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虚拟语气的语法


虚拟语气 Subjunctive mood
语气及语气种类 (1)证气,指的是一种动词的形式用来表示说话者的意图或态度。 (2)在英语中,语气有三种: ① 直陈语气:表示所说的话是个事实 如:France lies on the wind-ward side of Europe. ② 祈使语气:表示说话人所说的话是请求或命令。 如:Make yourself at ho

me 请别客气! Don’t be late! ③ 虚拟语气:表示说话人所说的话是一种主观的愿望,假想或建议等。 如:1. We only wish ue wuld help 2. Lf there were no graity (地心引力)we sheul not be able to walk. 3. He suggests that ue shoald all go to see the film. 一、虚拟语气在条件句中(虚拟条件句) 虚拟条件句所表达的是一种假设或者是不大可能发生的情况。 (1)与现在事实相反的虚拟条件句 虚拟语气用在与现在事实相反的条件句中, 条件从句的谓语动词要使用动词 的过去形式(be 用 were) ,结果主句的谓语使用“shoulol(第一人称)/would(第 二、三人称)+V(动词原形)” ① eg: If we left now. we shoudd arrite in good limo ② If I uere you, I should refused the money. ③ Euen if he had the money, he wouldn’t buy it. (2)与过去事实相反的虚拟条件句 虚拟语气用在与过去事实相反的条件句中时,条件从句的谓语用“had+-ed”, 结果主句的谓语用“should/would+Vhaoe+-ed”. 如:① We should have dmpped the by if we had had tim. ② If they hadn’t gone on vacation, their house souldn’t have been broken into. 注:1. “Were”也可以用来表示与过去事实相反 Eg: If I weren’t busy ,I would haoe gone. 2.表示过去时间的假设也可用虚拟语气,“should hace+-ed”这种虚拟式所表 达的动作并非完全不可能发生,它只表示一种偶然性,并且常和直陈语气连用, 但也可以与虚拟式连用。 eg: You can imagine (设想) what would have happened to her if she should have

told the truth. 3.美国大众常用“would have+-ed”来表示与过去事实相反的假设。 eg: If these sleeplessness (失眠)would have been allowed to go on, she would have collapsed(崩溃) (3)与将来事实相反的虚拟条件句 虚拟语气用在与将来事实相反的条件句中时, 条件从句的谓语动词使用动词 的过去式形式(be 的过去或用 were) ,结果主句用“should / would+V” 如:① If you dropped the glass, if would break. ② What would happen if I put the paper on the fire? 注:1. 在无上下文时,下面的“rained”e 歧意,可能是虚拟语气,也可能是 表示过去习惯的直陈语气。 eg:If it rained, we would stay indoors playing cards. 2.在与将来事实相反的条件句中,其条件从句的谓语也可以用“were to +V”. 这种虚拟形式比较正式,多用于书面语。 eg:① If he were to come, what would we sag to him? ② If you were to come tomorrow, I might have time to see you. 3.在与将来事实相反的条件句中, 条件从句的谓语也可以用“should+ V”这种 形式不强调意愿,只强调一种有偶然实现的可能性。 eg: ①If he should see me, he would know me. ②If we should catch the ringleaders, it would be a remarkable(卓越的)a chieoement(成就) 4. 下面这种形式往往有不为人所欢迎的含义。 eg: ①If it should rain tomorrow, we should have to put off the match. ②If he should go away, I shoud be grieoed (悲伤) 5. 有时我们可以使用 would 代替 should 以避免重复。 eg:If you would be interested, I should be very glad to send you a copy of my book. (4)虚拟条件句用于倒装 在书面用语中,条件从句可以省略 “if” 而将谓语中的过去式 “werehad 或 should 移到主语之前。 如:① Were you in my position(位置) ,you would do the same. (=If you were in my position, you would do the same) ② Had he been in your position, he woald probably have done the same. (=If he had been in your position he would probably hace done the same)

③ Should they attack (攻击) us, we would wipe (消灭) them out completely(完全地) (=If the should attack us……) 注: 在虚拟形式中除了“were / had / should”可移至主语之有以外, “did / would /wuld”等也可移至主语之前构成省略“计”的倒装形式。 (5)错综虚拟条件句(条件从句与结果主句所表达的时间不一致) 当条件从句与结果主句表示的时间不一致时,虚拟语气的形式,要做相应的 调整。 如:① If I had spoken to him yesterday , I should know what to do now. ② If father hadn’t sent me , I shouldn’t be here 注:在条件句中如果使用“If I were……”形式,结果主句可以使用表示任何时间 的虚拟形式。 eg: If I weren’t busy, I would have come were 用来表示过去。 If I were you, I would go (were 用来表示现在) (6)含蓄条件句 虚拟条件从句中的从句有时省略或只暗含在上下文中,这种句子叫做含蓄 条件句。含蓄条件句大体可分为两类: 1.条件句暗含在短语中 ? ? without graoity ? 地心引力? 如: We couldn ' t live ? ? ?if there were no graoity on the eath 条件暗含在介词短语中:without gravity But for your help we couldn’t have succeeded in the experiment(实验) 暗含条件是:but for your help I am really very busy, otherwise(否则)I would certainly go there with you 条件暗含在“other wise……”中 2. 条件暗含在上下文中 如:I wouldn’t have done it (可能暗含“If I were you”) I would have bought it (暗含条件是“If I had had the monay”) 注:在不少情况下虚拟式已成为习惯用法 eg: I could go on for another two hours (7)省略结果主句的虚拟条件句 虚拟条件句如果省略结果主句,则常表示一种不可能实现的愿望,这种条 件句常用“if only”来引导。 如:If only you would to listen reason ② If only he were here 你要是讲理就好了 他要是在这儿就好了

③ If only I had never married ④ If only I could smash the ground with my fist and make the oil flow (8)情态动词用于虚拟语气 有不少情态动词也可用于虚拟语气 如:① If I hadn’t wonder you, you could have been killed ② I couldn’t be angry with him if I tried ③ May you live a long and happy life May 用于表示祝愿 (9)虚拟语气用于 when 等引导的条件从句 虚拟条件句中的条件句,除了用“if”外,还可以用 when /unless/suppose /as if (就 像……一样)/ for fear / in case 等引出。 如:① The peasants prepared to feed the city ② When it should be freed(解放) ③ Unless I were well I couldn’t be at school ④ Suppos you uere given a choice to study in America, would you aceept? 二、虚拟语气用在主语从句 虚拟语气除了用在状语从句之外,也可用在主语从句中,虚拟语气的形式应 该是“should+V. /shoutd+have+-ed”(在美国英语中 should 可省略), “should”在此 是时态助动词, 本身无实际意义, 这样的主语从句一般由“that”引导, 常用在以“it” 作为形式主语的“it+is / was+important / necessary / desirable (称心的, 直得向往的) /imperative(绝对必要的)/ advisable(可取的,行当的)+that……句型中 如:① It is important that we should speak politely ② It is imperative that we (should)practise critictsm and self-criticism. ③ It isn’t necessary that everyone be a scientist. 注:这种结构中也可用陈语气 eg:It was important that he made a successful experiment last week. 三、虚拟语气用于宾语从句中 虚拟语气用于宾语从句中,有三种情况: (1)用于动词“wish”之后,这样的句子常省略 that 来表示愿望。宾语从句的谓 语用过去时,表示与现在事实相反,使用过去完成时,表示与过去事实相反。 如:① I wish I were you (与现在事实相反) ② She wishes she hadn’t said that (与过去事实相反) ③ I wish you would stay a little longer(would 表示一种希望或请求)

注:“would rather (宁愿)/sooner”可以代替 wish 表示愿望来引出虚拟语气。 eg:① I would rather you came tomorrow ② I would sooner she left the hoaoy end of the cork to someone else (2)用于 demand(要求)/ suggest /propose(提议)/ order(命令)/arrange(安 排)/insist(坚持)/ command(指挥)/ require / requst(请求)/ desire(希望) 等动词的宾语。这种虚拟语气一般由 that 所引导,谓语动词使用 “should+V” (should 可省略) 如:① I desire the patient (should)have a bath every day ② He suggested that we (should) leave early ③ The detective insisted that he (should)have a look ④ They require that I (should)go at once 注: 1.有些动词如 think/expect/believe,其否定形式的宾语, 从句也可用“should+V” eg:I never thought he should refused He dien’t expect that you should come 2.有关 should/would 的使用要注意以下四点: ① should+V 可用在 when 引导的宾语从句中 eg: A few maids were seen waiting in the hall for whon they should be wanted ② 宾语从句也可用“should+be+Ving” eg: Sometimes she would suggest I should be saving some of the money ③ 宾语从句有时也有人用 would 代替 should eg: Some people suggest that it would be better to start teaching English in kindergarten(幼儿园) ④ 宾语从句现有时可用直陈语气 He suggested that we studied English together (3)虚拟语气用在某些 adj 或相当于 adj,使用的“-ed”形式之后的由“that”引出 的宾语从句。 如:① I was glad that he should go ② I am ashamed that you should have done such a thing ③ I am sorry that you should have to done (4)虚拟语气用于表语从句和同位语从句 虚拟语气也可以用在表语从句中,这种从句由 that 引导(that 可省略)谓语结构 是“should+V”,句子的主语常是 suggestion/ probosal/idea 等名词. 如:① My suggestion is that we should tell him ② Our only request is that these should be settled(解决)as soon as possible.

虚拟语气也可用在同位语从句中: 如:There was a suggestion that Brown should be dropped from the team 虚拟语气用于定语从句中 虚拟语气还可以用在宾语从句中,这种从句常常用在“It is me (that)……” 句型中,定语从句常用虚拟语气的过去式形式。 如:It is time we left It is time we went bed 六、动词原形用于正式文体中 动词原形和为虚拟时态都用在正式的文体中(非正式文体用直陈语气)它在 条件句中所表达的假设能够实现所以其结果主句应该使用直陈语气。 eg: If it rain I shall not go


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