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介词语法知识点汇总


介词,一般置于名词或相当于名词的其他词类或结构之前。介词不能单独充当句子成分,必须 与其后的名词等构成介词短语,才能在句中充当一个成分。介词可分为:简单介词(如 in,for, at 等) 、合成介词(without, into 等) 、短语介词(如 according to, because of 等) 介词短语在句中的作用 作定语(通常后置) :The key to the

lock was lost yesterday. 作状语:The Smiths went to the airport by taxi. 作表语:This English-Chinese dictionary will be of great use. 作宾补:Make yourself at home. 2.常用介词的主要用法 About 关于:The story is about the young boy. 大约:It is about lunch time now. Above 在。 。上方:There is a picture above the window. 在。 。以上,超过:The number of students in each class is above fifty. After 在。 。之后:After classes, we go home. Against 与。 。对抗:We are going to play against No.6 Middle School’s football team. Along 沿着:We had a walk along the river bank yesterday. Among 在。 。中间(三者或三者以上)The city is among the hills. Around 在。 。周围,环绕 Our city is in a valley with mountains all around it. As 作为 As a doctor, he is not very good. At 表示地点 Kate works at a junior high school. 表示时间 Tom often comes back home at 8.00pm. Before 在。 。之前 The man said, “We are all here before you.” I usually go to sleep before 11o’clock. Behind 在。 。后面 The Star Restaurant is behind the bookshop. Beside 在。 。旁 Mary is standing beside you. Between 在二者之间 I shall be back between 4 or 5 o’clock. By 用于被动语态结构中:The story was written by Jane Austin. 表示地点 There is a bus stop by the river. 表示时间,在。 。之前,不迟于 By the end of this term we will learn about 1800 words. 表示方法 以。 。手段 I go to school by bike.

During 在。 。 。期间 We will visit Beijing during the holiday. Except 除。 。之外 We are all here except Janet. For 表目的 what do you study English for? 表给予某人 Could you read it for me? 表往。 。 。 She is leaving gz for bj. 表示时间,距离,数量等 He has worked here for 10 years. 表代替 Please say hello to your parents for me. 表原因 thank you for you help. From 从 The English class begins from 8.00 to 9.00. 来自 we are from New Zealand. In 表时间或空间 The works was finished in 2 weeks. 在 2 周之内 We often play games in the afternoon. 表在。 。方面 Computers are widely used in many fields. 表用。 。语言 Can you sing this song in English? 表一段时间之后(多用于一般将来时) I will come back in an hour. Into 进入 she came into the classroom quietly. 变成 Translate this sentences into Chinese. Like 像 Tom looks like his father. Near 在。 。附近 the cinema is near our house. Of 表所有关系 it is a map of China. 表具有某种性质、状况、内容等 I would like to have a glass of milk. On 表在与某物接触的表面上 some pens are on the desk. 后接具体时间 she left London on the evening of the 19th of November. 表关于 there will be a speech on Chinese history.(有关。 。方面的) Over 在。 。正上方 There is bridge over the river. 遍于 We have friends all over the world. 超过 There are over 50 students in our class. Past 过 Sally goes to bed at half past ten. Round =around The Greens are sitting round the table. Since

自从。 。以来 Great changes have taken place in our city since 1980. Till/until 直到 We will go on working on the farm till next Friday. To 到地点 Miss Jacob came to gz yesterday. 给 please give a pen to me. 对,向 I often read newspaper to her father. Under 在。 。下面 under the tree there is a bike. With 和。 。在一起 I went to the cinema with mike. 用。 。工具 Don’t write it with a pencil. 伴随 He said with a smile. Without 没有 we can’t live without water. 常用介词的用法区别 时间介词 in at on by at 时间的某一刻,点 at 2.00 at noon at midnight 一刹那时间 at this/that moment 习惯用法 at night at breakfast On 月份的日子,星期的日子 on July 9 on the 1st of March on Sunday on the evening of Monday 节日当天 on Christmas Day on New Year’s Day 在某个特定的早午晚,on New Year’s Eve on a cold winter night 习语 on time In 较长一段时间 (世纪、 朝代、 时代、 年、 季节、 月份)in March of 1995, in the 1990s, in modern times, in summer vacation 泛指上下午,傍晚, 日间 in the morning 在一段时间之后 I will be back in an hour 习惯搭配 in time, in (the) future, in the past, in the end By 最迟在某时刻或某一日期之前 可表现在过去将来 到。时候 by the time you got home, it will be black. 其它表示时间介词 in 与 after 表示时间“在……之后” “in+一段时间”表示将来一段时间之后,通常与将来时态(一般将来时和过去将来时)连用。 “after+一段时间”表示一段时间之后,通常与过去时连用 2) before 与 after 都常用于时间点前 in the day time on holiday at once

某个节日期间(不仅仅当天)at Christmas at New Year, at the Spring Festival

before 表示“在……之前 ,早于……” after 表示“在……之后”(与时间点连用表示将来某个时间之后) eg:I’ll be free before five o’clock tomorrow. She always watches TV after supper. I’ll ring you up after two o’clock. 3) since 与 for 常用于现在完成时中引导时间状语。 Since 用于时间点前 for 用于时间段前 He has been a teacher since 1995. She has lived here for 20 years. 4) by 与 since 表示时间的用法. by 表示一个瞬间动作发生在某一时间点或在某一时间之前. since 表示从以前某时一直到现在仍在继续,一般只用于完成时态的句子中。 Eg:Jack has studied Chinese in this school________the year of 2000. A.since B.in C.on D.by 注:since+the year of+年份=since +年份 All of us must be at the school gate by six tomorrow morning. 我们大家都得在明天早上 6 点钟之前到达学校门口。 By the time of last week, we had finished all the lessons for this term. 到上周末为止,我们已经把本学期课程都学完了。 5)until 与 till 意为“直到……”常用于 not…until…结构中。 表示“直到……才……”,until 后跟时间点。 The meeting will last till four o’clock.会议一直开到 4 点。 She didn’t leave the swimming pool until closing time. 她直到关门时才离开游泳池。 6)between 常与 and 连用。表示“在……之间” ,后跟表示“时间点”的名词。 She was at Middle School between 1979 and 1985. (2)用于地点 at in on At 较小的场所(建筑物、公共机关) at home, at the station, at the Garden Hotel 门牌号码前 my aunt lives at 501 Brook Street. In 较大的地方(洲、国家、省。地区、城市、乡镇、水域) 习语 in the fields, in the sky, in a picture On 与表面接触 on the floor, on the sofa 在任何广大的面上 on the farm on earth 与线接触,濒临 Wuhan stands on the Yangtze River.. 地点介词 ①in,at 与 on 表示方位用法 in 表示地点,“在……内” ,用于内部。 at 表示“在某地”时,后接小地方,大地方用 in。 on“在……上面 ,在靠近……的地方” ,用于表面接触,指在一个平面上。 on the wall“在墙表面挂着” in the wall “在墙内”

There is a hole in the wall. ②in,on 和 to 表达地区方位 in:表示某地在一个大的地区范围内的某一方位。 Shandong is in the east of China. on: 表示两地区的毗邻或“在……之畔” 用 on Korea is on the east of China. to: 在某地范围之外的某个方向用 to Japan is to the esat of China ③ 表达“内部前方” 与“外部前方” in front of 与 in the front of in front of: 表示在某一空间外部的前面 in the front of:表示在某一空间内部的前面 eg:There is a blackboard in the front of our classroom ④across,over 与 through across: 强调从某个平面的一边到另一边,“横过” through:指从某个立体空间内穿过,顺着通过…… over:侧重越过某种障碍物等 eg:The Great Wall goes from west to east,across the desert,over the mountains,through the valleys,till it arrives at the sea. 长城从西到东,穿过沙漠,越过高山,跨过深谷,直达海边。 ⑤“上面” 、“下面”的表达 over:表示在上方,强调在物体的正上方。 under:表示在下方,强调在物体的正下方。 above:表示在上方,不一定是正上方,有时也可指温度、海拔等的刻度。 below:表示在下方,不一定是正下方,有时也可指温度、海拔等的刻度。 Eg:Look,you’ll see a bridge over the river. We can see a village below the mountain when we stand on the top of the hill. ⑥ 英文中某些动词其后要接人,然后接“介词+the+身体部位” 注:如果身体部位较软用 in,硬的部位用 on Eg:John hit Jack in the face. He caught the boy by the arm. (3)除。 。之外 Except besides except“除了……之外” 不包含,排除之外。 besides “除……之外,另外还有” ,着重于“另外还有”(包含在内) There are in China over fifty minorities besides Hans. The manager goes to his office every day except Sunday. (4) .方式介词 ①in 指使用某种语言、工具的具体类型等。 with:多指用工具,用身体的某部位或器官。 Eg:You can see it with your own eyes.

by: 指使用的方法和手段。 ②by in on 表旅行方式时的用法 by+交通工具 前面没有冠词或任何修饰语 不涉及表示交通工具的名词时用 by by sea 海陆 by car 乘汽车 by plane 乘飞机 by boat 乘船 by air 空运,乘飞机 by bus 乘公交车 by ship 乘轮船 by subway 乘地铁 确定的交通工具 乘火车 on my bike by land 陆路 by water 水路 涉及表示交通工具的单数名词 by train 乘火车 by bike 乘自行车

on 或 in +交通工具 in a car 乘汽车 on a bus

交通工具前应有冠词、物主代词、指示代词等修饰语。 in a train on a bicycle

注意:但步行用 on foot ③ 表示“制造”的表达 be made in+ 产地 be made into +产品 be made of +材料(没有改变性质)从表面可看出原材料 be made from+材料(改变性质)从表面无法看出原材料 be made by“由……制成” (人或方式) be made for“制成用于……” 五.有关介词短语 with bad manners 有不良习惯 be strict in sth be strict with sb look forward to 期望, 盼望 hear from sb 收到……来信 hear of(about)sb/sth 听说过……(人或事) stop……from 阻止……做某事 laugh at 嘲笑某人 in trouble 陷入困境 thanks to sb 多亏某人 be good for 对……有益 be interested in sth 对某事感兴趣 laugh over 笑着谈论某人或某事 thank sb for sth 因某事而感谢某人 be good at 擅长 be bad for 对……不利 depend on 依靠某人或某事 operate on 给……做手术 play against 与……比赛 at the age of 在……岁时 by the end of 到…..

末,表达动作的截止时间,一般用于完成时态中

agree with sb 同意某人的观点和看法 go on well with sb 与某人相处很好 in bed 躺在床上 shout at 对某人喊叫 be angry with sb 对某人生气 be from=come from 来自 be proud of 为……感到骄傲、自豪 stop sb from doing sth 阻止某人做某事 at a time 一次 at times 有时 at that time 在那时 all the time 总是 in the corner of 在……内的角落 be polite to sb 对某人有礼貌

with one’s help 在某人的帮助下

be worried about 为……而担心 do well in 在……方面做的好 on a farm 在农场 be sure of 对…..有把握


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