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高二英语


Unit 1

Great scientists

New words reading

Read the new words and phrases on P91

Warming up

词汇袋袋库
know about 1. know of 听说过 有些事我想

了解一下. There is something I want to know about . 我听说过那件事, 但不很清楚. I know of it , but I didn’t know it well. 了解有关….的情况

2. characteristic adj. 独特的,特有的
n.特征,特性 eg. genetic characteristics 遗传特征 ? character n.性格;特征;人物,角色; ? characterize v.是…的特征;描述…的特征 ? characterless adj.无特色的;平凡的 区别future 和characteristic characteristics ? Kindness is one of his _____________. ? My car doesn’t have special ________. futures

3. put forward: bring up, come up with eg:
? He

put forward some useful advice at the meeting. 提出 ? We put forward Tom as monitor. 推荐 ? The meeting has been put forward to 2:00 pm. 提前

考题练练看
? An

interesting suggestion for measuring the atmosphere around Mars has been ________. A.put forward B.put down C. put up D. put aside

【解析】 有人提出一个有趣的建议… 【答案】 A

储蓄…备用 aside _____________________ 把 …收拾起来 ? put away _____________________ 推迟 ? put off _____________________ 穿上,戴上;上演,演出 ? put on _____________________ 放下 ? put down _____________________ 扑灭(火) ? put out _____________________ 举起;粘贴;建立,建设 ? put up _____________________ 忍受 ? put up with _____________________
? put

考题练练看
your salary,you should be able to ________ at least twenty dollars a week. A.put forward B.put up C.put out D.put aside ? 【解析】 句意为“就你的工资而言,每周 你应至少存20美元”。put forward提出; put up张贴;put out扑灭;put aside储存。 ? 【答案】 D
? Considering

Brainstorming

When we talk about great scientists, who will come into your mind?

Father of hybrid rice

Yuan Longping

She got two Nobel Prizes, one for physics and the other for chemistry.

Madame Curie 居里夫人
“The weak one sits and waits the opportunity; The powerhouse makes the opportunity. ” 弱者坐待时机;强者制造时机。

“If I have seen further, it is by standing on the shoulders of gaints.”

Isaac Newton 艾萨克· 牛顿

“Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration.” Thomas Edison 托马斯· 爱迪生

Previous knowledge
Match the scientists with their achievements
Albert Einstein Charles Darwin Madame Curie Thomas Edison Nicolaus Copernicus Stephen Hawking Yuan Longping 1. evolution(进化论) 2. discovery of radium 3. electric bulb 4. theory of relativity 5. a brief history of time 6. the earth moves around the sun 7. father of hybrid rice

Let’s do a quiz about some scientists
1. Which scientist discovered that objects in water are lifted up by a force that help them float? “Give me a place to stand a Greek mathematician on, and I will move the
[m?θ?m?'t???n]
earth”

Archimedes 阿基米德

? Force

n.[u]力量,效力,武力[c]部队,影响 大的人或物,vt。强迫,迫使,强力促成。
固定搭配 by force 靠武力,强行 bring sth into force开始生效 in force已生效,大批的

f come into force开始生效,开始实施
force sb to do/into doing sth迫使某人做某事

Let’s do a quiz about some scientists
2. Who wrote a book explaining how animals and plants developed as the environment changed? The Origin of Species

Charles Darwin 达尔文

Let’s do a quiz about some scientists
3. Who invented the first steam engine?

Thomas Newcomen 纽科门

Watt 瓦特

Thomas Edison 托马斯 爱迪生

Let’s do a quiz about some scientists
4. Who used peas to show how physical characteristics are passed from parents to their children?

Madame Curie 居里夫人

Isaac Newton 牛顿

Gregor Mendel 门道尔

Let’s do a quiz about some scientists
5. Who discovered radium in 1898? She received two Nobel Prizes, one for physics and one for chemistry. Madame Curie 居里夫人

Let’s do a quiz about some scientists
6. Who invented the way of giving electricity to everybody in large cities? Thomas Edison 爱迪生

Let’s do a quiz about some scientists
7. Who was the painter that studied dead bodies in order to improve his paintings of people?
Leonardo da Vinci 达芬奇

Let’s do a quiz about some scientists
8. Who invented a lamp to keep miners safe underground in 1815?

Thomas Edison 爱迪生

Watt 瓦特

Sir Humphry Davy 大卫· 汉弗莱

Let’s do a quiz about some scientists
9. Who invented the first seismograph to indicate in the direction of an earthquake?

Zhang Heng
Seismograph ['saizm?ɡrɑ:f]

Let’s do a quiz about some scientists
10. Who put forward a theory about black holes? Stephen Hawking 霍金

What qualities do you think they have in common?
wise/smart/clever lazy friendly cruel hard-working warm-hearted mean devoted easy-going generous modest selfless nice handsome determined brave famous calm enthusiastic lovely honest reliable unkind selfish stubborn

Homework
? Try

to get more information about great scientists. ? Preview the reading passage “John Snow Defeats King Cholera”. ? Remember the new words and phrases in this unit.

Reading

How do the scientists usually do scientific research?
Find a problem Make a question Think of a method Collect results Analyse the results Find supporting evidence Draw a conclusion
THINK

WORK

FIND

SOLVE

What infectious diseases do you know?

Infectious diseases can be spread to other people. They have an unknown cause and need public health care to solve them.

What do you know about cholera?
It is a kind of terrible disease caused by
drinking dirty water and it caused a lot of

deaths in the old times and it was very
difficult to defeat.

Do you know this person?
? A well-known

doctor in the 19th century in London. ? A legendary figure in epidemiology[ep?,di:mi:' ?l?d?i:](流行病学) and anesthesiology ](麻醉学) [?nis,θizi'?l?d?i
John Snow ( 1813~ 1858)

Fast reading
Number these events in the order that they happened. ? 2 John Snow began to test two theories. ? 1 An outbreak of cholera hit London in 1854. ? 4 John Snow marked the deaths on a map. ? 7 He announced that the water carried the disease. ? 3 John Snow investigated two streets where the outbreak was very severe. ? 8 King Cholera was defeated. ? 5 He found that most of the deaths were near a water pump. ? 6 He had the handle removed from the water pump.

1. attend v be present at; take care of 出席,参加;照顾,护理 ________________ attend to sb/sth: to deal with sb/sth; to 处理,应付; 照顾,护理 take care of sb/sth _______________ eg: ? He attended the meeting yesterday. ? I have some urgent business to attend to.

考题练练看
?

The coach asked his staff to ________ the large group of journalists waiting for him to announce his training plans. A.adapt to B.attend to

C.refer to D.appeal to 【解析】 adapt to意为“适应”,attend to 意 为“注意,关心,料理”,refer to 意为“涉 及”,appeal to 意为“向……呼吁,求助 于”。整句话意为“教练要求他的队员去照 应一下那一大群等着他公布训练计划的新闻 记者们”。 【答案 】 B

考题练练看
区别attend/join/join in/take part in ? Would you like to ______ us in the basket game? A. attend B. join C. join in D. take part in

【答案】 B

思维袋袋库
? ①attend正式用语,参加严肃的活动,

如会议,听课,演讲。 ? ②join加入某一组织,成为其中成员。 ? ③join(sb.)in sth./doing和某人一起进 行一项具体的活动,多指正在进行的 活动。 ? ④take part in参加活动,是一般用语。

2. expose vt. show sth hidden; tell the 曝光; 暴露; 揭露 truth _______________

暴露;显露 expose sth/sb to sth ________________
expose sb as … 揭露某人 ________________

eg: Don’t expose yourself to the sun for too long. You’ll get sunburned.

考题练练看
? ______

to sunlight for too much time will do harm to one's skin. A. Exposed B. Having exposed C. Being exposed D. After being exposed 【解析】 动名词的被动式做主语。 【答案】 C

Sentence 1. Neither its cause, nor its cure was understood. 人们既不知道其起因,又不知道它的治疗方法。 ? neither...nor...既不?,也不? ,连接句 中两个相同成分,表全部否定。 ? Neither my father nor I was there. 我父亲和我都不在那里。

思维袋袋库
? neither…nor,

either…or, not only…but also 连接两个并列主语时,谓语动词的数 与离它最近的那个主语的数保持一致。符 合主谓一致中的就近原则。 ? Neither he nor I am a student. ? Either Mary or her brothers are to blame for the fault. ? Not only the teacher but also his students like playing football.

考题练练看
(2009年湖南卷) ? Either you or your one of your students ____ to attend the meeting. A. are B. is C. have D. be
【答案】 B

3. When I left hospital I was completed cured. Is there a certain cure for cancer yet? vt.治愈,治疗;n.疗法,治疗药 cure :__________________________ cure sb. of 治好(病、恶习等) a cure for 治疗……的方法

思维袋袋库
辨析:treat与cure —Has the doctor ___ her illness? —No,he ___ her but didn't ___ her. A.cured; treated; treat B.cured; cured; treat C.treated the old woman for; treated; cure D.cured the old woman of; treated; cure ? 解析:cure “治愈” 强调结果。 cure sb of sth treat “治疗” 强调过程。 treat sb for sth ? 答案:D
?

Sentence 2. So many thousands of terrified people died every time there was an outbreak. ? every time 在这里是连词,引导时间 状语从句,意为“每次,每当” ? e.g. Every time I hear that song, I feel happy. 每次听到那首歌,我都感到非常开心。

考题练练看
(2009年云南玉溪模拟)________you talk to someone or write a message,you show your skills to others. A.At times B.Some time C.Every time D.The time 【解析】 句意为:每次你与别人交谈或写信 息,你都向别人展示你的技能。every time是 名词词组用做连词,引导时间状语从句。 【答案】 C
?

思维袋袋库
? 注意:

immediately, the moment/the minute, directly, instantly 等与 every time一样,都可以用作连词引导时间状语从 句,意为 “一…..就”。如: ? I will give the letter to him immediately/ the moment /directly/instantly I see him. ? 另外the first time (第一次),next time( 下 次),last time (上次) 都可以引导时间状语 从句。

考题练练看
(2009年陕西卷) ? This is the first time we ________ a film in the cinema together as a family. A.see B.had seen C.saw D.have seen 【解析】 “This/It is the+序数词+time +that 从句”为固定句型, 如果前面用is, 从句动词用现在完成时;如果用was,则用 过去完成时。 。 【答案】 D

4. suggest v. 建议;暗示,表明 ① suggest+doing sth/ sth. / that-clause ? 他建议我们参观长城。 1. He suggested visiting the Great Wall. 2. He suggested that we (should) visit the Great Wall. ② suggest (暗示,表明)+从句不用虚拟语 气。 ? The smile on her face suggested that she agreed with me.

5. absorb vt. 吸收(液体、气体);吸引,使 、 专心 ? The cream is easily absorbed into the skin.这种乳霜容易被皮肤吸收。 ? I was so absorbed in this book that I didn’t hear you come in.
归纳总结:

考题练练看
?

It is very quiet in the classroom. The students are all ________reading books. A.absorbed B.absorbed in C.absorbing in D.absorb

【解析】 本题意为:教室里很安静,学生们在 全心全意读书。be absorbed in doing sth.专 心做某事。 【答案】 B

考题练练看
?

The writer was so ________ in her work that she didn't notice him enter the room. A.abandoned B.focused C.absorbed D.centered

【解析】 be absorbed in 全神贯在…;

focus sb on sth 使…专注于…
【答案】 C

6. suspect v. 认为、怀疑 eg: I suspected the truth of her statement. * suspect sb of doing sth 怀疑某人做 某事 * suspect sb\sth to be… 怀疑…是… eg: He had suspected her of telling a lie to me.

7. blame vt consider or say that sb is 责备、谴责 responsible for sth ____________ eg: Please don’t blame me. ? blame sb for sth\doing sth 责备某人做某事 _____________ 把某事归咎于某人 ? blame sth on sb ______________ (某人/某物)该受指责 ? be to blame__________________ n 过失、责备 It’s not fair that you should get the blame.

考题练练看
?

Don’t always ______ your own failure ______ others. Sometimes you yourself ______. A.blame;on;are to be blamed B.blame;for;are to blame C.blame;on;are to blame D.blame;for;are to be blamed 【解析】 句意为:不要总把失败归咎于他人。 有时该责怪你自己。blame sth.on sb.把?? 归咎于某人;be to blame该受责备,要用主 动式表被动意义。 【答案】 C

考题练练看
?

The mother who lost her son insisted that the careless driver ________ for the traffic accident ________ yesterday. A.was to blame; happening B.be to blame; happening C.be blamed; was happened D.was to blame; had happened 粗心的司机应该为昨天发生的交通事故负责。

【解析】 本题意为:失去儿子的母亲坚持认为
【答案】 A

考题练练看
?

(2006年安徽卷)Mr Green stood up in defence of (为…辩护)the 16-year-old boy, saying that he was not the one ________. A.blamed B.blaming C.to blame D.to be blamed

【解析】 he was not the one to blame意为 “他不是那个应该受责备的人”。 【答案】 C

考题练练看
?

(2006年福建卷)________for the breakdown of the school computer network,Alice was in low spirits. A.Blaming B.Blamed C.To blame D.To be blamed

【解析】 本题考查非谓语动词的用法。句意为: Alice因为电脑网络故障被责备,情绪很低落。 非谓语形式用做原因状语,主语是这个动作的 承受者,故用过去分词blamed。D项to be blamed有将要的意味。 【答案】 B

Sentence 3 It seemed that the water was to blame.

看来霍乱的流行要归罪于饮水了。
? be+动词不定式,可以表示该做或不该做的

事情,相当于must, should, ought to 等。 ? You are not to be late again.

8. look into调查,研究; ? The police are now looking into the matter.警方正在调查这件事。 back 回顾,回首 ? look down upon 蔑视 ? look over检查,查看 ? look on 旁观 ? look through匆匆浏览 ? look up 查阅,查找
? look

9. Handle 处理 操作 vt deal with, operate __________ n. part of a tool, cup, bucket door etc, by
which it may be held, carried or 把手 controlled_______

eg:
?

Do you know how to handle the computer?

10. link vt&n connect or put together two or
more pieces连接;联系

link… to… (常用被动,表状态)= connect … with… 把…与…连接/联系起来 ___________________ 连接,结合 ? link up (with) ______________ eg: ⑴ Blood in his shirt linked him to the crime. ⑵ A new freeway(高速公路) will be built to link up our city with Wuhan.
?

11. announce vt make sth known publicly 宣布 通告 eg: ? Yao Ming announced in his hometown that he has retired from NBA. 归纳总结: announce sth.宣布某事 announce+that-clause

思维袋袋库
辨析:announce与declare ? The result of this examination will be __________ tomorrow. A.published B.declared C.announced D.opened

【解析】 announce强调正式地“公开、发表、宣布”,
侧重预告人们所关心或感兴趣的事情; declare指正式而明确地向公众“宣布,宣告, 声明”,侧重当众发表,多用于宣判、会议、



【答案】 C

战等。

12. instruct v teach;order,direct 教, 教授;指示,命令,吩咐 ? instruct sb in sth 教授某人…… ? instruct sb to do sth 命令/吩咐某人去做某事 eg: ? He instructs a class in history. ? I’ve been instructed to wait here until the lecturer arrives.

考题练练看
? Mr

Smith decided to hire a teacher to ________ his son in English. A.teach B.introduce C.instruct D.direct 【答案】:C

13. contribute vt.& vi.捐款;贡献; 捐助 ? contribute…to … 捐助、捐献; 投稿 ____________________ eg: He contributed his life to helping the poor. He contributed his article to China Daily. 导致,促成;有助于 ? contribute to __________________ eg: Various factors contributed to his failure.

考题练练看
Practice: contributed money __ to the Many people __________ contributed to his poor boy, which _____________ returning to school. A writer wrote a contributed it ___ to a story about this and _________ newspaper.

考题练练看
Practice: contributed money __ to the Many people __________ contributed to his poor boy, which _____________ returning to school. A writer wrote a contributed it ___ to a story about this and _________ newspaper.

思维袋袋库
contribution 贡献 ? make great contributions to 对?? 有贡献
? n.

14. apart from 除…之外(既有相加又有 相减的含义) eg: ? Apart from my parents, I have no one to believe in. (相减) ? Apart from the cost, we need to think about how much time the job will take.、(相加)

思维袋袋库
辨析besides\ except\ apart from\except for
1. besides: “除了…之外(还有)”(相加) There will be five of us for dinner, besides John. ? 2. except: “除…之外”; (相减) when\that\if… I cycle to work, except when I rains. ? 3. except for 强调整体很好,就一点不好,强调 前后名词性质不同。 His composition is good except for a spelling mistake.
?

考题练练看
? Li

Long is a good student ___ his laziness. A. except B. besides C. except for D. but

【解析】 李红是个好学生,就是有点懒。 属于整体很好,就一点不好。
【答案】 C

Using Language Reading and Writing

15. strict adj. 严厉的;严格的;严谨的 Mr. Liu is a strict teacher. ? be strict with sb 对某人要求严格 ? be strict about\in doing 对某事、做 某事要求严格 eg: strict with their ? The Whites are very _________ children. strict about ? The hospital is quite __________ visiting hours.

16. make sense 有意义、讲得通; 是明智作 法。 (不及物动词短语) eg: Your story doesn’t make sense to me. ? It makes sense for sb to do sth. 对某 人来说做某事是明智的 eg: It makes sense to save money while you can. ? make sense of … 理解、明白 eg: Can you make sense of this poem?

考题练练看
? It

A doesn't make ________ to buy that expensive coat when these cheaper ones are just as good. A.sense B.opinion C.use D.difference

注意: make no difference没有影响,没什么不同 make (full) use of (充分)利用

17. cautious adj. 谨慎的,小心的 ? be cautious about sth/doing sth 对(做)某事非常小心谨慎 eg. He is cautious about telling the truth. ? 区别 cautious 和 careful ? cautious 指因为担心某事危险或不明智而缓慢 行事或小心谨慎; ? careful 并非担心害怕,但为确保万无一失而 做事小心。 ? Be careful! ? She looked around cautiously and then walked away.

18. reject vt. ①refuse to accept or consider sth
拒绝接受,不予考虑 _________________ eg: to reject an offer/a suggestion/a decision She rejected his offer of marriage.

②refuse to accept sb for a job
拒收,不录用 _________________ eg: I have been rejected by all the university

③not use or publish
(____________________ 因质量差)不用,不出版 eg. Imperfect articles are rejected by our quality control. 质量差的文章都被我们质检 人员拒绝了。

思维袋袋库
辨析:reject与refuse的区别 ? refuse一般用词,指拒绝别人的请求、帮 助、邀请等,其后可跟不定式。 ? reject正式用词,指拒绝申请,请求,建 议,提议;不录用,不采纳;其后不能跟 不定式。 eg. He refused to discuss this matter. I politely refused their invitation. The proposal was firmly rejected.

19. Only if you put the sun there did the movements of the other planets in the sky make sense. 只有你把太阳放在中心位置上,天空中 其他行星的运动才能说得清楚。 ? only if 只有;只要,引导条件状语从句。 Only if you work hard can you get high scores.

思维袋袋库
为了加强语气,句子需要倒装。 Only when the war was over was he able to get back to work. Only in this way can I solve the problem. ? 但是only 放句首修饰主语时不倒装。 Only you can help me finish the work.

? 当以only引导的短语或状语从句放于句首时,

2. Why was cholera called “King Cholera” in the text? A. Because cholera caused some deaths. B. Because it got its name from Queen Victoria. C. Because cholera was the most deadly disease of its day. D. Because it was defeated with the help of the king.

Careful reading
3. What’s the main idea of the passage?
A. John Snow was a well-known doctor in London. B. The cause of Cholera was polluted water. C. The source of all drinking water should be examined. D. How John Snow collected, analyzed data and found the cause of the disease and solved it .

Group Discussion
1. John Snow believed Idea 2 was right. How did he finally prove it? He found an outbreak that was clearly related to cholera. He collected, analyzed the data and found the cause of the disease and solved it .

2. Do you think John Snow would have solved this problem without the map?

No. I don’t think so. The map helped John Snow organize his ideas. Yes, I think he would. But he would spend more time in testing the two theories and it would be more difficult for him to look into the cause of cholera.

3. Cholera is a 19th century disease. What disease do you think is similar to cholera today? Two diseases, which are similar today, are SARS and AIDS because they are both serious, have an unknown cause and need public health care to solve them.

Homework
?

?
?

Read the text carefully. Retell the passage with your own words Remember the new words and phrases

3. How serious was the disease outbreak
in London?

The cholera outbreak was so severe
that more than 500 people had died in 10 days.

4. Where were many of the deaths in Broad Street? Many of the deaths were near the water pump in Broad Street. 5. What did Dr. Snow think was responsible for the disease? It seemed the water was to blame.

6. What did Dr. Snow advised the people in Broad Street to do? He told the people to remove the handle from the water pump so it could not be used.

7. What conclusion did Dr. Snow tell the
public? He announced that polluted water carried the disease. 8. What did Dr. Snow tell the water

companies?
They were instructed not to expose people to polluted water anymore.


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