Washington: A research conducted at the University of Maryland looks at the numerous complex reasons as to why young children decide to include or exclude
(排 斥) other kids from their group of friends. It suggests that the kids' decision-making process is much more complex than previously believed. "They take into account group information, ranging from cliques (小圈子) and networks, when deciding what makes a group work well. Sometimes kids are excluded because they lack social skills, but a lot of time it has nothing to do with that. Instead it has to do with what we refer to as 'group membership' such as gender, race, nation, and culture," says Professor Melanie Killen, the Associate Director of the Centre for Children Relationships and Culture at Maryland, who led the 4-year project. Reporting their findings in the journal, the researcher said whatever was the reason, individuals who experienced long-term exclusion (排斥) from the group of friends suffered from depression, anxiety and loneliness. The study looked at two models to define how children make decisions regarding acceptance of other kids in their group -- the individual social deficit model and the inter-group social cognition (认同) model. While the former says that children's rejection occurs due to social deficits like shyness, wariness or fearfulness, the latter says that it happens because of group dynamics, prejudice and exclusion. It was also found that the age of children was also a factor that influenced their decisions regarding other kids' acceptance as friends. "With age, kids become more aware of group dynamics, conventions, customs, and rituals. With this comes a greater concern about group functioning, which can lead to exclusion which can be negative from a social justice viewpoint," says Killen. The researcher believes that her study may have many benefits, as it could provide insights into how to help when children are rejected by their peers. 9. While making friends, kids think more about the following EXCEPT ______.
A. social skills B. culture C. race D. gender 10. The underlined word "deficit" in Paragraph 5 may mean “_______”. A. skill B. relationship C. weakness D. experience 11. One of the major purposes of the research is to _______. A. tell the reader how to tell inclusion from exclusion B. remind children to be careful while making friends C. seek ways to help kids excluded by their peers D. stop the children belonging to the inter-group social cognition model 12. While making friends, children exclude those of social deficit model to _______. A. keep their groups purer B. make their groups more socially powerful C. refuse other customs and cultures D. prove their groups to be strict 13. The proper title for this passage is _______. A. Techniques of making friends B. Social communication among kids C. Making friends -- a special culture D. Kids' complex way of making friends
【福建省南平一中 2013 三模】D It’s 10 pm. You may not know where your child is, but the chip(芯片) does. The chip will also know if your child has fallen and needs immediate help. Once doctors arrive, the chip will also be able to tell them which drugs are not suitable for little Johnny or Janie. At the hospital, the chip will tell doctors his or her complete medical history. And of course, when you arrive to pick up your child, settling the hospital bill with your health insurance policy will be a simple matter
of waving your own chip-the one embedded（植入） in your hand. To some, this may sound unbelievable. But the technology for such chips is no longer the stuff (东西) of science fiction. And it may soon offer many other benefits besides locating(定位) lost children or elderly patients. It could be used as credit cards and people won’t have to carry wallets anymore. On the other hand, some are already wondering what this sort of technology may do to the sense of personal privacy and liberty. “Any technology of this kind could result in improper use of personal privacy,” says Lee Tien, senior staff attorney for the Electronic Frontier Foundation. “If a kid can be tracked, do you want other people to be able to track your kid? It’s a double-edged sword.” Applied Digital Solutions, Inc. in Palm Beach, Florida, says it has recently applied to the Food and Drug Administration for permission to begin testing its device in humans. About the size of a grain of rice, the microchip can be encoded (编码) with bits of information and embedded in humans under a layer (表层)of skin. When scanned by a nearby reader, the embedded chip gives the data. Most embedded chip designs are so-called passive chips, which give information only when scanned by a nearby reader. But active chips---such as the proposed（被 提议）Digital Angel of the future---will give out information all the time. And that means designers will have to develop some sort of power source that can provide a continuous source of energy, yet be small enough to be embedded with the chips. In addition to technical problems, many suspect that all sorts of legal and privacy issues would have to be cleared as well. 68. By using the example in the first two paragraphs, the author wants to tell us that .
A. chips are usually used to locate lost children B. chips are more convenient than credit cards C. chips will soon be useful in many aspects of daily lives D. chips will bring out the issue of abuse of personal privacy 69. What is the attitude of Lee Tien towards the chips?
A. Negative. Cautious.
70. Which of the following statements about Digital Angel is NOT true? A. Digital Angel will include at least a chip and a power source. B. Digital Angel will soon be produced and replace passive chips. C. Digital Angel will be embedded in humans under a layer of skin. D. Digital Angel will give information without being scanned by a reader. 71. It is indicated in the passage that chip producers have to consider the following issues EXCEPT . B. technical problems D. privacy problems
A. financial problems C. legal problems 【参考答案】68-71 CDBA
From her first women's hat shop, opened in 1910, Gabrielle Coco Chanel rose to become one of the most important fashion designers in Paris. Her fashion themes included simple suits and dresses, women's trousers, perfume (香水) and so on. She claimed a birth date of 1893 and a birthplace of Auvergne; she was actually born in 1883 in Saumur, though. Her mother worked in a nursing home for pool people. Gabrielle was born there. Her mother died whet she was only six. She began to use the name Coco during a brief career a, a cafe and concert singer from 1905 to 1908. By the 1920s，her fashion house had expanded greatly. Her relaxing fashions, such as short skirts with casual look, were very different from the fashions popular in the formal decades. In 1922 Chanel introduced a perfume, Chanel No.5 which became very popular and still remains a popular product today. Pierre Wertheimer became her partner in the perfume business in 1924. Wertheimer owned 70% of the company, Coco Chanel 10% and her friend, Bader, 20%. The Wertheimers continue to control the perfume company today.
She briefly served as a nurse in World War I. The fashion business in Paris was thus off for some years. In 1954 she came back and her women's clothing business returned to its former popularity. Her natural, casual clothing once again caught the eye of women. She was still working in 1971 when she died. 14. All of the following fashions belong to Chanel's design style EXCEPT _____ A. a comfortable suit C. a short skirt B. a tight dress D. a loose sweater
15. The right order of the following events should be ____ ① Chanel began to do business with Wertheimer. ② Chanel served as a nurse. ③ Chanel worked as a singer. ④ Chanel introduced the perfume, Chanel No. 5. A. ④①③② C. ③④①② B. ①②③④ D. ②③④①
16. According to the passage, we can see that Chanel ____ A. was brought up by her father B. worked in a nursing home for some time C. earned more than Wertheimer from the perfume company D. had an active and creative mind
With nearly 22 percent of Japan’s population already aged 65 years old or older. The rapidly aging population has caused many problems: a labor shortage, tax shortage and financial difficulties in paying health bills and pensions (养老金) of large numbers of the elderly. Moreover, a growing number of older Japanese are spending their golden years away from the care traditionally provided by children and grandchildren. That's where cutting-edge technology steps in.
This technology is creating a care providing market. Businessmen are using cutting-edge technology to create products to care for the country's growing elderly population. They have been producing everything from easy-entry cars to
remote-controlled beds. Old people in Japan can expect to be served food by a robot. They can also ride a voice-recognition wheelchair or even possibly hire a robot nurse. At a home-care exhibition in Tokyo, many new products were shown. Buyers crowded round a product called My Spoon Feeding Robot. It can help elderly or disabled people to eat with a spoon-and-fork-fitted arm. Operating a stick with his chin, the designer moved the arm toward a block of soft tofu, skillfully getting the fork to break off a small piece. The arm then returned to a set position in front of his mouth, allowing him to bite and swallow. "It's all about making people able to help themselves. We want to give the elderly control over their own lives," the designer said. The company has already sold 300 of the feeding robots, which cost $3,500 each. There is also a car designed for easy entry. It is mainly for people who have to use wheelchairs or those who have difficulty walking. Its slogan is, "A car that's more patient than your daughter." 17. The underlined word "cutting-edge" in Paragraph 1 most probably means ______. A. old B. advanced C. cost-saving D. cheap 18. The rapidly aging population in Japan ______. A. are interested in inventing robot nurses B. causes a decrease in labor force and an increase in tax C. strengthens the relationship between family members D. promotes the development of Japan's care providing technology 19. My Spoon Feeding Robot______. A. has not come on the market yet C. helps the elderly eat B. cannot use a fork
D. can operate a stick with its chin
20. What is the passage mainly talking about? A. The development of technology in Japan. B. An invention — My Spoon Feeding Robot.
C. Robots can help elderly Japanese. D. The rapidly aging population in Japan.
【福建省南平一中 2013 三模】E We find that bright children are rarely held back by mixed ability teaching. On the contrary, both their knowledge and experience are enriched. We feel that there are many disadvantages in streaming(把??按能力分班) pupils. It does not take into account the fact that children develop at different rates. It can have a bad effect on both the bright and the not-so-bright child. After all，it can be quite discouraging to be at the bottom of the top grade！ Besides, it is rather unreal to grade pupils just according to their intellectual(智力的) ability. This is only one aspect of their total personality. We are concerned to develop the abilities of all our pupils to the full, not just their academic ability. We also value personal qualities and social skills, and we find that mixed-ability teaching contributes to all these aspects of learning. In our classrooms, we work in various ways. The pupils often work in groups: this gives them the opportunity to learn to co-operate, to share, and to develop leadership skills. They also learn how to deal with personal problems as well as learning how to think, to make decisions, to analyze and evaluate, and to communicate effectively in order to have the ability to become leaders. The pupils learn from each other as well as from the teacher. Sometimes the pupils work in pairs；sometimes they work on individual (个人的) tasks , and they can do this at their own speed. They also have some formal class teaching when this is suitable. We encourage our pupils to use the library, and we
teach them the skills they need in order to do this efficiently. An advanced pupil can do advanced work：it does not matter what age the child is. We expect our pupils to do their best, not their least, and we give them every encouragement to attain this goal.
72. We can know from the passage that the author’ s attitude towards “mixed-ability teaching” is______. A. approving B. disapproving C. questioning D. inactive
73. The underlined words “held back” in Paragraph 1 probably means “______”. A. drawn to their studies C. made to remain in the same classes B. forced to study in the lower classes D. prevented from advancing
74. Which of the following is NOT MENTIONED in the third paragraph? A. Pupils also learn to develop their reasoning abilities. B. Pupils also learn how to participate in teaching activities C. Group work gives pupils the chance to learn to work together with others. D. Group work supply pupils with the chance to learn to be good organizers. 75. The author’s purpose in writing this passage is to ______. A. offer advice on the proper use of the library B. recommend pair work and group work for classroom activities C. argue for teaching bright and not-so-bright pupils in the same class D. tell us the importance of proper formal classroom teaching