1．定语从句：修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。定语从句一般紧跟在它所修饰的先行词之后。 2．先行词：被定语从句修饰的词叫先行词。 3．关系词：引导定语从句的词叫关系词。 关系词有关系代词和关系副词。关系代词有 that, which, who, whom, whose, as 等；关系副词有 when, where,
why 等。 关系词通常有下列三个作用：A、引导定语从句；B、代替先行词；C、在定语从句中担当一个成分。例如： The man who is shaking hands with my father is a policeman. 该句中，who is shaking hands with my father 是定 语从句，修饰先行词 the man， “who”是引导定语从句的关系词，代替先行词 the man，在定语从句中作主语。
1．who 指人，在定语从句中作主语。 The boys who are playing football are from Class One. 正在踢足球的男孩是一班的。 Those who want to go to the museum must be at the school gate at 7 tomorrow morning. 想去博物馆的人必须在 明晨 7 点到大门口集合。 Yesterday I helped an old man who had lost his way. 昨天我帮助了一位迷路的老人。 That is the teacher who teaches us physics. 那就是教我们物理的老师。 2．whom 指人，在定语从句中做宾语，常可省略。 Mr Liu is the person ( whom ) you talked about on the bus. 刘先生就是你们在公共汽车上谈论的那个人。 Li Ming is just the boy ( whom ) I want to see. 李明正是我想要见的男孩。 The professor ( whom ) you are waiting for has come. 你正在等的教授已经来了。 The girl ( whom ) the teacher often praises is our monitor. 老师经常表扬的那个女孩是我们的班长。 注意：关系代词 whom 在口语或非正式文体中常可用 who 来代替，也可省略。 The man ( whom / who )you met just now is my old friend. 3．Which 指物，在定语从句中做主语或宾语，做宾语时常可省略。 Football is a game which is liked by most boys. 足球是大多数男孩所喜欢的运动。 The factory which makes computers is far away from here. 制造计算机的那家公司离这儿很远。 He likes to read books which are written by foreign writers. 他喜欢外国作家写的书。 The house which is by the lake looks nice. 湖边的那幢房子看上去很漂亮。 This is the pen ( which ) he bought yesterday. 这是他昨天买的钢笔。 The film ( which ) they went to see last night was not interesting at all. 他们昨晚看的电影一点意思也没有。 4．That 指人时，相当于 who 或 whom；指物时，相当于 which.。在定语从句中作主语或宾语，作宾语时常可 省略。 The number of people that / who come to visit this city each year reaches one million. 每年来参观这座城市的人数 达一百万。 Where is the man that / whom I saw this morning? 我今天早上看到的那个人在哪儿？ The person that /whom you introduced to me is very kind. 你介绍给我的那个人很友好。 The season that / which comes after spring is summer. 春天以后的季节是夏季。 Yesterday I received a letter that / which came from Australia. 昨天我收到了一封来自澳大利亚的信。 5．Whose 通常指人，也可指物，在定语从句中做定语。 I visited a scientist whose name is known all over the country. 我拜访了一个全国知名的科学家。 He has a friend whose father is a doctor. 他有一个爸爸当医生的朋友。 I once lived in the house whose roof has fallen in. 我曾经住在那幢屋顶已经倒塌了的房子里。 注意：指物时，常用下列结构来代替： The classroom whose door is broken will soon be repaired. The classroom the door of which is broken will soon be repaired. Do you like the book whose cover is yellow? Do you like the book the cover of which is yellow?
关系代词在定语从句中作介词宾语时，从句常常由“介词+关系代词”引出。 The school (which / that) he once studied in is very famous. The school in which he once studied is very famous. 他曾经就读过的学校很出名。 Tomorrow I’ll bring here the magazine (which / that) you asked for. Tomorrow I’ll bring here the magazine for which you asked.明天我将把你要的杂志带来。 This is the boy (whom / who / that) I played tennis with yesterday. This is the boy with whom I played tennis with yesterday. 这是我昨天跟他打台球的男孩。 We’ll go to hear the famous singer (whom / who / that) we have often talked about. We’ll go to hear the famous singer about whom we have often talked.我们将去听那位我们经常谈论的著名歌唱家 演唱。 The manager whose company I work in pays much attention to improving our working conditions. The manager in whose company I work pays much attention to improving our working conditions. 我工作的那家公司的经理十分注意改善我们的工作条件。 注意：１． 含有介词的短语动词一般不拆开，介词仍放在短语动词的后面。如： look for, look after, take care of 等。 This is the watch (which / that) I am looking for. (正) 这是我正在找的手表。 This is the watch for which I am looking . (误) The babies (whom / who / that) the nurse is looking after are very healthy. (正) 那个保姆照看的小宝宝们都很健 康。 The babies after whom the nurse is looking are very healthy. （误） ２．若介词放在关系代词前，关系代词指人时只可用 whom，不可用 who, that；关系代词指物时只可用 which， 不可用 that。关系代词是所有格时用 whose。 The man with whom you talked just now is my neighbour. (正) 你刚才跟他谈话的那个人是我的邻居。 The man with that / who you talked just now is my neighbour. (误) The plane in which we flew to Canada was really comfortable. (正)我们去加拿大所乘坐的飞机实在很舒服。 The plane in that we flew to Canada was really comfortable. (误) ３．“介词+关系代词”前还可有 some, any, none, all, both, neither, many, most, each, few 等代词或者数词。如： He loves his parents deeply, both of whom are very kind to him. 他深深地爱着他的父母，他们俩待他都很好。 In the basket there are quite many apples, some of which have gone bad. 篮子里有好些苹果，有些已经坏了。 There are forty students in our class in all, most of whom are from big cities. 我们班总共有４０个学生， 大多数 来自大城市。 Up to now, he has written ten stories, three of which are about country life. 迄今为止，他写了１０部小说，其 中３部是关于农村生活的。 词＋关系代词引导的定语从句特例 1)...... ， ...of +关系代词。2)which 代替 this/that/the
1． when 指时间，在定语从句中作时间状语。 I still remember the day when I first came to this school. 我仍然记得我第一次来到这所学校的那一天。 The time when we got together finally arrived. 我们团聚的时刻终于到了。 October 1, 1949 was the day when the People’s Republic of China was founded. 1949 年 10 月 1 日是中华人 民共和国成立的日子。 Do you remember the years when he lived in the countryside with his grandparents. 你还记得在农村和你祖 父母一起生活的那些年吗？ 2． where 指地点，在定语从句中作地点状语。 Shanghai is the city where I was born. 上海是我出生的城市。 The house where I lived ten years ago has been pulled down. 我十年前住的房子已经被拆掉了。 I visited the farm where a lot of cows were raised . 我参观了那个饲养了许多奶牛的农场。
Is this the place where they fought the enemy? 这是他们当初打敌人的地方吗？ 3． why 指原因，在定语从句中作原因状语。 Please tell me the reason why you missed the plane. 请告诉我你误机的原因。 The reason why he was punished is unknown to us. 他受惩罚的原因我们都不知道。 I don’t know the reason why he looks unhappy today. 我不知道他今天为什么看上去不愉快。 注意：关系副词引导的定语从句经常可以用“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句来表示。如： From the years when / in which he was going to primary school in the country he had known what he wanted to b e when he grew up. 自从他在农村读小学时，他就已经知道长大后要做什么。 Great changes are taking place in the city where / in which they live. 他们生活的城市正发生巨大的变化。 The reason why / for which he refused the invitation is quite clear. 他为什么拒绝接受邀请的原因是十分明 了的。
形式上：不用逗号“，”与主句隔开。 意义上：是先行词不可缺少的定语，如删除，主句则失去意义或意思表达不完整。 译法上：译成先行词的定语：“．．．的” 关系词的使用上：A．作宾语时可省略 B．可用 that C．可用 who 代替 whom
形式上：用逗号“，”与主句隔开。 意义上：只是对先行词的补充说明，如删除，主句仍能表达完整的意思。 译法上：通常译成主句的并列句。 关系词的使用上：A．不可省略 B．不用 that C．不可用 who 代替 whom 限制性定语从句举例： The teacher told me that Tom was the only person that I could depend on. 老师告诉我说汤姆是我唯一的可以依靠 的人。 China is a country which has a long history. 中国是一个历史悠久的国家。 In the street I saw a man who was from Africa. 在街上我看到一个来自非洲的人。 非限制性定语从句举例 ： His mother, who loves him very much, is strict with him. 他妈妈十分地爱他，对他要求很严格。 China, which was founded in 1949, is becoming more and more powerful. 中国是 1949 年成立的， 现在正变得越 来越强大。 Last summer I visited the People’s Great Hall, in which many important meetings are held every year. 去年夏天， 我 参观了人民大会堂，在那儿每年都要举行许多重要会议。
（一）限制性定语从句中只能用 that 引导定语从句的情况
1．当先行词是 everything, anything, nothing (something 除外), all, none, few, little, some 等不定代词时，或当先 行词受 every, any, all, some, no, little, few, much 等代词修饰时。如： Have you taken down everything that Mr. Li said? 李老师讲的你都记下来了吗？ There seems to be nothing that is impossible to him in the world. 对他来说似乎世界上没有什么不可能的事。 All that can be done has been done. 所有能做的都做好了。 There is little that I can do for you. 我不能为你干什么。 He stayed in the library and looked up any information that they needed. 他呆在图书馆查找所需的资料。 注意：当先行词指人时，偶尔也可用关系代词 who，如： Any man that / who has a sense of duty won’t do such a thing. 任何有责任感的人都不会做这样的事。 All the guests that / who were invited to her wedding were important people. 所有应邀来参加她婚礼的客人都是 重要人物。 2．当先行词被序数词修饰时。如： The first place that they visited in London was the Big Ben. 在伦敦他们参观的第一个地方是大本钟。 3．当先行词被形容词最高级修饰时。如：
This is the best film that I have ever seen. 这是我看过的最好的电影。 4．当先行词被 the very, the only 修饰时。如： This is the very dictionary that I want to buy. 这正是我要买的词典。 After the fire in his house, the old car is the only thing that he owns. 家里发生了火灾过后，那辆旧车成了他的唯 一拥有。 注意：当先行词指人时，偶尔也可用关系代词 who。如： Wang Hua is the only person in our school who will attend the meeting. 王华是我校唯一出席会议的人。 5．当先行词前面有 who, which 等疑问代词时。如： Who is the man that is standing by the gate? 站在门口的那个人是谁？ Which is the T-shirt that fits me most? 哪件 T 恤衫最合我的身？ 6．当先行词为人与动物或人与物时。如： They talked about the persons and things that they remembered at school 他们谈论着他们所能记起的在校时的人 和事。 Look at the man and his donkey that are walking up the street. 瞧瞧那个沿街走来的人和他的 毛驴。
（二）关系代词 as 和 which 引导的定语从句
as 和 which 引导非限制性定语从句时， 其用法有相同之处，也有不同之处。具体情况是： 1. as 和 which 都可以在定语从句中做主语或宾语，代表前面整个句子。如： He married her, as / which was natural. 他跟她结婚了，这是很自然的事。 He is honest, as / which we can see. 他很诚实， 这一点我们看得出来。 2. as 引导的非限制性定语从句可以放在主句之前、主句之后，甚至还可以分割主句。 which 引导的非限制性 定语从句只可放在主句之后。另外，as 常常有“正如、正像”的含义。如： As is known to all, China is a developing country. 众所周知，中国是发展中国家。 He is from the south, as we can know from his accent. 他是南方人，这一点我们从他的口音可以知道。 John, as you know, is a famous writer. 正如你所知， 约翰是个著名作家。 Zhang Hua has been to Paris more than ten times, which I don’t believe. 张华已去过巴黎十多次了， 这一点我不相 信。 注意：当主句和从句之间存在着逻辑上的因果关系时，关系词往往只用 which。如： Tom was late for school again and again, which made his teacher very angry. 汤姆老是迟到，这使得老师很恼火。 These tables are made of metal, which made them very heavy. 这些桌子是金属的，这使得这些桌子很重。 1. 当先行词受 such, the same 修饰时，关系词常用 as。 如： I’ve never heard such stories as he tells. 我从未听过象他讲的这样的故事。 He is not such a fool as he looks. 他可不象他看上去的那样傻。 This is the same dictionary as I lost last week. 这部词典跟我上星期丢失的一样。 注意：当先行词受 the same 修饰时，偶尔也用 that 引导定语从句，但与 as 引导的定语从句意思有区别。如： She wore the same dress that she wore at Mary’s wedding. 她穿着她在玛丽婚礼上穿过的同一条连衣裙。 She wore the same dress as her younger sister wore. 她穿着跟她妹妹所穿的一样的连衣裙。
(三) 以 the way 为先行词的限制性定语从句通常由 in which 或 that 引导，而且通常可以省略。 如：
The way (that / in which ) he answered the questions was surprising. 他回答这些问题的方式令人惊奇。 I don’t like the way (that / in which) you laugh at her. 我不喜欢你冲她的样子。
用关系代词还是关系副词引导定语从句主要看关系词在定语从句中的作用（即所担当的成分）。试比较： A. I know a place where we can have a picnic. 我知道一个我们可以野炊的地方。 I know a place which / that is famous for its beautiful natural scenery. 我知道一个以自然景 色优美而闻 名的地方。 B. I will never forget the days when we spent our holidays together. 我永远忘不了我们一起 度假的日子。 I will never forget the days that / which we spent together. 我永远忘不了我们一起度过的日子。 C. This is the reason why he was dismissed. 这就是他被解雇的原因。
This is the reason that / which he explained to me for his not attending the meeting. 有参加会议的原因。
There are very few but admire his talents. 很少有人不赞赏他的才干的。（but = who don’t）
1．定语从句修饰限定先行词，它与先行词是修饰关系；同位语从句说明先行词的具体内容，它与先行词是同 位关系。 The plane that has just taken off is for Paris. （定语从句） 刚刚起飞的那架飞机是开往巴黎的。 The fact that he has already died is quite clear. （同位语从句） 他已经去世了，这个事实很明了。 2．定语从句由关系代词或关系副词引导，关系词在从句中担当相应的句子成分，关系代词在从句中作宾语时 经常可省略。同位语从句主要由连词 that 引导，在从句中一般不担当成分；有时也由 where, when, how, who, whether, what 等连词引导，这些连词则在从句中担当成分。 The news that he told me is true. （定语从句） 他告诉我的消息是真的。 The news that he has just died is true. （同位语从句） 他刚刚去世了，这个消息是真的。 The problem that we are facing now is how we can collect so much money. (定语从句) 我们现在面临的问题 是如何筹集这么多资金。 The problem how we can collect so much money is difficult to solve. （同位语从句） 我们如何筹集这么多 资金，这个问题很难解决。 The question that he raised puzzled all of us. （定语从句） 他提出的问题让我们很为难。 The question whether he is sure to win the game is hard to answer. （同位语从句） 他是否一定会赢得那场 比赛，这个问题很难回答。 3．同位语从句与先行词一般可以用动词 be 发展成一个完整的句子, 而定语从句则不能。如： A. The idea that he we could ask the teacher for advice is wonderful. （同位语从句）我们可以向老师请教， 这个主意不错。 The idea was that we could ask the teacher for advice. B. The fact that the earth moves around the sun is known to all. （同位语从句） 地球围绕太阳转，这个事实 人人皆知。 The fact is that the earth moves around the sun. C. Pay attention to the problem how we can protect the wild animals. （同位语从句） 请注意如何保护野生 动物这个问题。 The problem is how we can protect the wild animals.
Exercises: 1.There are three bedrooms in the house,_____ is Mary's. A the smallest of which B the smaller of which C the smallest of them D the smallest one 2.The Greens will move into the new house next Monday,_____ it will be completely finished. A by the time B by which time C by that time D by this time 3.Alice has a large collection of phone,_____ was taken in london. A none of them B no one of which C all of which D none of which 4.With the fast development of agriculture, the people ____ village I taught before lived a happy life. A who B whose C in whose D in which 5.There is a moutain ____ the top is always covered with snow. A whose B of which C it's D that 6.She may have missed her train, in ____ case she won't arrive for another hour. A what B that C which D this 7.1)I have three children,and two of _____ are doctors. 2)I have three children, two of ____ are doctors. 8.There two thousand students in our school,____ are girls. A two-thirds in which B two-thirds in them C two-thirds of them D of whom two thirds 9.I have bought two ballpens,_____ writes well. A neither of them B none of them C neither of which D none of which （1---6ABDCBC 7----9B DDC）
特殊结构定语从句点击 1. These houses are sold at such a low price ________ people expected. A. like B. as C. that D. which 2. I've never heard so interesting a story ________ you told me. A. as B. that C. of which D. about which 3. I've seen the same film ________ you saw yesterday. A. that B. which C. as D. like 4. I'll buy the same coat ________ you wear. A. that B. which C. as D. like 5. He made another wonderful discovery, ________ of great importance to science. A. which I think is B. which I think it is C. which I think it D. I think is 6. ________ is known to everybody, the moon travels round the earth once every month. A. It B. As C. That D. What 7. This is the first time ________ he has been here. A. that B. when C. at which D. which 8. I don't like ________ you speak to her. A. the way B. they way in that C. the way which D. the way of which
答案与简析： 1. B。当先行词被 such 修饰时，定语从句用 as 引导，即构成结构为"such+（a/an）＋形容词＋名词＋as"引导 的定语从句，意为"......像......一样的"。整个句子意为：这些房屋以人们原来估计的那样低的价格出售。 2. A。由 so interesting a story = such an interesting story 和上面一题的解释便可得知答案。as 在定语从句中作宾 语。整句意为：我从未听说过像你告诉我那样有趣的故事。 3. A 4. C。当先行词被 same 修饰时，定语从句由 that 或 as 引导，但意思不同。用 that 引导定语从句指同一物，而 用 as 引导定语从句指同类事物。 5. A。做此题的关键是要知道 I think 在定语从句中作插入语，做题时将其去掉便可容易得到答案。 6. B。Ａs 在此引导非限制性定语从句，代表它所修饰的整个句子内容，并且它可放在所修饰句子的前、中或 后面。其常见结构如：as you know, as is said above, as is often the case（情况经常是这样）等。如选Ａ，则需 将逗号改为 that；如选 D，则需将逗号改为 is that。 7. A。当先行词为 the first time, the last time 等时，定语从句的引导词用 that 而不用 when。 8. A。当先行词为 way 时，定语从句的引导词用 that 或 in which, 也可省略。
定语从句 1．This is the best factory ____we visited last year . A. where B. which C. in which D. that 2.Is this the factory ____computers are built ? A. that B. which C. in which D. in that 3.please pass me the dictionary ____cover is red . A. whose B.its C. which D. which of 4.The man ____has arrived . A. whom I told you B. that I told you C. whom I told you about him D. I told you about 5. Do you know the comrade ____we are talking ? A. to whom B. to who C. whom D. to that 6. They visited the house ___the great writer was born . A. from where B. in which C. which D. in where 7. The comrade ___is speaking at the meeting is my teacher . A. whom B. which C. who D. whose 8. He asked us to watch carefully everything ___he did in class . A. who B. that C. what D. where 9. I’ll visit the professor tomorrow ,___he will be back from Shanghai . A. who B. that C. when D. which 10.The school ___I study is a new one . A. on which B. at where C. on that D. at which 11. China has many islands,____the largest is Taiwan . A. in which B. at which C. which D. of which 12. The city ____my mother grew up is not far from here . A. what B. where C. that D. which 13. Our teacher lives in the house ____door faces to the north . A. which B. his C. that D. whose 14. Do you know the man ___your father nodded ? A. whom B. to whom C. to who D. about whom 15.Wrestling is a sport in ___people easily get hurt . A. that B. when C. which D. what 16. I told you ____I know . A. all that B. all which C. all what D. all whom 17.China has a lot of famous writers ,one ___is Lu Xun . A. of which B. of whom C. of who D. of them 18. Is this factory ____we visited last year ? A. in which B. around that C. whom D. the one 19. Who is the man ____was there ? A. who B. which C. that D. whom 20. Is there anything ____I can do for you, sir ? A. that B. which C. whose D. who 21. I still remember the day ____she first wore that green dress . A. which B. in which C. on that D. on which 22. The knife ____we used to cut the bread is very sharp . A. with which B. with it C. with that D. which 23. The games ____the young men competed in were difficult . A. in which B. which C. it D. who 24.It rained hard yesterday, ____ prevented me from going to the park.. A. that B. which C. as D. it
25. George Mallory was an English school teacher _____ loved climbing. A. who B. whom C. he D. which 历届高考英语单项选择题定语从句精选 26.His parents wouldn’t let him marry anyone ______ family was poor. A.of whom B.whom C.of whose D.whose 27.She heard a terrible noise, _______ brought her heart into her mouth. A.it B.which C.this D.that 28.In the dark street , there wasn’t a single person _____ she could turn for help. A.that B.who C.from whom D.to whom 29.The weather turned out to be very good , ____ was more than we could expect. A.what B.which C.that D.it 30.After living in Pairs for fifty years he returned to the small town ____ he grew up as a child. A.which B.where C.that D.when 31．Carol said the work would be done by October,______personally I doubt very much. A. it B.that C.when D.which 32．Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play, ________,of course , made the others unhappy. A．who B．which C．this D．what 33.Recently I bought an ancient Chinese vase , _____ was very reasonable. A.which price C.the price of which C.its price D.the price of whose 34._____ has already been pointed out , grammar is not a set of dead rules. A.As B.It C.That D.Which 35.He lived in London for 3 months , during ____ time he learned some English. A.this B.which C.that D.same 36.On the wall hung a picture, _____ color is blue. A.whose B.of which C.which D.its 37.Whenever I met him , ____ was fairly often, I like his sweet and hopeful smile. A.what B.which C.that D.when 38.The visitor asked the guide to take his picture _____ stands the famous tower. A.that B.where C.which D.there 39.The boss ____ department Ms King worked ten years ago look down upon women. A.in which B.in that C.in whose D.whose 40.I don’t like _____ you speak to her. A.the way B.the way in that C.the way which D.the way of which 41.I had neither a raincoat nor an umbrella ._______ I got wet through . A.It’s the reason B.That’s why C.There’s why D.It’s how 42.He made another wonderful discovery , ____ of great importance to science. A.which I think is B.which I think it is C.which I think it D.I think which is 定语从句答案: 1-5DCADA 6-10 BCBCD 11-15 DBDBC 16-20 ABDCA 21- 25 DABBA KEYS: 26-30 DBDBB 31-35 DBCAB 36-40 ABBCA 41-42 BA
定语从句专项练习题及详解 50 题
定语从句专项练习题及详解 50 题
定语从句专项练习题及详解 50 题 1.The place _______interested me most was the Children's Palace. A. Which B. where C. what D. in which 2.Do you know the man _______? A. whom I spoke B. to who spoke C. I spoke to D. that I spoke 3.This is the hotel _______last month. A. which they stayed B. at that they stayed C. where they stayed at D. where they stayed 4.Do you know the year ______the Chinese Communist Party was founded? A. which B. that C. when D. on which 5.That is the day ______I'll never forget. A. which B. on which C. in which D. when 6.The factory ______we'll visit next week is not far from here. A. where B. to which C. which D. in which 7.Great changes have taken place since then in the factory _______we are working. A. where B. that C. which D. there 8.This is one of the best films _______. A. that have been shown this year B. that have shown C. that has been shown this year D. that you talked 9.Can you lend me the book ______the other day? A. about which you talked B. which you talked C. about that you talked D. that you talked 10.The pen ______he is writing is mine. A. with which B. in which C. on which D. by which 11.They arrived at a farmhouse, in front of ______sat a small boy. A. whom B. who C. which D. that 12.The engineer ______my father works is about 50 years old. A. to whom B. on whom C. with which D. with whom 13.It there anyone in your class ______family is in the country? A. who B. who's C. which D. whose 14.I'm interested in ______you have said. A. all that B. all what C. that D. which 15.I want to use the same dictionary ______was used yesterday. A. which B. who C. what D. as 16.He isn't such a man ______he used to be. A. who B. whom C. that D. as 17.He is good at English, ______we all know. A. that B. as C. whom D. what 18.Li Ming, ______to the concert enjoyed it very much. A. I went with B. with whom I went C. with who I went D.I went with him 19.I don't like ______ as you read. A. the novels B. the such novels C. such novels D. same novels 20.He talked a lot about things and persons ________they remembered in the school. A. which B. that C. whom D. what 21.The letter is from my sister, ______is working in Beijing. A. which B. that C. whom D. who 22.In our factory there are 2,000 workers, two thirds of ____are women. A. them B. which C. whom D. who 23.You're the only person ______I've ever met ______could do it. A. who;/ B./; whom C. whom;/ D./; who 24.I lost a book, ______I can't remember now.
A. whose title B. its title C. the title of it D. the title of that 25.Last summer we visited the West Lake, ______Hangzhou is famous in the world. A. for which B. for that C. in which D. what 26.I have bought such a watch _______ was advertised on TV. A. that B. which C. as D. it 27.I can never forget the day _______ we worked together and the day ______ we spent together. A. when; which B. which; when C. what; that D. on which; when 28.The way ______he looks at problems is wrong. A. which B. whose C. what D./ 29.This is the reason ______he didn't come to the meeting. A. in which B. with which C. that D. for which 30.This machine, ______for many years, is still working perfectly. A. after which I have looked B. which I have looked after C. that I have looked after D. I have looked after 31.The reason ______he didn't come was ______he was ill. A. why; that B.that;why C. for that;that D.for which;what 32.He is working hard, ______will make him pass the final exam. A.that B.which C.for which D.who 33.That is not the way ______I do it. A./ B.which C.for which D.with which 34.I have two grammars, ______are of great use. A. all of which B. either of which C. both of that D. both of which 35.I want to use the same tools _______used in your factory a few days ago. A. as was B. which was C. as were D. which 36.My neigh bours used to give me a hand in time of trouble, _______ was very kind of them. A. who B. which C. that D. it 37.This is the magazine _______ I copied the paragraph. A. that B. which C. from that D. from which 38.He is not such a man _______ would leave his work half done. A. that B. which C. who D. as 39. You can depend on whatever promise _______ he makes. A. / B. why C. when D. whose 40. Smoking, _______ is a bad habit, is, however, popular. A. that B. which C. it D. though 41. --- Did you ask the guard _______ happened? --- Yes, he told me all _______ he knew. A. what; that B. what; what C. which; which D. that; that 42. I shall never forget those years _______ I lived on the farm with the farmers, _______ has a great effect on my life. A. when; who B. that; which C. which; that D. when; which 43. The number of the people who _______ cars _______ increasing. A. owns; are B. owns; is C. own; is D. own; are 44. During the days ________, he worked as a servant at the Browns. A. followed B. following C. to follow D. that followed 45. Is oxygen the only gas _______ helps fire burn? A. that B. / C. which D. it 46. The clever boy made a hole in the wall, _______ he could see _____ was going on inside house. A. which; what B. through which; what C. through that; what D. what; that 47. Is _______ some German friends visited last week? A. this school B. this the school C. this school one D. this school where 48. John got beaten in the game, _______ had been expected. A. as B. that C. what D. who 49. I have bought two ballpens, _______ writes well.
A. none of them B. neither of them C. neither of which D. none of which 50. All that can be eaten _______ eaten up. A. are being B. has been C. had been D. have been 参考答案及解析 1. A. which 用作关系代词,在定语从句中作主语. 2. "和谁讲话"要说 speak to sb. 本题全句应为 Do you know the man whom I spoke to.. C. whom 是关系代词,作 介词 to 的宾语,可以省略. 3. D. where 是关系副词,表示地点,在定语从句中作地点状语. 4. C. when 是关系副词,表示时间,在定语从句中作时间状语. 5.A. which 是关系代词,在从句中作 forget 的宾语.其他几个答案都不能作宾语. 6.C. 解析同第 5 题. 7. A. 解析见第 3 题. 8. A. 本句话的先行词应该是 films,因此, 关系代词 that 是负数概念, 其谓语动词应用复述的 被动语态 have been shown. 如果句中的 one 前面使用了定冠词 the, the one 应该视为先行 则 词. 9. A. "谈到某事物"应说 talk about sth..about 是介词,其后要用 which 作宾语,不能用 that. 10. A. with which 是"介词+关系代词"结构,常用来引导定语从句.with 有"用"的意思,介词之后 只能用 which, 不能用 that. with which 在定语从句中作状语,即 he is writing with a pen. 11. C. in front of which 即 in front of a farmhouse. In front of which 在从句中作状语. 12. D. with whom 引导定语从句.with whom 放在从句中即为:my father works with the engineer. 13. D. whose 引导定语从句,在从句中作主语 family 的定语. 14. A. that 引导定语从句,因为先行词是 all,所以只能选用 that 引导. 15. D. the same……..as 是固定用法, as 引导定语从句时,可以作主语,宾语或表语.在本句话 中,as 作从句的主 语. 16. D. such……… as 是固定用法,as 引导定语从句时,可以作主语,宾语或表语.在本题中,as 作 表语. 17. B. as 作关系代词可以单独用来引导非限制性定语从句.这时 as 所指代的不是主句中某 个名词,而往往指 代整个主句的含义 .as 在从句中可以作主语 ,宾语.从句可放在主句后 , 也可置于主句前 .在本句中,as 作宾语. 18. B. Li Ming enjoyed it very much 是主句,with whom I went to the concert 是定语从句.with whom 放在从句 中为:I went to the concert with Li Ming. 19. C. as 引导定语从句时通常构成 such…as 或 the same…as 固定搭配,其中 such 和 same 修 饰其后的名 词,as 为关系代词,指代其前的名词引导定语从句. as 在从句中可以作主语, 表语或宾语.Such 修饰单数名词 时,要用 such a……..,本题中 such books, such 直接修饰复数 名词. 20. B. things 和 persons 是先行词.当定语从句要修饰的先行词是既表示人,又表示物的名词时, 其关系代词要 用 that. 21. D. who 引导非限制性定语从句,who 作从句的主语. 22. C. two thirds of whom 即:two thirds of the 2,000 workers. 23. D. 先行词 person 后有两个定语从句,第一个从句省略了关系代词 whom.因为, whom 作从 句中 met 的 宾语,可以省略.第二个从句 who could do it.who 在从句中作主语,不可省略. 24. A. whose title 引导非限制性定语从句,whose title 也可以说成 the title of which 25. A. for which 引导定语从句,使用介词 for,是来自于从句中的固定短语 be famous for " 以……..而闻名". 26. C. 当先行词被 such 修饰时,引导定语从句的关系代词要用 as. As 在本从句中作主语. 27. A. 两个先行词 the day 都是表示时间的名词,但第一个空白处要填的关系词在从句中作状 语,因此要用关 系副词 when. 第二个空白处要填的关系词在从句中作动词 spent 的宾语,因此 要用关系代词 which 或 that 来引导定语从句. 28. D. 在 way,distance,direction 等词后的定语从句中 , 常用 that 来代替 "in ( 或其他介 词 )+which",when 或 where,而 that 常可省略. 29. D. for which 在定语从句中作原因状语,可用 why 来替代. 30. B. which I have looked after 构成一个非限制性定语从句. 31. A. The reason why… was that….已成为一种固定句型,这一句中的 why 和 that 不能随意 换位,也不能将 that 改成 because,尽管 that 这个词在译文中可能有 "因为"的含义.
32. B. 非限制性定语从句常用 which 引导,which 表示前句话的整个含义. 33. A. 解释见 28 题. 34. D. 主句中的 two 表明不能选 A.从句中的 are 表明不能选 B. both of which 用来引导非限 制性定语从 句. 35. C. as 引导定语从句时通常构成 such…as 或 the same…as 固定搭配,其中 such 和 same 修 饰其后的名 词,as 为关系代词,指代其前的名词引导定语从句 .as 在从句中可以作主语 , 表语或宾语.本题中 as 作从句的 主语. 36. B. 非限制性定语从句常用 which 引导,which 表示前句话的整个含义. 37. D. 38. D. 解析见 35 题. 39. A. he makes 是定语从句, 从句前省略了关系代词 that. 40. B. which is a bad habit 非限制性定语从句. 41. A. what happened 是宾语从句. all 之后 that he knew 是定语从句.先行词是 all,所以关系代 词只能用 that. 42. D. years 是表示时间的名词,用 when 引导定语从句,是因为 when 在从句中作时间状语.第 二个空选用 which,引导一个非限制性定语从句. 43. C. 本句话的定语从句是 who own cars. 其先行词是 people,因此,定语从句的谓语动词要 用复数的 own. 本句话主句的主语是 The number of 指"…..的数目",是单数概念.因此,主 句的谓语动词要用 is. 44. D. that followed 是定语从句,关系代词 that 在从句中作主语. 45. A. 先行词 gas 被 only 修饰,关系代词要用 that,而不用 which. 46. B. through which 引导定语从句,through which 即 through the hole,在定语从句中作状语. What 引导的是 see 的宾语从句,并作从句的主语. 47. B. 为便于理解,改写本句话:This is the school that some Germanfriends visited last week. 不难看出,作表语的 the school 是先行词.that 引导了定语从句,因为 that 同时又作 visited 的宾语,所以被省略了.其它选项结构不 对. 48. A. 解释见 35 题. 49. C. 因为是 two ballpens, 并且定语从句的谓语 writes 是单数概念.因此,C 是正确选项. 50. B. 本句话中,主句的主语是 all,为抽象概念.因此,其谓语应用单数的 has been.关系 代词 that 引导定语从 句,并在从句中作主语
定语从句【知识简介】名词或代词由一个从句来修饰，该从句即定语从句。定语从句一般后置，但 as 引导的 修饰全句的定语从句可以前置。 引导定语从句的词有关系代词 that, which, who, whom, whose, as 等以及关系副 词 when, where, why 等。关系代词或关系副词放在被修饰的名词或代词（又叫做先行词）和定语从句之间起 联系作用，同时又作定语从句中的一个成份。 【要点难点】 1) that 和 which 的用法区别只用 that 的情况： ① 先行词由最高级修饰时，如 the best work that I can do。 ② 先行词由序数词修饰时，如 the second book that I bought。 ③ 先行词由 the last, the only, the same, the very 等修饰时。 ④ 先行词是不定代词 all, anything, everything, little, much, nobody, nothing 等时，如 anything that he does; all that I can do now 等。 ⑤ 先行词有 any, no, all 等限定词时，如 all the words that I’ve learned。 ⑥ 先行词为词组，该词组既含人又含物时，如 the city and the people that I visited。 只用 which 的情况： ① 在非限定性定语从句中（定语从句前有逗号） 。 ② 介词后。请看 that 和 which 的使用例句： ? It’s the best film that’s ever been made on the subject of madness. 这是以精神病为题材而拍摄的影片中最好的一段。 Shakespeare is the greatest poet that England has ever had. 莎士比亚是英国最伟大的诗人。 （本句中先行词虽是人，但由于前面也有形容词最高级修饰，仍用 that 较好） Take the first opportunity that offers. 抓住第一个出现的机会。 He is the last person that one would suspect. 人们最不可能怀疑他。 Man is the only creature that is gifted with speech. 只有人类具有语言的天赋。 A fool sees not the same tree that a wise man sees. 一个傻瓜看到的树和一个聪明人看到的树不一样。 Those were the very words that he said at the meeting. 这些就是他在会上说的原话。 All that glitters is not gold. 闪光的并不都是金子。 Anything that you have to say had better be said in each other’s presence. 有话最好当面说。 There’s still much that is to be done. 仍然有很多事要做。 I have changed my mind. Nothing that you say will change it. 我已经改变了主意，无论你说什么也无法改变它。 Nobody that was there could convince her of her mistake. 这那儿没有一个人能使她明白她的错误。 Every paper that you read gives the same story. 你看的每份报纸都报道同样的新闻。 I still can’t forget the places and the people that I visited during last summer vacation. 我仍然难以忘怀去年暑假我见到的地方和人。
2) 关系代词（that, which, who, whom 等）和关系副词（when, where 等）的用法区别 ① 关系代词在定语从句作主语、宾语或表语，而关系副词在定语从句中作状语。 ③ 分析时主要从动词的及物性或有无介词来考虑。看如下对比例句： This is the factory where my father once worked. 这是我父亲曾工作过的工厂。 （worked 是不及物动词，不接宾语，所以不用 which/that。where 相当于 in the factory） This is the factory which/that my father once worked in. （worked in 的宾语是 factory，故用关系代词 which/that） ② I will never forget the days which/that I spent in the wood near our village. 我忘不了我在我村边小树林里度过的日子。 （the days 是 spent 的宾语） I will never forget the days when I spent my holidays with my grandparents. 我忘不了我和我的祖父母一起度假的日子。 （spent 的宾语是 holidays，不是 the days） I will never forget the small village where I spent my holidays. 我忘不了我度假的小村庄。 （与上句一样，spent 的宾语是 my holidays） ④ Is this the school which/that you visited the other day? 这是你几天前参观过的学校吗？（the school 作 visited 的宾语） Is this the school where you visited your teacher the other day? 这是你几天前拜访你老师的学校吗？（visited 在定语从句中有自己的宾语 your teacher，所以不用 that/which） 3) those who 和 he who 句型两个常用句型。He who 常用于谚语中。请看例句： He who doesn’t reach the Great Wall is not a true man. 不到长城非好汉。 God helps those who help themselves. 上帝帮助自强的人。 He who insists on seeing with perfect clearness before he decides never decides. 坚持一切看清楚之后才做决定的人永远也做不了决定。 He was a bold man who first ate an oyster. 第一个吃牡蛎的人是勇敢的人。 4) whose 的用法 whose 是关系限定词，既可以指人也可以指物，即既可以说“某人的”，也可以说“某物的”。 Fortune never helps the man whose courage fails. 运气永远不会帮助丧失勇气的人。 That's the man whose house has burned down. 那就是那位房屋烧毁的人。 Have you noticed the house whose windows are closed now 你注意到了那家窗户关着的房子吗？ He’s written a book whose name I have completely forgotten. 他写了一本书，书名我完全忘记了。 Above the trees are the mountains, whose magnificence the river faithfully reflects on the surface. 在树林的高处是山，其壮丽的景色完全映照在河面上 注： 在正式文体中， 指物时， whose 往往用 of which 表示。 of which 可放在被修饰的名词之前或之后， 而 whose 只能放在被修饰的名词之前。 例如： The house whose windows/of which the windows/the windows of which are broken is unoccupied. （那间窗户 破了的房屋没人居住。 ） whose 前有时有介词。 The teacher in whose class my daughter is studying is a kindhearted man. 我女儿所在的那位老师心地善良。 Michel Croz, with whose help, Woolworth climbed to the mountain top, was one of the prefessional guides. 米歇尔?克罗兹是职业向导之一，在他的帮助下伍德沃斯攀登到了山顶。
Then we had a chance to talk with that tall man, from whose accent we at once knew that he came from Hunan Province. 后来我们有机会和那个高个子说话，我们从他的口音迅速知道他是个湖南人。 5) 限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句的区别限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句的区别： 限制性定语从句 是先行词（即被修饰词）不可缺少的定语，限制性定语从句前不用逗号隔开；非限制性定语从句只是对先行 词的附加说明，如果去掉，先行词所述对象仍很清楚，非限制性定语从句前常用逗号隔开。这里有两个例句 及分析： Those who want to go camping please tell the monitor. 想去野营的人请告诉班长。 （定语从句 who want to go camping 在句中不可少，否则先行词 those 不知道指谁， 也就变得无意义，因此它是限制性定语从句。 ） Football, which is a very interesting game, is played all over the world. 足球风靡全世界，它是一项很有趣的运动。 （定语从句 which is a very interesting game 只是对意义已很明确的 football 作一个补充说明，因此它是非限制性定语从句。 ） 注意， 非限制性定语从句可以用关系代词 which, who, whom, whose, as 及介词+which/whom 等引导， 也可以用 关系副词 when, where 引导，但不能用 that 引导。另外，非限制性定语从句中的关系代词或关系副词是不能省 略的。 6) whom 的用法只有作定语从句中的宾语时才能用 whom； 介词后用 whom 不用 who。 口语中 whom 前无介词 时可用 that 或 who 代替。 My brother, whom you met the other day, has gone abroad. 前几天你遇见过的我的那个兄弟，出国去了。 I have a few friends whom I could ring to see if they are free. 我有几个朋友，我可以打电话去联系，看看他们是不是有时间。 You have many people around you who are kind to you but whom you will soon forget. 你周围有许多对你好的 人，但你都会很快忘记他们。 There came a lot of children, most of whom I didn’t know. 来了许多孩子，大多数我都不认识。 7) 介词＋which/whom 引导的定语从句如果关系代词 which/whom 本身在定语从句中充当一个介词或介词短 语的宾语的时候，有时可以将介词直接放在 which/whom 的前面，这样就产生了“介词＋关系代词”及“名词或 代词＋介词＋which/whom”或“复合介词＋which/whom”等的结构。 I know the man to whom you talked just now. 我认识你刚才与之说话的那个人。 Life is a flower of which love is honey. 人生是花朵，爱情是花蜜。 He was educated at the local grammar school, after which he went on to Cambridge. 当在当地的一所中学上学，此后就去上了剑桥大学。 It’s a family of five children, all of whom are studying music. 这一家有五个孩子，他们都在学音乐。 In the attic we found some apples, none of which was fit to eat. 在阁楼里我们发现了一些苹果，其中没有一个能吃的。 I have three brothers, all of whom have gone abroad. 我有三个兄弟，他们都出国了。 Soon they spotted a mountain, on top of which stood a temple. 不久他们发现了一座山，山顶上有一座庙宇。 8) why 引导的定语从句关系副词 why 用在 reason 之后，只引导限制性定语从句，why 在从句中作状语，表示 原因。 Give me the reason why you should be interested in his affairs. 告诉我你为什么竟对他的事这样感兴趣。 The reason why she was ill was that she had eaten bad meat. 她生病的原因是她吃了变质的肉。 That is the reason why he raised the question. 这就是他所以提出问题的原因。
注意：有时 reason 后不一定是 why 引导的定语从句。 如下列句子中，reason 后接的是 which/that 引导的定语从句，这是因为，reason 在定语从句中作主语或宾语。 Is this the reason which/that the chairman gave at the meeting? 这就是主席在会上所给的理由吗？ I really can’t understand the reason that/which he explained. 我实在无法理解他所解释的理由。 9) where 引导定语从句有时修饰一些具有抽象意义的表示地点的名词，如 situation, point, position 等等。 If you are ever in a situation where someone starts shooting, drop to the ground. 如果你遇到有人要射击的情况就摔倒在地上。 But after a few days’ stay they got to the point where they could read each other's thoughts. 不过呆了几天之后，他们到了一个彼此能理解相互想法的阶段。 It got to the point where I couldn't remember any of the reasons I loved him. 到那时候，我无法记起我爱他的任何理由了。 10) the way 后的定语从句 The way 后的定语从句用 in which 引导，in which 可以用 that 代替，而 that 又可以 省略。所以，表达“某人做某事的方法”有三种形式： 1. the way in which somebody does something 2. the way that somebody does something 3. the way somebody does something. 11) which 指代前面的句中的内容 which 的这一用法只能以非限定性定语从句出现。 Jenny was late for school a third time during the week, which made her teacher very angry. 詹妮一周内第三次迟到了，这使得她老师很生气。 He left early, which was wise. 他早早地离开，那是很明智的。 He suddenly became wealthy, which changed his whole mode of life. 他忽然变得富有了，这改变了他整个的生活方式。 He often helps me with my lessons, which is kind of him. 他经常在功课方面帮助我，真是感谢他。 12) which 作关系限定词的情况 which 作为关系限定词时，其本身代替前面所陈述的内容。 She asked me to see the doctor, which advice I took at once. 她要我去看医生，我立即采纳了她的建议。 He is studying economics, which knowledge is very important today. 他正在攻读经济学，这门知识在今天是非常重要的。 He believes in students’ doing more homework, which idea I am quite opposed to. 他相信要让学生做更多的家庭作业，我非常反对这个观点。 which 的这种用法常伴随介词而用。 、 常见的词组形式有 by which means, during which time, in which case, for which mistake, for which reason 等等。 She may have missed the train, in which case (=if this happens) she won't arrive for another hour. 、她也许没赶上 火车，如果那样的话，她一小时是到不了的。 I called him by the wrong name, for which mistake I apologize. 我叫错了他的名字，为此我道歉。 He didn’t feel well that morning, for which reason he didn’t attend school. 那天早晨他感到不舒服，因此，他没去上学。 Tom spent four years in college, during which time he learned French. 汤姆在大学上了四年学，在这段时间里，他学会了法语。 13) as 用法关系代词 as 引导定语从句有两种形式。 （ 1）as 引导一个非限制性定语从句修饰一个分句，as 代表该分句所表达的整个概念或其中一部分的概念。as 定语从句可置于句首、句中或句尾；as 本身在从句中充当主语、宾语及表语。 （2）用于 as … as, the same … as, so … as, such … as 等结构中。 as 用法的第一种情况： As is known to all, the earth moves around the sun. 众所周知，地球围绕太阳旋转。 He must be an African, as may be seen from the colour of his skin.
他准是个非洲人，这可以从他的肤色看得出来。 If he comes late, as is usual, for another time, we’ll not receive him. 如果他再一次像以往那样迟到，我们就不接待他了。 She is a fine singer, as her mother used to be. 她是个很出色的歌唱家，像她的母亲当年一样。 As you will find out, all is now settled. 你会发现，现在一切都解决了。 Helen is somewhat crazy, as everyone could see. 海伦有些神经错乱， 这种情况每个人都看得出。 注意这一类的 as 表面上看好像和 which 代替全句时的用法相似， 但 as 引导的定语 从句的最大特点是它的意思多侧重于表达“（正）像……、 （正）如……”及类似的意思。一般说来，当关系代 词在从句中作 be 动词的主语或一般动词的宾语时，which 和 as 可交替使用；当关系代词在从句中作一般动词 （非 be 动词）的主语时，只能用 which；as 可置于句首、句中，而 which 则不能。例如： He was late for school, as/which was usual with him. 他上学迟到了，他经常这样。 He saw the girl, as/which he had hoped (he would). 他见到了那位姑娘姑娘，正像他希望的那样。 He saw the girl, which delighted him. 他见到了那位姑娘，这使得他很开心。 （句中的 which 不能用 as 代替， 因为从句中的 delighted 是非 be 动词） As has been said before, grammar is not a set of dead rules. 正如上面所说的那样，语法不是一套死的规则。 （句中的 As 不能用 Which 代替，因为此定语从句置于句首） as 用法的第二种情况： There’s as good fish in the sea as ever came out of it. 海里有的是鱼；天涯处处有芳草。 Here is so big a stone as no man can lift. 这是一块没人能搬动的大石头。 Her manner and attitude toward him were quite the same as they had always been. 她对他的举止和态度和往常是完全相同的。 He does not possess such a mind as is necessary to a scientist. 他缺乏科学家所必须具备的头脑。 Such food as they gave us was scarcely fit to eat. 他们给我们的食物很不适合吃。 A man such as he will surely succeed. 像他这样的人是肯定会成功的。 I haven’t much money but you can use such as I have. 我钱不多，可你能用我所有的钱。 Such as you see is all we have. 你所见到的就是我们所有的东西。 14) 介词+whom/which + to do 的类定语从句结构的不定式用法 This is a useful tool with which to cut steel. 这是可以用来切割钢材的工具。 Can you recommend someone from whom to learn how to use the software? 你能推荐一个可以向他讨教使用这一软件的人吗？ It’s not a room in which to live comfortably. 这不是可以舒适居住的房间。 这一结构的介词位置固定， 不可移到动词之后， 如第一句中的 with which to cut steel 不可改成 which to cut stell with。 15) 嵌入式定语从句有一种定语从句，在其从句中的主语和谓语之间有一个插入语如 I think。这一种定语从 句叫做嵌入式定语从句。 嵌入的分句的谓语动词常常是 think, believe, guess, imagine, say, suppose, be sure, doubt 等等。? She offered a suggestion which she said would interest you. 她提出一个她说一定会引起你兴趣的建议。? He wrote letters to every person and organization that he believed might be able to help. 他写信给每个人和每个组 织， 他相信可能有帮助。 ? That is the engineer who I think is the right man chosen for the job. 那位就是我认为适 合被选派做这项工作的工程师