1．功能：相当于形容词，修饰名词或代词，在句中作定语。 2．位置：定语从句置于被修饰词之后。 Those who are for the plan raise your hands，please. 3．先行词：被定语从句修饰的词称为先行词。 先行词一般是名词和不定代词，如：some，an
y，every和 no与body，thing 的合成 词；或 all，none，any，some，that，those 等代词。数词也可以作先行词，人称代词也同样 可作先行词。 4．关系词：连接先行词与从句的词叫关系词。 关系代词：who，whom，which，that，whose，as 等 关系副词：when，where，why 等 5．确定关系词的步骤： (1)先找先行词，看先行词指的是什么。 (2)看关系词在从句中所充当的成分。 注意：先行词与关系词是等量关系。 (1)先行词在从句中作主语时，从句谓语动词的数由先行词而定。 This is the place which is worth visiting. (2)关系词在从句句子中充当了成分，其意思就是先行词的意义，所以在从句中不能重 复其意。 There are many places we can visit (them) in China. 6．在定语从句中，当先行词指物时，下列情况的关系词宜用 that 而不用 which： (1)当先行词是序数词或形容词最高级或被序数词、形容词最高级修饰时。 (2)先行词被 all，every，no，some，any，little，much，the only，the very，few 等修饰 时。 (3)先行词为 all，much，little，none，few，something，anything 等不定代词时。 (4)先行词中既有人又有物时。 He was looking pleasantly at the children and parcels that filled his bus. (5)先行词在主句中作表语时。 The village is no longer the one that was 5 years ago. (6)当主句是以 which 开头的特殊疑问句时。 Which are the books that you bought for me? 7．宜用 which 而不用 that 的情况：
(1)在非限制性定语从句中。 (2)在关系词前有介词时。 (3)当先行词本身是 that 时。 (4)关系词后有插入语时。 8．关系词 who 与 that 指人时，也有不同情况分别用不同的关系词。 (1)当主句是 there be 句型时，关系词用 who。 (2)先行词是 anyone，those，someone，everyone，one 等词时，关系词用 who。 (3)当主句是 who 作疑问词时，关系词用 that。 Who is that girl that is standing by the window? (4)whom 在从句中只作宾语，可被 who 取代。 9．whose 作关系词既指人又指物，在从句中作定语。 Do you know Mr.Smith whose story is very moving? There is a room，whose window faces the river. 10．关系代词 as 在从句中作主语、宾语和表语。 (1)先行词被 such 和 the same 修饰，或句型 as many(much)中，从句都用 as 引导。 Such books as you bought are useful. The school is just the same as it was 10 years ago. 注意：①such...that...引导结果状语从句。如：They are such lovely children that we love them much。②the same...that...引导定语从句。如：I want to use the same tool that you used just now. (2)无先行词的定语从句用 as 和 which 引导。 区别：①意义上：as 含有“这点正如??一样”。②位置上：as 从句可置句首，也可 在另处。 He didn’t pass the exam，as we had expected. There is lots of air in loose snow，which can keep the cold out. As is known，the earth is round. 题组训练 1 用适当的关系代词填空 1．The prize will go to the writer whose story shows the most imagination. 2． Ted came for the weekend wearing only some shorts and a Tshirt， which is a stupid thing to do in such weather. 3．I have three foreign teachers, two of whom are from Canada. 4．She showed the visitors around the museum，the construction of which had taken more than three years.
5．This is the only way that we can find at present. 6．The house in which I used to live has become a shoe shop. 11．关系副词 when 与 where，why，that when 指时间＝in/at/on/during which where 指地点＝in/at/from which why 指原因＝for which that 可以用于表示时间、地点、方式、理由的名词之后，取代 when，where，why 和“介 词＋which”引导的定语从句，修饰的先行词常为 the way，the time，the day，the place 等， 在口语中 that 常被省略。 I don’t like the way (that/in which) he talks. This is the first time I have given you a lesson in French. 题组训练 2 用适当的关系副词填空 1．Between the two parts of the concert is an interval，when the audience can buy icecream. 2． Whatever is left over may be put into the refrigerator， where it will keep for two or three weeks. 3．Can you work out a way(that/in_which)_we can solve this problem. 4．The days are gone when physical strength was all you needed to make a living. 5．I didn’t know the reason (why) he came late. 12．必须注意的问题： (1)关系词作主语时，从句中谓语的数。 (2)注意区别定语从句与强调句。 ①定语从句中关系词作从句成分，复合句。 ②强调句中 it 无意义，that/who 不是引导词。 ③去掉 it is/was 和 that/who 后，如果句子意思讲得通则是强调句，讲不通则不是。 It is the museum that/which we visited last year.(定语从句) It was in the hotel that we stayed last night.(强调句) (3)定语从句与同位语从句的区别。 ①定语从句的引导词被称为关系词，that 充当主语、宾语、表语，有时可省略。 ②同位语从句的引导词被叫作连接词，that 不充当任何成分，不可省。 Word came that their army was defeated.(同位语从句) We expressed to them our wish that was the same as theirs.(定语从句) (4)关系词在从句中省略的情况。 ①关系词作宾语，前无介词时。 ②关系词作表语。
(5)关系词前有介词或复杂介词，关系词只能是 which 和 whom。 (6)几个特殊的定语从句句型： ①He is the only one of the students who has got very good marks in the match.(句中 one 为 先行词) He is one of the students who have got good marks in the match.(句中 students 为先行词) ②Is this place the one (that) we visited yesterday? Is this the place (that/which) we visited yesterday? ③He stood at the window，from where he could see what was happening. ④It may rain，in which case the match will be put off. ◆语法与写作 用定语从句翻译下面的句子 1．我们学生应该经常和我们的父母交换意见，他们经验丰富，最重要的是，他们是世界上 最爱我们的人。 We_students_should_often_exchange_ideas_with_our_parents who_are_rich_in_experience，and_above_all，love_us_most_in_the_world. 2．很抱歉我没有立刻回复一周前你寄给我的电子邮件。 (2013· 山东· 写作) (2013· 重庆· 写作一) ，
I’m_sorry_I_couldn’t_reply_to_your_email_which_you_sent_me_a_week_ago_immediat ely. 3．总之，能够在短时间内赢得他们的友谊是我一生中感到最自豪的事。 (2013· 浙江· 书面表达) In_a_word，being_able_to_win_their_friendship_in_a_very_short_time_is_the_ thing_that_I_am_proud_of_most_in_my_life. 4．因此，那些做那些最不起眼工作的人应该得到和工程师或教师一样的尊重。 (2013· 广东· 读写任务) Consequently，those_who_do_those_most_insignificant_jobs_should_get_respect_as_much as_those_being_engineers_or_teachers. 5．我让他给你带去你以前要的中国画。 (2013· 新课标全国Ⅰ· 书面表达)
I’ve_asked_him_to_bring_you_the_Chinese_painting_you’ve_asked_for_before. ◆语法填空 A Many birds come to the Arctic in the summer to live and breed 1.but not all of them live here all year round.Snowy owls are some of the Arctic birds 2.that/which live here all year round.Snowy owls live on the tundra(苔原)． They stay in the Arctic during the winter unless 3.their food sources are scarce.If they leave
the Arctic in the winter they will overwinter in Northern Greenland，Canadian islands，Northern Eurasia，Wrangel Island as well as North America. They 4.are_called (call) snowy owls because their color is almost pure white when they are fullgrown.The feet of snowy owls are covered 5.with feathers and have extra thick pads. Snowy owls have incredible vision.They can see from high up in the sky and swoop down 6.silently (silent) to capture their prey.Like all owls they have 7.excellent (excellence) night vision，but in the Arctic 8.it doesn’t get dark in the summer so the owls hunt in the bright daylight.When the owl gets food it swallows it whole or tears it into large pieces 9.to_swallow (swallow)． The mother stays in the nest and the father brings her food and protects her.After the owlets(小猫头鹰) are born，both parents work to feed 10.the/their young. B On October 6th,2011， a piece of breaking news hit the whole world： Steve Jobs， the founder of the Apple Company， 1.passed (pass) away.I as well as many people was sad at the news.We saw him make miracles again and again，and we hoped that he would always give us 2.a surprise.We enjoy using an iPod to listen to music and we like to play games with an iPad.We love to communicate with our friends by iPhone.3.It seemed that Jobs always knew what we really wanted.So he could devote himself to his career by creating the amazing products 4.constantly (constant)．But now，he quietly left 5.leaving (leave) us a great pity. In 2003，when Jobs felt that the 6.traditional (tradition) CD industry would gradually lose its advantage，he decided to apply a brand new carrier called MP3 7.to his product.In order to make his assumption come true，he also made full use of his eloquence to persuade the music company to give him the copyright of selling products 8.which/that changed the whole music industry.From then on，people would not take a big bag to bring their favorite CDs，9.because/for/as/sincethey finally find a product that can feed their needs—that’s an iPod，which has some powerful functions that 10.others don’t have.