both A and B... Neither A nor B does... A and B share...in common. (Just) like A, B is/does... A is/does..., so is/does B. Reference key: ? Some sample sentences comparing the three education systems: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) In all the three countries, students start going to school at approximately the same age. In both China and the UK, primary school lasts for 6 years, but in the US it may last from 6 to 8 years. In both China and the UK, there is a national curriculum to ensure that all students in the country learn basically the same things, but in the US, there is no national curriculum. Unlike in China and the US, where education consists of three phases, in the UK education consists of 4 phases. Compulsory education lasts 9 years in China, and 11 years in the UK, but there is no mention of it about the US. In both the US and the UK, students can take both mandatory and optional subjects in secondary education, whereas in China they can only take mandatory subjects. Students in the UK should have GCSEs before they graduate from secondary education, but there is no such requirement in China or the US. In both China and the US, students go directly to college or university after completion of their compulsory secondary education, but students in England, Wales and Northern Ireland spend another two years and students in Scotland one year for further education before pursuing their higher education. 9) Criteria for entering college or university vary in the three countries. In China, they are based on students? marks in the national entrance examination (Gaokao); in the US, they usually include a student?s high school course of study, high school GPA, participation in extracurricular activities, SAT or ACT scores, a written essay and possibly a personal
interview; and in the UK they include A-level courses in England, Wales and Northern Ireland; Standard Grades, Intermediate 1 and 2, Highers and Advanced Highers in Scotland. 10) The time spent in a community college or vocational school varies too. It is usually 2-3 years in China, 1-3 years in the US and 1-4 years in the UK. 11) Undergraduate studies last 4-5 years in China and 4 or more years in the US but just 3-4 years in the UK. 12) After completion of their undergraduate studies, students in all three countries are awarded a Bachelor?s degree, but those in England, Wales and Northern Ireland may be awarded a Bachelor?s degree with honors and those in Scotland may even be awarded a “Master?s” degree.
Language work Sentence connectors ? ? ? This task can be left as homework. Ss are expected to know the meaning and usage of sentence connectors such as “that is”, “although”, “whereas”, and “while”. After ss have completed the exercises, spend a few minutes checking them in the next class or give the key to them without spending time on it if they don?t have any problems with the exercises. Notes: ALTHOUGH ? When used at the beginning of the sentence, “although” is equivalent in meaning to the other subordinators "though" and "even though". However, “although” is the most formal of these three, with "even though" and “though” being more commonly found in the less formal writing of magazines and newspapers. The subordinator “although” has two main uses: 1) You can use “although” to introduce a complete clause (subject + verb) that both contrasts with a statement made in the main clause, and also makes the following statement in the main clause seem surprising or unexpected. We call this the concessive (让步的) use of "although". e.g. Although Swedish is one of Finland’s two national languages, few Finns can actually speak it well enough to carry out an intelligible conversion. 2) You can use “although” to admit a fact that should be considered less important than that stated in the main clause. We call this the adversative (相反的）use of “although”. e.g. Although there is no universal agreement within the scientific community on the impacts of increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases, it has been theorized that they may lead to an increase in the average temperature of the Earth’s surface. (EVEN) THOUGH ? The subordinator “though” has the same meaning as “although” but sounds more informal.
Use “though” to signal that the statement in the main clause is unexpected or surprising, or to admit a fact that should be considered less important than that stated in the main clause. ? At the beginning of the sentence before the main clause, “(even) though” has the same function as “although” in introducing facts that either slightly contradict claims made in the main clause or make these claims seem unexpected or surprising. ? When placed after the main clause, “(even) though” limit s or reduces the strength of claims stated in the main clause. e.g. a. Even though climate change cannot be predicted for a specific region, experience with natural climatic variability leads many scientists to believe that even relatively small changes to climate may be socially and economically significant. b. Climate change cannot be predicted for a specific region, (even) though experience with natural climatic variability leads many scientists to believe that even relatively small changes to climate may be socially and economically significant. WHILE / WHILST vs WHEREAS ? The subordinator “while”, and the slightly more emphatic “whereas”, can be used to introduce information that contrasts with that stated in the main clause, or to signal that the information introduced by “while” is true, but that it does not affect the truth of the statement given in the main clause. In British English, “while” is often written as “whilst”, a form unfamiliar to most North Americans. ? Although ?while? can appear both before and after the main clause, it tends to come at the beginning of the sentence, before the main clause. Conversely, “whereas” more frequently appears after the main clause. ? Although basically having the same meaning as “while”, “whereas” is more emphatic, tends to come after the main clause, and tends to contrast opposite sides of a single quality in two similar things. Thus, “whereas” is used to contrast between extreme examples that represent almost polar opposites of each other. “While”, on the other hand, only signals that two things differ, and not that they are opposites. This makes “while” ideal for comparing numbers and statistics, as is common in the results sections of research reports. e.g. a. While estimates for the year 2025 range from five to fifteen inches above current sea level, estimates of the rise by 2100 range from two to four feet. b. The Finns had difficulty supplying their troops with ammunition, whereas the Russians had an unlimited supply and a vastly superior system of communication. Adapted from http://sana.tkk.fi/awe/cohesion/signposts/contrast/subordinator/whereas.html, accessed Sept. 16th, 2014 Reference key 1
1) d 2 although whereas
5) a Example
Although admission policies vary from university to university, most universities determine admission based on several criteria. Students usually spend from one to three years in a vocational school or community college, at the end of which they receive a diploma or an associate degree, whereas students in universities spend at least four years completing their undergraduate studies before they are awarded a first degree (BA /BS).
While universities provide students with advanced academic study in various fields such as the arts and sciences, (community) colleges and vocational schools train people to do specific jobs.
3 1) 2) 3) 4) He was a lovely child, though he was fairly shy and quiet. Though/Although he was a lovely child, he was fairly shy and quiet. Though/Although nuclear fission produces no greenhouse gases, it does produce hazardous radioactive wastes. While the aortic arch is on the right side of a bird, it is on the left in a mammal. The aortic arch is on the right side of a bird, whereas it is on the left in a mammal. The nuclear industry has been heavily subsidized, whereas clean and renewable sources of energy, such as solar, wind and water power have been neglected. While the nuclear industry has been heavily subsidized, clean and renewable sources of energy, such as solar, wind and water power, have been neglected. 5) The Argentinian tango clearly has its roots in urban culture and it is often set in a shady drinking house, whereas/while the Finnish tango is often set in the countryside, in the midst of lakes and green forests. 6) 7) 8) She wore a sleeveless dress though it was a cold day. In most postwar elections of the UK, more men have voted Labour than have voted Conservative while/whereas more women have voted Conservative than have voted Labor. Sometimes one school will have a set of policies on homework whereas another school will leave it to the individual preference of the teacher. Education system in China Writing & speaking ? ? ? If time permits, ask ss to prepare and present the talk orally in class. Remind ss to imitate the structure of the reading passage on the US education system and the talk on the UK education system. After class, ask ss to better organize their ideas and write them down for publication in a student magazine abroad, so they should pay special attention to correctness of information, language, and structure of their writing. ? This can serve as the unit writing.
III. The theory and practice of education A. What is education?
Summary of task functions & teaching focus Task How to define education? —discussion Problems of defining education — reading & listening Target Task function Priming ? Teaching focus Ss activate and share their understanding of the meaning of education. Ss develop their ability to ? ? Language work Writing an essay about an educational experience Linguistic analysis Consolidation ? ? read critically by evaluating statements of opinions, and listen critically by identifying and evaluating the speaker?s opinions Ss identify and practise the language used in definitions. Ss reflect on their personal experience in English by drawing upon the views and language they have learned in this section. Suggestions for task administration How to define education?—discussion Group work ? ? This is a topic familiar to ss, so encourage them to work out their own definitions of “education”. After the discussion, nominate some ss to read out their versions. Write their definitions on board, which serve as the basis for comparing with the ones they are going to read in the next task. ? Encourage ss to work out the language patterns used for their definitions. Problems of defining education—reading & listening
1. Some definitions of education—reading ? ? The definitions are meant to broaden ss? horizons in relation to education and inspire independent and critical thinking. After ss finish reading, nominate some ss to tell the class about their favourite definitions and explain the reasons for their preference. Encourage them to give concrete examples to support their points of view.
2. Education is not the same as schooling—video watching
Before watching the video clip, ask ss to air their own views on “education” and “schooling” and how they are different from each other. At this stage, you don?t need to make any clarification about the distinction between the two concepts.
The focus of this activity is to get specific information, but at the same time, remind ss to be critical of the viewpoints of the speaker. There is no need to agree with him. As to Activity 4, encourage ss to justify their opinions with concrete facts and ideas and avoid being biased in their discussions.
Reference key: 1 1) 2) 3) 2 1) F 3 1) 2) Education is something that can take place at any stage in someone?s life, and indeed should do. Education is something which is central to most people?s lives. 2) T 3) F 4) F He is negative with “modern schools”. b c
Language work Definitions ? ? 1 1) Education is + noun/gerund/infinitive… ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Education is something you do, not something you get. (1) Education is a social activity which trains people to contribute to the development of society. (2) Education is a process by which people hope to lift themselves from the state of animal to the state of man. (3) Education is something you can enter on an application form when you apply for a job. (5) Education is not information; education is critical judgment. (8) Education is the passing on of the world?s accumulated knowledge to the younger generation. (9) Education is supposed to bring people freedom, but in fact is often used to enslave people. (10)
Assign this as homework, and nominate some ss to report their answers in the next class. Tell ss that they will learn more about how to develop a definition in Unit 5.
Education means +noun/gerund… ? ? Education means instruction by which knowledge is imparted and morals are molded. (4) Education may be a high sounding word, but in reality it means no more than passing exams and getting a diploma for many people. (6)
Education +verb… ? Education produces a vast population able to read but unable to distinguish what is worth reading. (7)
Writing an essay about an educational experience Writing & peer reviewing
This task is optional. If there is not enough time, just skip it. Encourage ss to recall their own successful or unsuccessful educational experience and share it with their partners. The partner should give active feedback according to the aspects mentioned in the Student?s book.
B. Parenting—strict or lenient?
Summary of task functions & teaching focus Task Strict parents or lenient parents? —listening & note-taking ? Task function Priming ? Teaching focus Ss practise note-taking for main ideas by listening to “Tiger Mom?s rules at home”. Ss relate what they have heard about Tiger Mom?s rules to their personal experience. Parenting styles debated—video watching, reading & debate Target Ss practise ? retrieving specific information and identifying speaker?s opinions by listening to an interview. ? ? identifying specific opinions of the writer by reading a journalistic text. using information and vocabulary from these texts to construct and present an argument. Language work Linguistic analysis ? ? Ss reflect on language for indicating strict parenting. Ss reflect on different language forms used for presenting and defending an argument. Views on parenting style Consolidation ? Ss practise summarizing book chapters
and comment critically on the contents through extensive reading. Suggestions for task administration
Strict parents or lenient parents?—listening & discussion 1. Tiger Mom’s rules at home—listening & note-taking ? ? Before listening, ask ss whether they have ever heard of the “Tiger Mother” and the rules she sets for her two daughters. If yes, what are they? It doesn?t matter if the topic is new to them. Ask ss to take down in note form the rules set by the Tiger Mom.
Reference key ? ? ? ? ? They are not allowed to complain about anything at school. They can?t watch TV or play computer games. They have to be No. 1 student in every subject except gym. They have to spend 4 hours a day practicing piano or violin. They can?t choose other musical instrument.
2. How strict are your parents?
Ask ss to reflect on their parents? parenting style and make comments. Have a quick hands-up to see how many of the students have been raised by strict parents and how many by more lenient ones.
Parenting styles debated—video watching, reading & debate 1. A closer look at Tiger Mom’s parenting—video watching ? Reassure ss that it doesn?t matter if they cannot catch every word by the speakers. I t is more important to grasp the general tone of the talks and how Amy Chua defends herself.
Notes: Video clip 1 ? ? ? ? ? uncompromising: determined not to change their opinions or objectives in any way; steadfast; firm 不妥协的，坚定不移的 episode: a period or event in which something exciting, sad or important has happened 插曲， 事件 subservient: someone who is subservient is too willing to do what other people want them to do 屈从的，服从的，奴颜婢膝 caste system 种姓等级制度 fine line: subtle difference 微妙的差别
permissive: not strict in discipline 放纵的，宽容的
? formulize: explain by using formulas 用公式表达，阐释 Video clip 2 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? memoir: an account of the author?s personal experiences 自传 outrageous: greatly exceeding boundary of moderation 过分的 have a chip on one?s shoulder: behave rudely and aggressively because one thinks that they have been treated unfairly (感到不如人或受到不公平对待而变得) 粗鲁好斗 dysfunctional: not working normally or properly (关系或行为等) 出现障碍的，不正常的 feisty: (informal) strong, determined and not afraid of arguing with people 坚决而据理力争 的 temperament: a person?s or an animal?s nature as shown in the way they behave or react to situations or people 性情，气质 pull back: decide not to do something, especially in order to avoid a bad outcome 为避免不良 后果而决定不做某事 poke fun at somebody: make fun of somebody 嘲弄某人，取笑某人 self-mocking: laughing at oneself 自嘲 slumber party: a party for children or young people when a group of them spend the night at one?s house (儿童或年轻人在某人家玩乐并过夜的) 聚会 Reference: 1 1) F 2) F 3) T 4) T 5) F 6) T 7) F 8) T 2 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) She thinks part of the problem is that people don?t realize it?s not a parenting book. Yes, they were raised by very strict but super loving and supportive parents. Things went smoothly with her first daughter, but her second daughter rebelled. She would do some of the things differently but not all. She still maintains very high academic standards for her daughters. She thinks people don?t understand her because they are on the outside but she does agree with some of their criticisms. …one thing I?m sure of is that children raised in a strict traditional way are definitely no less happy than children raised in a permissive way. …if you push, ask me to, push the button to choose happiness for my kids, or success or achievement, happiness is second. Amy Chua?s book … has caused a storm…evokes considerable criticism … But this is true that between the ages of 9 and 13, my daughters had very few sleepovers
and play dates.
2. Parenting styles could fuse best of East and West—reading
? ? ? There might be some new terms and expressions in the passage. Remind ss not to be put off by them. Encourage ss to try and guess meanings from the context instead of looking up every new word. After ss have done the task, you can, if necessary, go through the passage together with them for more intensive reading and more accurate understanding. Notes: ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? dissipate: to cause to separate and go in different directions 驱散，消散 conflagration: a very intense and uncontrolled fire 大火（这里比喻关于育儿方式的大争论) laissez-faire: letting people do as they wish 放纵的，放任自流的 contend: maintain or assert 主张，认为 rash: acting or done quickly without considering the effects of one?s behaviour 轻率的 generalization: a general statement that is based on only a few facts or examples; the act of making such statements 归纳，概括 go awry: not happen in the way that is hoped or planned 出错，出岔子 shower somebody with something: give somebody a large amount of something 大量馈赠 cat-o?-nine-tails 九尾鞭 spare the rod: do not punish 不处罚，不忍用杖 overindulged: being allowed to have or do what one wants to an excessive degree 被溺爱，放 纵 outdo: do more or better than someone else 胜过 cut back on something: reduce or decrease something 减少 admixture: a mixture 混合物
Reference key: 1) 2) 3) 4) She agrees with Chua that something has gone wrong/awry with American parenting, but she disagrees with her what that is precisely. She thinks that Chua is over-generalizing. In the author ?s experience, for example, strict parenting is not confined to Chinese or Asian roots. They tend to be immigrants (from all parts of the globe). It has created a materialistic culture that values financial success over inner peace and happiness. American parents shower their children with consumer goods instead of spending quality time with them. 5) 6) The fact that he had a peasant upbringing and lacked education. A mixture of Eastern and Western values.
3. Is a child’s academic success attributable to strict parenting?—debate ? ? ? Divide the class into two groups, each supporting one style of parenting. Remind ss that they need to explain what they mean by being “strict” in the debate. Encourage ss to come up with additional arguments that are not in the book.
Hold a mock debate in class. You should maintain the rules of debate and ensure that each side gets an equal chance of speaking.
Reference: Arguments for ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? … Arguments against ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? … Language work Children raised by strict parents might be obedient, but lack creativity. Children raised by strict parents will develop a hatred of their parents even after they grow into adulthood. Interpersonal skills are more useful than good grades at school. Extracurricular activities are an effective way of developing one?s abilities. Children raised by lenient and loving parents are happier and mentally healthier. Children raised by strict parents tend to have more psychological problems. Lenient parents bring up more creative children. Children can only learn from their own mistakes. Children are too young to discipline themselves. No children are willing to engage in hard and monotonous learning. Parents know best what is good for their children. By disciplining them, parents let children know there is room for improvement. The higher parents? expectations, the greater children?s achievements. Children don?t know right from wrong. They might make friends with bad guys. Strict parents can save their children the trouble of making the same mistakes as they did in the past. Lenient parents can be seen as having low or no expectations of their children.
If there is not enough time, do this exercise after class and check it in the next class.
Reference key 1. Language for indicating strict parenting Reference key: be not allowed to do sth; can?t do sth; have to be/do sth 2. Language for defending an argument 1) offering justification for her actions ? ? ? My daughters say, you know, “Mommy, you put the most extreme episodes in this book. People aren?t going to realize how much fun we had.” I think part of the problem is people don?t realize it?s not a parenting book. They?re on the outside; they don?t see. And they also actually don?t realize that I?m not saying that this is superior.
? 2) ? ? 3) ? ?
They just don?t know. I don?t like the term “break their will”, because I actually believe it doesn?t always work again. I totally disagree. I think it is not as simple as you think. That?s the case. But I agree with some of the criticisms.
Views on parenting style
Reading & writing
This task is optional, depending on the time available and students? interest. The book report will allow ss to turn what they read and understand into their own thinking and writing.