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句子的扩展与常见错误


The Expansion of Basic Sentence Patterns

1. Elements of a sentence
A sentence consists of 2 main parts: subject and a predicate.
Subject: is the word or words that names

the person, thing, or place that a sentence is about. It is usually a noun or a pronoun. Predicate: The predicate tells what the subject is or does. It consists of a verb and its modifiers or complements. The verb is the most important part of the predicate. It expresses action or a state of being. A complement is a word or words used to complete the meaning of the verb.

2. Types of sentences
1. Simple sentence:
I enjoy playing tennis and look forward to it every week. (2 predicate verbs) My friends and I play tennis and go bowling every weekend. (2 subject noun or proun, and 2 predicate verbs )

2. Compound sentence:
I enjoy playing tennis, but I hate playing golf. I enjoy playing tennis; I hate playing golf.

3. Complex sentence:
Although I enjoy playing tennis, I hate golf Whether we go or not has not been decided.

4. Compound-complex sentence:
I hate playing golf, but I enjoy playing tennis even though I am not very good at it.

3. Basic sentence patterns
* SV句型 ( subject + intransitive verb )

SV句型是最基本的简单句型。主语通常是名词或代词,谓语是不及物动
词或动词短语。这一句型还通常带有状语A(adverbial),用来说明时间、 地点、目的、方式、或程度等。There be 结构是一种较常见的特殊的句 子结构,可以看作是SV句型的一种变体。There be + S(主语) + A(状语) 是个倒装句。 e.g. There exist /are a variety of opinions on this question. * SVC 句型 ( subject +linking verb +subject complement )

在主系表结构中,因系动词在句中不能单独作谓语,须和说明或表示主语
身份、特征及状态的补足语(表语)一起构成合成谓语(系表结构)。 e.g. Microwave popcorn has become a big hit in American households. * SVO 句型 ( subject + transitive verb + direct object ) e.g. Would you mind filling out this application form?

* SVOiOd 句型 ( subject +transitive verb + indirect object + direct object ) e.g. The boss accorded him a hearty reception in the new sales promotion campaign. * SVOC 句型 ( subject + transitive verb + object + object complement ) 宾语补足语可以由名词、形容词、副词、分词(短语)、不定式(短语)、 介词(短语)等构成。 用不定式作宾语补足语,表达和强调已发生或未发生的事实; 用现在分词作宾补表达和强调正在进行的状态和发生的事情; 用过去分词表达和强调被动的概念和状态。 e.g. Today , we call Einstein a genius. They encouraged her to try again. They found her working very late. They found the room crowded with people. 注:使役动词 have, let ,make 和感觉动词feel, hear, notice, see, watch 等 后接不定式作其宾补时省略to,但在被动句中则不能省略。 e.g. The teacher made him finish all the homework before he went home. He was made to finish all the homework before he went home. He saw someone come up the stairs. Someone was seen to come up the stairs.

4. Expanding basic sentence patterns
只含基本成分的简单句的信息容量是有限的。如果我们在五种基本句型的基础上 对句子加以扩展,就可以增大句子的信息量,使内容表达得更加丰富。试比较: (1) This (word processing) program is complex. (2) This new word processing program is more complex. (3) This new word processing program is more complex than the one I used two years ago.

句子的扩展主要方法有: 增添法,并列法,从属法等。 * 增添法:通过增添修饰词或短语来扩展句子。
(1)用修饰词扩展( expanding with a modifier word) 在英语中,当一个名词同时带有几个修饰语时,其位置大体可按下列顺序排列: 限定词(包括冠词、物主代词、指示代词、不定代词等) 数词 表示性 质的形容词(短词语在前、长词语在后) 表示大小、长短、高低的形容 词 表示年龄、新旧的形容词 表示形状的形容词 表示颜色 的形容词 表示国籍、地区、出处的形容词 表示物质、材料的形 容词 表示用途、类别的形容词 名词中心词(非谓语动词短语/定语 从句)。 e.g. a beautiful large new green Chinese woolen carpet all the ten strong young American boy students

副词在句中主要修饰形容词、副词和动词,其位置在句中也比较灵活。但是, 程度副词一般放在所修饰词的前面,而频率副词放在主要谓语动词前、系动词/ 助动词后。同时有几个副词时,其位置排列如下:程度副词(或表示程度介宾结 构)—方式副词(或表示方式的介宾结构)—地点副词(或表示方式的介宾结构)— 时间副词(或表示方式的介宾结构)等。 e.g. All the members of the project group often discussed the research schedule quite carefully in the laboratory last week. (2) 用修饰短语扩展( expanding with modifier phrases) 1) 用介词短语扩展(expanding with prepositional phrases) e.g. With great feeling, Martin Luther King, Jr. expressed his dream of freedom. 2) 用不定式短语扩展 (expanding with infinitive phrases) e.g. It took us three years to implement our first research project(真实主语). 3) 用动名词短语扩展 (expanding with Gerund phrases) e.g. It is very useful practicing listening and speaking in language study(真实 主语). 4) 用分词短语扩展( expanding with participial phrases) e.g. Annoyed by the poor TV reception(状语), Mr. Lee decided to get a new antenna.

* 并列法 ( coordination )
(1) 用并列句扩展(expanding with compound sentences) a. 使用并列连词法( compound sentences with coordinators), 其句式为: independent clause, + coordinator+ independent clause 并列连词只有7个: for, and , nor/neither, but, or, yet, so. e.g. The Japanese have a longer life expectancy than any other people, for their diet is extremely healthful.

b. 使用连接副词 (compound sentences with conjunctive adverbs), 其句式: independent clause; + conjunctive adverbs, + independent clause 连接副词主要有:furthermore, besides, in addition, moreover, also, still, however, nevertheless, nonetheless, otherwise, therefore, consequently, thus, accordingly, hence 等。 e.g. Washington , D.C.’s metro system is clean and efficient; therefore, hundreds and thousands of people take it every day.
c. 使用分号连接(compound sentences with a semicolon). 其句式: independent clause; + independent clause. e.g. Diana studies traditional Chinese medicine in China; she misses her family in England a lot.

并列句连接词(Coordinators)
Coordinating conjunctions and
but, yet for or so otherwise consequently, therefore, thus, accordingly

Conjunctive adverbs
furthermore, besides, in addition, moreover, also however, nevertheless, still, in contrast

Meaning
additional idea contrast idea reason choice of two possibilities Result

nor

negative choice

(2) 用平行结构扩展 ( expanding with parallelism) 把两个或更多的具有相同语法结构的句子或句子成分以同一语法形式和修饰方式 平行地组合起来,表达同等重要的信息,这样的句子结构即为平行结构。这种平

行结构既避免了不必要的重复,又扩大了信息内容, 还可起到加强语气的作用。
e.g. The three most common purpose of writing are to inform, to entertain, and to persuade. 注意:平行结构中并列成分必须相同:名词与名词相连,动词与动词相连,从句与 从句相连, 动词相连时也必须以相同的形式连接。而且在平行句中常使用成 对的关联词(correlatives), e.g. Both…and, either…or, not only…but also, not…but, neither…nor 等。 e.g.1) It is important for engineers to think logically, to analyze carefully, and to make decisions realistically. 2) writing is a skill like driving, typing, or cooking.

3) Should scientists go into research, or should they teach, or should they
work in industry?

* 从属法(subordination)
(1) 用名词从句扩展(expanding with noun clause), 包括主语从句,宾语从句, 表语从句和同位语从句。引导名词从句的词有以下几种: 连 词: that; if; whether 连接代词: who, whose, whom, whoever, what, whatever, which , whichever 连接副词: how, why, when , where e.g. 1. What the reporter needs most is an alert mind. 2. I think (that) there must be some misunderstanding between us. 3. What I like best about my current style of argument is that I listen and try to understand others’ points of view. 4. We are not investigating the question whether he is trustworthy. (2) 用形容词从句扩展(expanding with adjective clause),即定语从句 关系代词: as, who , whom, whose, that, which 关系副词: when, where, why e.g. Fortunately, we have a statistics software that will do all the calculations. (3) 用副词从句扩展(expanding with adverbial clause) 即状语从句 e.g. Business is so competitive nowadays that we must improve our efficiency.

从属连接词(subordinators)
Relationship Time
Place Cause or condition Purpose or result

Subordinators Before, after, when, whenever, while, until, since where, wherever
because, since, as, as if, as long as, whereas, unless, if, that, so that, in order that

Concession or although, though, even though, than, contrast provided that

Quality

Who, whom, whose, whoever, which, that, what, whatever

5.Sentence structure problems 句子结构常见错误
英语句子是受严格的语法规则制约的,在写作中如果违背这些规则,那么写出的 句子就会使人无法理解,或引起歧义。要想避免发生这些情况,在写作时就必须 处理好句子结构方面的几个问题。 残缺句、接排句、误置修饰语和悬垂修饰语是句子结构中最常见的错误。本节将 对这些问题逐一进行分析,以帮助学生弄清写作中出现这些问题的原因,并掌握 纠正错误的方法。 (1). 残缺句(Sentence Fragments) 所谓残缺句 ,顾名思义,是指不能独立成句的一个不完整的句子片段。尽管 残缺句在形式上像句子一样是以大写字母开头,并在结尾处带有标点,然而 在逻辑上并不能单独表达完整的意思,仅是一组词而以已。请看下列句子: Fragment:wondering what his son was going to do.(To where? Why not come?) Revised sentence: Mr. smith had been wondering what his son was going to do. Fragment: Having driven across the desert. We enjoyed the cool weather. Revised sentence : Having driven across the desert, we enjoyed the cool weather. * 避免残缺句的最好办法是注意区别句子和句子的一部分。我们知道句子的最基本特 点是在语法和逻辑上是一个完整的意义表达单位,它至少要有一个主语和谓语。改 写残缺句主要有以下方法: 将句子中的句号变成逗号,或把分隔开的短语或从句同它所属的句子合并成一个能 表达完整意思的句子。(e.g: Because we have CET-4 certificates, we can graduate with a bachelor degree) 。

(2) run-on sentence ( 接排句/不断句)
所谓接排句就是两个或更多的句子混合交织在一起,而没有正确的标点符号标明 它们之间关系的句子。 这样的句子,意思含混不清,使读者不能理解各部分之 间的关系。接排句有两种形式: 一是融合句(fused sentence), 即句子之间没有 标点符号和句间连接词; 另一种更为常见的是逗号连接(comma splice), 即没 有并列连词,只用逗号代替分号和句号,把两个完整的意思连接起来。
e.g. The girls scored higher in math the boys scored higher in verbal skills. The girls scored higher in math ,the boys scored higher in verbal skills. revised: The girls scored higher in math. The boys scored in verbal skills. The girls scored higher in math, while the boys scored higher in verbal skills.

(3) Misplaced modifiers ( 误置修饰语)
在写作中,为使句子生动和更具有吸引力,常常需要添加修饰语。按照英语的 构句规则,充当定语或状语的词、短语或从句必须尽可能地靠近所修饰的成分。 He sold the old car to the man with leather seats. Please give the book to the boy with the blue cover. 如果一个修饰语既可以修饰其前面的词也可修饰其后面的词,这样的的修饰语 称为歧义修饰语. 歧义修饰语应紧挨的地放在它所惟一修饰的词的前面或后面。 e.g. We agreed on the next day to make the adjustments. Students who practice writing often will benefit. Revised: We agreed to make the adjustments on the next day. Students who often practice writing will benefit.

(4) dangling modifiers(悬垂修饰语)
悬垂修饰语是与句子的主语不能构成逻辑关系的修饰语。悬垂修饰语可以出 现在句中的任意位置,但多位于句首。 常用的修改方法有: 1) 找出句子中隐含的主语,对所修饰的短语提供行为者(actor). 2) 补足悬垂短语或省略从句必要的成分,扩展成为一个完整的从句,由行 为者作主语。 e.g. At the age of six my uncle bought my first pet, a goldfish. Revised: At the age of six, I received my first pet, a goldfish from my uncle. When I was six, my uncle bought me my first pet, a goldfish.

(5) 过多使用并列句

Eugene O’Neill was an American playwright, and he had an unhappy childhood, and he told the story of his childhood in a play entitled A Long Day’s Journey Into Night and he said it was written in tears. Revised: Eugene O’Neill, an American playwright, told the story of his unhappy childhood in a play entitled A Long Day’s Journey Into Night, which he said was written in tears and blood.

(6)过多使用从句

He is a man who is honest, who always pays his just debts, and who observes the golden rules in his dealings with others. Revised: He is an honest man who always pays his just debts and observes the golden rules in his dealings with others.

6. Exercises
练习一:改正下列句子中语法结构不当的地方。
1. Furthermore, there are educational problems. Which can help people learning. 2. They want success in their career this means they will fail in taking care of their family members. 3. Thus their time will not be spent on things do not deserve the time. 4. Teachers are experienced experts in this respect. He can show the students how scientific research is carried out. 5. When I woke up I saw him asleep in bed, I didn’t hear him when he came back. Because I had been sleeping soundly. 1. Furthermore, there are educational problems which can help people learn. 2. They want success in their career even if this means they will fail in taking care of their family members. 3. Thus their time will not be spent on things that do not deserve the time. 4. Teachers are experienced experts in this respect. They can show the students how scientific research is carried out. 5. When I woke up I saw him asleep in bed. I didn’t hear him when he came back, because I had been sleeping soundly.

练习二:合并下列句子
1. Some people believe higher bus fare will benefit the bus companies. It will also benefit the citizens.

2. All want to make the things clear. All are reluctant to do so because they
feel they will lose their face in doing so. 3. Some of them are real scientists. They make writing science fiction their hobby. 4. The girl began to learn to play the piano when she was a child. Her mother was a famous pianist.
1. Some people believe high bus fare will benefit not only the bus companies but also the citizens. 2. All want to make things clear, but all are reluctant to do so because they feel they will lose face in doing so. 3. Some of them are real scientists who make writing science fiction their hobby. 4. The girl, whose mother was a famous pianist, began to learn to play the piano when she was a child.

练习三: 修改下列句子中冗长的地方
1. But when they come to the end of their life, they often find that their lives have been wasted in vain. 2. They long for knowledge and experience about arts, but the school gives them little knowledge and experience about arts.

3. First, recycling can reduce the pollution that is caused by garbage and
wastewater.

1. But when they come to the end of their life, they often find that their lives have been wasted. 2. They long for knowledge and experience about arts, but the school gives them little. 3. First, recycling can reduce the pollution caused by garbage and wastewater.

练习四: 用另外的句子(结构)陈述下列句子的意思,使其表达多样化。

1. Nowadays there is worsening air pollution in many cities.
2. If people use counterfeit diplomas, it will do harm to both individuals and the society.

3. Subway is more efficient than automobiles and bicycles.
4. Mrs. Jones, the famous writer, was among his neighbors. 1. Nowadays air pollution is worsening in many cities. 2. Using counterfeit diplomas will do harm to both individuals and the society. 3. Compared with automobiles and bicycles, subway is more efficient. 4. Mrs. Jones , one of his neighbors, is a famous writer.

练习 5 使用学过的方法改写下列段落

Whether college graduates are helped to find employment quickly by the revised programs is not clear. But the programs have raised a lot of criticism after fifteen or twenty years of experimentation. Some of the criticism comes from the graduates themselves. The graduates find that their practical knowledge is neither deep nor flexible. They find that they need management training and more study in their own field. They find that when they progress to higher position. Also, they feel handicapped by their lack of general knowledge. They are ignorant of the language and culture of the foreigners. They have to do business with them. They are unable to use English easily and properly. They really suffer from it. Because English is their own language.

Referring answer to Ex. 5

Whether the revised programs have helped college graduates to find employment promptly is not clear. But after fifteen or twenty years of experimentation, they have raised a lot of criticism. Some of it comes from the graduates themselves, who discover that their practical knowledge is neither deep not flexible. As soon as they progress to higher positions, they find that they need management training and more study in their field. Besides, they feel handicapped by their lack of general knowledge, for example, by their ignorance of the language and culture of the foreigners with whom they are doing business. Most of all they suffer from their inability to use English, their own language, easily and properly.


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