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年高考第一轮复习语法专题之名词性从句


名词性从句

【互动导学】
【知识梳理】
在复合句中起词名词作用的句子叫名词性从句 (Noun Clauses) 。 名词性从句的功能相当于名 词,可分别作主句的主语、表语、宾语和同位语。因此,名词性从句可分为、表语从句、宾 语从句和同位从句。 引导名词性从句的连接词 1)连接代词: who, whose, whom, what, whic

h 有词义,在从句中必须充当句子成分,如主 语、表语、宾语或定语等。 2)连接副词: when, where, why, how 有词义,在从句中必须充当成分,只能作状语 。 3)连接词: that, whether, if, as if that 无词义,在从句中不充当成分,做宾语时可省略; if ,whether,as if 虽有词义,但在从句中不担任成分。

注意:连接代词与连接副词在句中不再是疑问词,因而从句中谓语不用疑问式。连接
代词与连接副词在从句充当句子成分,连接词 whether 和 if(是否),as if(好象)在从句 中不充当句子成分,只起连接作用。根据句义,如果连接代词与连接副词,whether、if 和 as if 都用不上时,才用 that 作连接词(that 本身无任何含义)。 4)连接代词:whatever, whoever, whomever, whichever 5)语序 名词性从句都必须与陈述句语序相同,即“主语+谓语”。

【导学】一:主语从句:在复合句中其语法作用是主语的句中,叫主语从句。 【知识点】1:主语从句位于句首
e.g. ( 1) That he finished writing the composition in such a short time surprised us all. ( 2) Whether we will go for an outing tomorrow remains unknown.( 注意:不能把 whether 改为 if, 因为 if 不能引导主语从句 ) ( 3) Whatever you did is right. ( 4) Who will be our monitor hasn't been decided yet. ( 5) What caused the accident remains unknown.
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( 6) Which of the two is better remains to be seen. ( 7) When we will start the work is important.

【知识点】2:为了避免句子头重脚轻,用 it 作形式主语,主语从句放在句末。
e.g. (1)It doesn’t matter so much whether you will come or not. ( 2) It is true that he has made a very important discovery in chemistry. ( 3) It is a pity that we won't be able to go to the south to spend our summer vacation. ( 4) Is it likely that it will rain in the evening ?

【知识点】3:it

作形式主语的主语从句

有时为了考虑句子平衡,通常在主语从句处使用形式主语 it,而将真正的主语从句移 至句末。这分四种情况: (1) 对于以连词 that 引导的主语从句,通常用形式主语 it 替代主语从句: <a> It is +名词+从句 It is a fact that… 事实是……; It is a question that … ……是个问题; It is good news that … ……是好消息; It is common knowledge that … ……是常识

类似的名词还有:a pity;a wonder;a good thing; no wonder; surprise 等。 It is a mystery to me how it all happened. It is common knowledge that the whale is not a fish. It is no surprise that Bob should have won the game. <b> It is +形容词+从句 It is necessary that … 有必要……; It is likely that … 很可能……; It is clear that … 很清楚……; It is important that … 重要的是……

类似的形容词还有: strange; natural; obvious; true; good; wonderful; possible; unlikely; unusual; certain; evident; surprising; interesting; astonishing, etc. It is doubtful whether she will be able to come. It seems obvious that we can not go on like this. It is necessary that you(should)master the computer. 需要注意的是这类主语从句中, 谓语动词很多为“ (should) +动词原形”, 即要用虚拟语气。 <c> It is +过去分词+从句 It is said that … 据说……; It has been proved that … 已证明……; It is reported that … 据报道……; It must be proved that… 必须指出……

类似的过去分词还有: known; expected; believed; thought; hoped; required; suggested;
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demanded; etc. 例如:It is said that honesty is the best policy. It is said that thirteen is an unlucky number. It is reported that over 300 million people in China are suffering from near-sightedness. It is known to all that the earth is round.

【我爱展示】高考题链接:
1. It never occurred to me___you could succeed in persuading him to change his mind.(陕西高考) A.which B.what C.that D.if

2. It's obvious to the students________they should get well prepared for their future.(天津卷) A.as B.that C.which D.whether

3. ________some people regard as a drawback is seen as a plug by many others.( 北京) A.Whether B.What C.That D.How

4. It is uncertain________side effect the medicine will bring about,although about two thousand patients have taken it.(浙江) A.that B.how C.what D.whether

【导学】二:表语从句:在复合句中作表语的完整句子,位于 be 动词或系动词之后,
说明主语是什么或者怎么样。 e.g.( 1) The question was who could go there. ( 2) He has become what he wanted to be ten years ago. ( 3) She has remained where I stood yesterday for an hour. ( 4) His suggestion is that we should stay calm. ( 5) It seems as if it is going to rain. ( 6) The question is whether the enemy is marching towards us. (注意: 不能把 whether 改为 if, 因为 if 不能引导表语从句 ) ( 7) What she couldn’t understand was why fewer and fewer students showed interest in her lessons. 引导表语从句的词有连词 that, whether, as if, who, what, which,when, where,how, why 等,注意:表语从句中的连词 that 不可以省略;连词 if 一般不用来引导表语从句。

【导学】 三: 同位语从句:在复合句中作某一抽象名词的同位语,一般位于该名词之后。
(如:promise,message,doubt,belief,reason,possibility,conclusion,thought,order, question,problem,report,rumor,hope,truth,news,fact,idea,suggestion,evidence 等)
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e.g.

I have no idea when he will be back. The fact that he had not said anything surprised everybody. I've come to the conclusion that it won't be wise to do so.

有时为了保持句子的平衡,同位语从句有时和前面的名词分开。 The rumor spread that a new school would be built here. 1) 英语中引导同位语从句的词通常有连词 what, who, that, whether 等, 连接副词 how, when, where 等。 (注: if 不能引导同位语从句。 ) 2) 连词 that 引导同位语从句 ,不能省,且在从句中没有任何意义,不充当任何成分。 The idea that you can do this work well without thinking is quite wrong. 3) 连词 whether 引导同位语从句 The questionwhether we should call in a specialist was answered by the family doctor.
(注: if 不能引导同位语从句)

4) 连接代词 what, who, whom, whose, which 引导同位语从句 1) I have no idea what size shoes she wears. 2) I have no idea which wine is best —it’s a matter of personal taste. 3) The question who will take his place is still not clear. 5) 连接副词 when, where, how, why 引导同位语从句 We haven’t yet settled the question where we are going to spend our summer vacation. I have no idea when they will come .

【我爱展示】
1.【2015 安徽】25. A ship in harbor is safe, but that’s not ______ ships are built for. A. what B. whom C. why D. when 2.【2015 福建】29.—1 wonder______ Mary has kept her figure after all these years. —By working out every day. A. where won’t accept it. A. That in literature. A. what B. that C. why D. how D. why
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B. howC. why

D. if

3.【2015 江苏】25. _____ Li Bai, a great Chinese poet, was born is known to the public, but some B. Why C. Where D. How

4. 【2015 陕西】 19. Reading her biography, I was lost in admiration for Doris Lessing had achieved

5.【2015 重庆】We must find out Karl is coming, so we can book a room for him. A.when B. how C. where

6.【2015 四川】8.The exhibition tells uswe should do something to stop air pollution. A.where B.why C. what C.what D.why D.which 7.【2015 北京】33.I truly believe ______beauty comes from within. A. that B.where 8.【2015 北京】35._____we understand things has a lot to do with what we feel. A. Where B.How C.Why D. When

【导学】四:宾语从句
宾语从句是一种名词性从句,在句中作及物动词的宾语,或介词的宾语,或形容 词的宾语。根据引导宾语从句的不同连词,宾语从句可分为三类

【知识点】1:
He said (that) he wanted to stay at home. She doesn’t know (that) she is seriously ill. I am sure (that) he will succeed.

→由 that 引导的宾语从句。That 只有语法作用,没有实在的意义,在口语
和非正式文体中可以省略。

【知识点】2:
Do you know who (whom) they are waiting foe? He asked whose handwriting was the best. Can you tell me where the No.3 bus stop is? I don’t know why the train is late.

→ 由连接代词 who, whom, whose, what, which 和连接副词 when, where,
why,how 引导的宾语从句。这些连接代词和连接副词在宾语从句中充当某个成分。

【知识点】3:
I want to know if (whether) he lives there. He asked me whether (if) I could help him.

→由 if 或 whether 引导的宾语从句。If 和 whether 在句中的意思是“是否” ,
在句中不充当任何成分,不能省略。 Whether/if 有时与 or 连用,whether 有时与 or(not)连用,例如: She asked whether you wanted this one or that one.

【知识点】4:宾语从句的语序
宾语从句的语序应为陈述句的语序。例如: I hear (that) physics isn’t easy. I think (that) you will like this school soon. Can you tell me how I can get to zoo? Please tell me when we’ll have the meeting.
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【知识点】5:宾语从句的时态
I don’t think (that) you are right. Please tell us where he is. Can you tell me how I can get to the railway station?

→如果主句的时态是一般现在时,宾语从句该用什麽时态就用什麽时态
He He He He asked what time it was. told me that he was preparing for the sports meet. asked if you had written to Peter. said that he would go back to the U.S. soon.

→如果主句的时态是一般过去时,宾语从句只能用相应的过去时态(一般过去
时, 过去进行时, 过去将来时,过去完成时) 。 Our teacher said that January is the first month of the year. Scientists have proved that the earth turns around the sun.

→如果宾语从句所陈述的是客观真理,其时态常用一般现在时。 【我爱展示】
1.He doesn’t know _________you are Chinese. 2.I don’t know ______________you like the plan or not. 3.He said _________his father was an engineer. 4.I know _____he is writing a novel. 5.He said that his father__________________(come)to see him. 6.He said that his father_______________(check)the machine. 7.He said that the earth_______________(travel)around the sun. 8.The teacher asked__________he was late.

【知识点】6:宾语从句的几点补充
1.引导的宾语从句的 what 有时理解为“所??的” ,例如: Show me what you bought. 2.除了“主谓宾”句型可用宾语从句外,用宾语从句充当“主谓宾宾”句型中的 直接宾语的情况也很多。例如: My father told me that the light travels much faster than the sound. The club will give whoever wins a prize. 3.”主谓宾补“句型及其它一些特殊句型的宾语从句可以用 it 作形式宾语,而 把真正的宾语-宾语从句放在最后。 He hasn’t make it clear that when he is coming back. 4.宾语从句可作形容词、介词宾语,例如 I am glad that you are satisfied with your job. That depends on where we shall go.

【我爱展示】
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1.I’m sure ____________he will come. 2.I don’t know__________he will come or not. 3.He has told me ________he will go to Shanghai tomorrow. 4.Can you tell me_______exercise is the easiest. 5.Someone is ringing the doorbell.Go and see__________it is.

【导学】五:同位语从句与定语从句
1.The fact _________we talked about is very important.( The fact ____________he failed the exam upset us.( 2. The question __________he will go this Sunday is not clear.( The question__________he raised puzzled his teacher.( 3.I will keep the promise___________I made two years ago.( 从句) 从句) 从句) 从句) 从句) 从句)

I made a promise _________I will write to you the moment I get to Beijing.(

→1.定语从句是形容词从句,其句法功能相当于一个形容词,与前面的名词是修饰与被修饰 关系,即限定它前面的名词范围,或补充一些情况;同位语从句是名词性从句,其作用相当 于一个名词,与前面的名词是同位关系,是对前面的名词作进一步解释,即说明它前面名词 的内容。 2.定语从句的先行词是各类名词,而可跟同位语从句的名词通常只是 news, idea, fact, promise, question,doubt, thought,hope,message,suggestion,possibility 等少数抽象名词。因此, 引导两种从句的连接词也不完全一样。可以引导定语从句的连接词有 that,which,who,whom,whose,when,where,why 等 。 可 以 引 导 同 位 语 从 句 的 连 接 词 有 that,whether,when,where,how 等。 3.定语从句的引导词在从句中充当一定的成分,可作主语、宾语、状语等;而同位语从 句中的引导词在从句中起连接作用,不作任何句子成分。 4.引导定语从句的连接词有时可以省去,而引导同位语从句的连接词则不可省去。

【我爱展示】
1.合并句子 (1) She expressed the hope. The hope was that she would go on a tour of Guangzhou again. She expressed the hope____________________________________________________. (2) The question is who caught sight of the accident then. We want to know the answer to this question. We want to know the answer to the question__________________________________________.
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(3) The news was not true. The news was that he managed a company. The news_________________________________was not true. 2.句子翻译 (1)毫无疑问他宁愿睡觉也不愿意去看电影。 (there is no doubt, would rather ?than) _________________________________________________________________ (2)她留下口信:她已经在加拿大定居。 _________________________________________________________________________ (3)我不知道他是否会来。 (idea) __________________________________________________________________________ (4)他总是在想怎样能把工作做好。

______________________________________________________
(5)你要留意医生所说的。 (pay attention to) ________________________________________________________

【能力展示】
【强化拓展训练】
名词性从句语法填空
I read a report last night. It says ___1______ a lot of people died in __2____ traffic accident. But I forget ___3______ the accident happened last Sunday. ___4______ astonished me most is ____5______ some babies lost ___6_____ lives. However, I don't know ___7________ the government has taken some measures to deal with __8________. In my opinion, __9________ accident has taught us a lesson __10________we should obey the traffic rules.

【课后作业】
1 . The notice came around two in the afternoon________the meeting would be postponed. A.when B.thatC.whether D.How

2.It was never clear________the man hadn’t reported the accident sooner. A.that B.howC.when D.why

3.________ you said at the meeting describes a bright future for the company. A.When B.HowC.What
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D.That

4.Experts believe________people can waste less food by shopping only when it is necessary.

A.why

B.whereC.that

D.what

5.Police have found________appears to be the lost ancient statue. A.which B.whereC.how D.What

6.It’s good to know________the dogs will be well cared for while we’re away. A.what B.whoseC.which D.that

7.________ struck me most in the movie was the father’s deep love for his son. A.That B.ItC.What D.Which

8.It doesn’t matter ________ you pay by cash or credit card in this store. A.how B.whetherC.what D.why

9. I made a promise to myself________this year, my first year in high school, would be different. A.whether B.whatC.that D.how

10.As many as five courses are provided,and you are free to choose ________ suits you best. A.whatever B.whicheverC.whenever D.wherever

11.It suddenly occurred to him________he had left his keys in the office. A.whether B.whereC.which D.that

12.Scientists study ________ human brains work to make computers. A.when B.howC.that D.whether

名词性从句短文改错考点针对性检测
1.That makes the book so extraordinary is the creative imagination of the writer. 2. There is no doubt whether the future belongs to the young. 3. I want to tell you is the deep love and respect I have for my parents. 4. It is not clear that it will rain or not. 5.The question that you must answer is if you are determined to seek for your dream. 6.News came where he had been admitted to a key university. 7.But before long they began to see which was happening. 8.“He has ruined his healthy. We are worried about him.” That is which other teachers say. 9.It was turned out to be her own cup, that she’d left on the shelf by mistake.

【跟踪指导】
检测名词性从句掌握情况

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参考答案 高考题链接 1.C 2.B 3.B 4.C

【我爱展示】
1.A 2.B 3.C 4.A 5.A 6.B 7.A 8.B 【导学】四: 【导学】五 1.that/which 定语;that 同位语 2.where/whether/how 同位语;that/which 定语 3.that/which 定语;that 同位语 1.合并句子 (1)that she would go on a tour of Guangzhou again. (2)who caught sight of the accident then (3) that he managed a company 2.翻译句子 (1) There is no doubt that he would rather sleep than go to see the film. (2)She left a message that she had settled down in Canada. (3) I have no idea whether he will come. (4)He always thinks of how he can work well. (5)You should pay attention to what the doctor said.

名词性从句语法填空
1.that 2.a 3.where 4.What 5.that 6.their 7.whether/if 8.it 9.the 10.that

课后作业
1 答案 B 解析 句意为:会议将被延期的通知大约下午两点发布。空格后的句子解释 说明名词 the notice,作同位语从句,连接词在从句中不作任何成分,所以用 that。
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2 答案 D 解析 句意为:那个人为什么没尽快地报道那场事故还没弄清楚。由句意可 知只有 D 项符合题意。 3 答案 C 解析 本题考查名词性从句的用法。句意为:你在会上所说的话为公司勾画 了一个光明的未来。选项中只有 what 既可以引导主语从句,又可以在从句中作宾语,因此 符合题意。 4.答案 C 解析 考查名词性从句。句意为:专家们相信,人们只有当有必要购物时去买东西,这 样才可以少浪费食物。believe 后跟宾语从句,且宾语从句不缺任何成分。故选 C 项。 5.答案 D 解析 考查宾语从句引导词的辨析。句意为:警察发现了疑似曾失窃的古代 雕像。分析句子结构可知 found 后为宾语从句,从句中缺少主语,因此用 what 引导宾语从 句,同时作从句的主语。 6.答案 D 解析 考查名词性从句——宾语从句。 根据语境可知, know 后是宾语从句, 从句完整,用 that 起连接作用。所以答案选 D 项。 7.答案 C 解析 考查名词性从句连接词辨析。句意为:电影中给我留下深刻印象的是 父亲对儿子深深的爱。“________ struck me most in the movie”在句中作主语,且该主语从句 中谓语动词 struck 缺少主语, 故选择 what (=the thing that)。 that 引导主语从句不担任成分; it 不是连词;which“(无论)哪一个”,表示在一个限定范围内进行选择,均不符合题意。 8.答案 B 解析 句意为:在这家商店里,无论你用现金支付还是用信用卡支付都无关 紧要。由 It doesn’t matter“没关系”可知后面的意思应该是“无论(不管)……还是……”,又根 据题干中的关键词 or 就很容易确定选 B 项,构成固定搭配 whether...or...。how 如何;what 什么;why 为什么,均不符合题意。 9.答案 C 的内容。 10.答案 B 解析 考查名词性从句。所填词引导的从句作动词 choose 的宾语,引导词 在从句中作主语,意为“无论哪件”,故选 B。其余选项与句意不符。 11.答案 D 解析 It occurs/occurred to sb. that...某人想到/想起。it 是形式主语,主语从 句成分完整,不能用连接代词 which 引导,whether 与 where 不符合句意。故选 D 项。 12.答案 B 解析 考查名词性从句。句意为:科学家研究人类大脑是如何工作的以制 解析 that 引导同位语从句,在从句中不作句子成分,补充说明 promise

造电脑。分析句子结构可知 study 后接宾语从句,从句中缺少方式状语,故选 B 项。

名词性从句短文改错考点针对性检测
1.That-What 2.Whether-that 3.句首加 What 4.if-whether 5.if-whether 6.where-that 7.which--what 8.which--what 9.that--which

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