一、 解的十个特征： 1、体现中心思想（包括段落中心）的是解 2、照抄原文的不是解，同义替换的是解 3、含义不肯定的是解，如：can could may usually might most more or less relatively be likely to 含义绝对的不是解： must always never the m
ost all any none entirely 含义相反的是解 4、具体的不是解，概括性的、抽象的是解 5、带有 some 的是解：someone somebody sometime something certain 6、简单的不是解，复杂的是解，字面意思不是解，含义深刻的是解 7、带虚词的解： another other more either both also beside additional extra different same particular nearly not enough 8、“变化”是解： change delay improve postpone increase 9、“重要的、基础的”是解：important necessity essential basis be based on 10、 二选一：反义项有解；形似项有解；近义项有解 阅读题的四种题型及其命题思路 1. 主旨题－中心思想 ① Main idea －what is the main idea / point of this passage? ② Main topic －what is the main topic / subject / title? ③ Purpose －what is the author’s main purpose in the passage? 对策：答案多在文章的首句或末句；解：多为概括性的选项 2. 细节性问题 ① Accroding－考查对文章内容的掌握，如：时间、地点、事件等细节问题。 对策：利用题目中的关键词找文章中的对应词，在对应词的周围寻找答案。 ② Number－考查对文章中数字的掌握， 1）运算型：通过简单的四则运算求解。 对策：原始数据不是解。 2）多选一型：文中出现多个时间或数字，对应不同的事物，考其中的一个。 对策：对号入座。 3）范围型， 4）世纪型 ③ Except 题型－即三缺一型，要求选出一个不符合文章内容的选项。 ④ Which 题型 对策：这两种主要考并列句、列举句 3. 推断型问题
命题包括以下动词：infer, imply, suggest, conclude, assume. 对策： 1）根据文中的关键词、短语、结构进行推断； 2）通过阅读某段或几段内容 3）注意：要根据文中内容进行推断，不能凭空猜测。 4. 词汇型问题 ① 考查熟词偏义或在特定场合具体的词义 对策：常见含义不是解 ② 生词的含义推断 对策：根据上下文判断其合理的词义才是唯一的出路。 总结：常见的命题思路： ? 文章的中心、段落的中心 ? 指代关系 make gains make a profit ? 因果关系 ① 正因果关系 文中 A 导致 B，问题：有了 B 这一结果，为什么，答案是 A ② 反因果关系 文中 A 具有 X 特性，B 与 A 不同，问，B 有何特点，答案是非 X 特性。 或A B， 考非 A 非B 一、 文章的十大考点 1、列举处常考 细节题，特别是 Which 型和 Except 型； 2、转折处和对比处常考 However, but, yet, in fact, although, 转折：unlike, until, however, but 等。 3、例子常考 推断题和细节题 as, such as, for example, for instance, i.e. etc. 4、数字和年代常考 文中的数字、年代和日期常常是命题的重点。 5、最高级和绝对性词汇常考 答案具有唯一性 must, all, only, anyone, always, never,或 most, first. 6、专有名词常考 人名、地名等专有名词 7、细节处常考 细节题 同位语，插入语，定语，长句的后半句，从句，副词，介词，不定式。 8、因果句常考 推断题 因果连词：because, since, for, as, therefore, so, consequently etc 因果动词：cause, result in，originate from, etc 因果名词：base, basis, result, consequence. etc 9、段落中心句常考 主题题和细节题
段首句和文尾句往往是作者表达中心思想和进行总结综述之处， 10、 特殊标点常考 细节题 破折号、括号、冒号表示解释，引号表示引用
示例 1、 Space is a dangerous place, not only because of meteors(流星)but also because of rays from sun and other stars. The atmosphere again acts as our protective blanket on earth. Light gets through, and this is essential for plants to make the food which we eat. Heat, too, makes our environments tolerable and some ultraviolet rays penetrate the atmosphere. Cosmic rays of various kinds come through the air from outer space, but enormous quantities of radiation from the sun are screened off. As soon as men leave the atmosphere they are exposed to this radiation but their spacesuits or the walls of their spacecraft, if they are inside, do prevent a lot of radiation damage. Radiation is the greatest known danger to explorers in space. The trouble is that it is extremely difficult to be sure about radiation damage a person may feel perfectly well, but not cells of his sex organs may be damaged, and this will not be discovered until the birth of (deformed) children or even grandchildren. Drugs might help to decrease the damage done by radiation, but not really effective ones have been found so far. At present, radiation seems to be the greatest physical hazard to space travelers but it is impossible to say just how serious the hazard will turn out to be in the future.
1、According to the passage, without atmosphere A) spaceships can never be shot into space B) sunlight can’t reach the earth （具体不是解） C) plants can produce varied food D) our environment would be intolerable（概括是解，含义相反的是解） 2、When men spend long period in space they will protect themselves by A) taking special drugs B) wearing special suits（替换 spacesuits 是解） C) using a protective blanket D) no solution has been found yet 3、The greatest danger to men in space is A) meteors B) weightlessness C) radiation D) magnetic force 4、Which of the following statement is true according to the passage?
A) the grandchildren of astronauts are deformed B) the children of astronauts have damaged sex organs C) radiation damage may show only in later generations（may 是解） D) radiation does not seem to be very harmful 5、Radiation is dangerous to men, A) but we don’t know exactly how dangerous it is B) but only in space （替换是解） C) so we should build up our health D) and we can do nothing about it at the present time 转折， 长句 后半句 示例 2、 Every we are all influenced by the mass media. Although some critics of the media claim that these means of communication are used mainly to control our thinking and get us to buy products that we don’t need, the media also contribute to keeping people informed. In other words, while dangers do exist, the benefits of the media far outweigh the disadvantages. Most of the messages brought to viewers, listeners, and readers are designed either to inform or to entertain, and neither of these goals can be considered dangerous or harmful. If consumers of the media could be taught at an early age to examine messages critically, i.e. to think carefully about what is being communicated, they would be able to take advantage of the information and enjoy the entertainment without being hurt by it. The key to critical thinking is recognizing the purposes of the news or scriptwriters, the advertisers, and so on. Are both sides of an issue being presented? Is the amount of violence and killing shown necessary to the point of a story? Have enough facts about a product being advertised been presented? Besides, in a country with a democratic form of government, the people can be kept informed by the mass media. To be able to express their views and vote intelligently, citizens need the opportunity to hear news, opinions, and public affairs programming. Information about current events is presented in －depth on publicly funded TV channels and radio stations as well as in newspapers. In addition, the public broadcasting media can help viewers and listeners to complete or further their education. The media also give people the information they need in their daily lives and the media can be a valuable means of educating the public. Even though the media can be misused, most of their effects are positive. 1. The main point the writer tries to make in this text is that A. Advertising is harmful when it presents incorrect information. B. The positive effects of the mass media outweigh the negative ones.（概括是解） C. People should learn to take advantage of the media’s benefits. D. TV is more useful as a means of entertainment than as a means of providing information. 2. What should consumers of the mass media be taught at an early age? A. To bring their imagination into full play when watching programs of low quality. B. To buy products advertised so that the demand increases. C. To turn off the TV set when hurt by bad programs. D. To think carefully about the messages brought to them.（替换是解）
举例， 长 句
因果， 列举， 长句后 半句
3. A. B. C. D. 4. A. B. C. D.
We can learn from paragraph 3 that citizens will be in a better position to express their views and make their choices if they are Highly educated through TV and radio. Well protected by the government Highly paid by the employers Well informed by the media（概括是解） The underlined phrase “in －depth” in paragraph 3 could be best replaced by Thoroughly（句义，词形） Partly Relatively Simply
高三英语二轮复习专题 06：阅读理解 1
高考阅读理解的解题技巧 阅读理解作为考查考生语言能力的重点， 《考试大纲》提出了明确的要求： “要求考生读懂熟悉的有关日常生活话题的简短文字材料。考生应能：理解主旨 要义；理解文中具体信息；根据上下文推断生词的词义；作出简单判断和推理； 理解文章的基本结构；理解作者的意图和态度。 ”高考英语阅读理解也围绕这一 要求来命题，基本上可分为五类：1．细节判断题； 2．猜测词义题；3．主旨大意题；4．推理引申题；5．篇章结构题。下面以 2004、2005、2006 年全国统一高考英语科试题为例来分析上述五种试题的命题 特点、具体要求以及解题技巧和方法。
第一节 细节判断题解题技巧 《普通高中英语课程标准》 中达到英语学科的高中毕业要求为七级，其有关 阅读最基本的要求是： “能从一般性文章中获取和处理主要信息” 。对这种“获取 和处理主要信息”能力的考查，主要采用的方式就是：细节判断。这类题在高考 阅读理解题中占一定的比例， 做好这类题是确保基础分的关键。 同时， 弄清细节， 正确获取信息，也是把握文章主旨的前提。因此，要特别重视做好这类题。 细节判断题题干常见的问句形式多种多样。如： Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage? Which of the following statements is NOT true?
Which of the following statements is correct according to the passage? Which of the following is NOT considered as ?? According to the passage, which of the following is NOT mentioned as one of the reasons for ? ? How many ? ? ？ What/who/when/where/how/why ? ? ? 做这类题的一般方法是通过 skimming 把握文章中心后，再通过寻读法 （scanning）快速确定该细节在文中的出处（信息源） ，对照选项进行“三对一错 或三错一对”的判断。若该信息句是长句或难句，要学会找出其主干部分、分析 句子结构，正确理解信息句的意义。 命题者在出这类题时惯用“偷梁换柱、张冠李戴”的手法来迷惑考生，即对 原句细微处做改动，截取原文词语或结构进行改造，因果倒置，把 A 的观点说 成 B 的观点等。所以正确理解题干和信息句的意义是关键。 这类细节性问题所涉及的面很广，有的需要经过简单的数学运算确定时间、 距离、次数、数量等；有的涉及正误判断；有的询问事实、原因、结果、目的等。 例如： （注：本书例题练习中选用全国各地高考题均保留原题号） （05 全国卷 II B 篇） days of elderly women doing nothing but cooking huge The meals on holidays are gone. Enter the Red Hat Society －a group holding the belief that old ladies should have fun. “My grandmothers didn’t do anything but keep house and serve everybody. They were programmed to do that,” said Emily Comette, head of a chapter of the 7-year-old Red Hat Society. While men have long spent their time fishing and playing golf, women have sometimes seemed to become unnoticed as they age. But the generation now turning 50 is the baby boomers(生育高峰期出生的人), and the same people who refused their parents’ way of being young are now trying a new way of growing old. If you take into consideration feminism(女权主义), a bit of spare money, and better health for most elderly, the Red Hat Society looks almost inevitable(必然的). In this society, women over 50 wear red hats and purple(紫色的) clothes, while the women under 50 wear pink hats and light purple clothing.
“The organization took the idea from a poem by Jenny Joseph that begins: When I am an old woman, I shall wear purple. With a red hat which doesn’t go.” said Ellen Cooper, who founded the Red Hat Society in 1998. When the ladies started to wear the red hats, they attracted lots of attention. “The point of this is that we need a rest from always doing something for someone else,” Cooper said. “Women feel so ashamed and sorry when they do something for themselves.” This is why chapters are discouraged from raising money or doing anything useful. “We’ a ladies’ play group. It couldn’ be more simple,” re t added Cooper’s assistant Joe Heywood. 47．Who set up the Red Hat Society ? A．Emily Comette. D．Joe Heywood. 48．Women join the Red Hat Society because A．they want to stay young B．they would like to appear more attractive C．they would like to have fun and live for themselves D．they want to be more like their parents 解析：这两题都是细节判断题。和 47 题相关的信息句是文中的： “The organization took the idea from a poem by Jenny Joseph that begins: When I am an old woman, I shall wear purple. With a red hat which doesn’ go.”said Ellen Cooper, t who founded the Red Hat Society in 1998. 理解了这句话，我们不难得出答案 B。 通过浏览我们了解了“the Red Hat Society”这个社团的性质和作用，再结合信息 句 “Enter the Red Hat Society －a group holding the belief that old ladies should have fun.” ，我们很容易得出 48 题正确答案为 C。 （05 福建卷 A 篇）Paul Zindel’s death on March 27,2003 ended the brilliant life of a famous writer. Not only did Paul Zindel win a Pulitzer Prize as well as an Obie Prize for his 1970 play The Effect of Gamma Rays on Man-in-the-Moon Marigolds, but he was one of the earliest writers in the field of contemporary（当代的） literature for young . B．Ellen Cooper. C ． Jenny Joseph.
adults 成人） The Pigman, published in 1968, is still one of the most well-known and （ . widely-taught novels in the genre. The American Library Association has named it one of the 100 Best of the Best Books for Young Adults published between 1967 and 1992, and Zindel’s autobiography, The Pigman and Me, was among the 100 Best of the Best Books published for teenagers during the last part of the twentieth century. Six of Zindel’s books, in fact, have been voted the Best Books for Young Adults, and most of his recent horror books-such as The Doom Stone and Rats have been chosen as Quick Picks for Reluctant Young Adult Readers. Clearly, he was a writer who knew how to interest contemporary children. Recognizing that, the American Library Association in 2002 honored Paul Zindel with the Margaret A. Edwards Prize for his lifetime achievements, and later that same year he was presented with the ALAN Prize for his contributions to Young Adult Literature. With his passing, young readers, teachers, and librarians have lost a great friend. 56． Which of Paul Zindel’ books was the most popular with young adults in the s 20th century? A．The Pigman. B．The Doom Stone. C．The Pigman and Me. D ． The Effect of Gamma Rays on Man-in-the-Moon Marigolds. 57．Why was Paul Zindel honored with the Margaret A. Edwards Prize? A．His books were widely read by children. B．His books were interesting and helpful to adults. C．He made great contributions to contemporary literature. D．He wrote a number of horror books for young adults. 58．When did Paul Zindel win the ALAN Prize? A．In 2002． C．Between 1967 and 1992． 2003． B．In 2003． D．Between 2002 and
59．Choose the correct statements from the following according to the passage. a.The Pigman and Me was one of the Best Books for teenagers. b.Zindel was one of the earliest writers who wrote for adults only. c.The Doom Stone and Rats are not popular with young adults. d.Zindel was given four prizes for literature before he died. e.At least eight of Zindel’s books were very popular in his times. A．c, d, e B．a, b, c C．a, b, d D．a, d, e
解析：这四题都是细节判断题。56、57、58 三题, 只要我们根据题干的问句 找到信息源，很快就能找到正确答案分别是：A、C、A，做第 59 题时我们要对 五个陈述作出正误判断，b、c 两个说法是错误的，因此，正确答案为 D。 下面请同学们实战演练上述方法和技巧。 【实战演练练习一】 （05 北京卷 A 篇） Chances I really love my job because I enjoy working with small children and like the challenges and awards from the job. I also think my work is important. There was a time when I thought I would never have that sort of career（职业）. I wasn’t an excellent student because I didn’t do much schoolwork. In my final term I started thinking what I might do and found I didn’t have much to offer. I just accepted that I wasn’t the type to have a career. I then found myself a job. Looking after two little girls, It wasn’ too bad at first. t But the problems began when I agreed to live in, so that I would be there if my boss had to go out for business in the evening. We agreed that if I had to work extra hours one week, she’ give me time off the next. But unfortunately, it didn’ often work out. d t I was getting extremely tired and fed up, because I had too many late nights and early mornings with the children. One Sunday, I was in the park with the children, and met Megan who used to go
to school with me, I told her about my situation. She suggested that I should do a course and get a qualification（资格证书）if I wanted to work with children. I didn’ t think I would be accepted because I didn’t take many exams in school. She persuaded me to phone the local college and they were really helpful. My experience counted for a lot and I got on a part – time course. I had to leave my job with the family, and got work helping out at a kindergarten. Now I’ve got a full – time job there. I shall always be thankful to Megan. I wish I had known earlier that you could have a career, even if you aren’t top of the class at school. 56．What is the author’s present job? A．Working part – time in a college. B．Taking care of children for a family. C．Helping children with their schoolwork. D．Looking after children at a kindergarten. 57．When staying with the two girls’ family, the author A．was paid for extra work hours C．got much help from her boss every other week 58．Why did the author leave her first job? A．She found a full – time job. B．She was fed up with children. C．She decided to attend a part – time course. D．She needed a rest after working extra hours. 【实战演练练习二】 （05 湖南卷 A 篇） We were on tour a few summers ago, driving through Chicago, when right outside of the city, we got pulled over. A middle-aged policeman came up to the car and was really being troublesome at first. Lecturing us, he said,“You were speeding. Where are you going in such a hurry?” Our guitarist, Tim, told him that we were on our way to Wisconsin to play a show. His way towards us totally changed. He asked, D ． took a day off . B．often worked long
“Oh, so you boys are in a band （乐队） ？” told him that we were. He then asked We all the usual band questions about the type of music we played, and how long we had been at it. Suddenly, he stopped and said, “Tim, you want to get out of this ticket, don’ you?” Tim said, t “Yes.” So the officer asked him to step out of the car. The rest of us, inside the car, didn’t know what to think as we watched the policeman talk to Tim. Next thing we knew, the policeman was putting Tim in the back of the police car he had parked in front of us. With that, he threw the car into reverse （倒车） stopping ， a few feet in back of our car. Now we suddenly felt frightened. We didn’t know if we were all going to prison, or if the policeman was going to sell Tim on the black market or something. All of a sudden, the policeman’s voice came over his loudspeaker. He said, “Ladies and gentlemen, for the first time ever, we have Tim here singing on Route 90． ”Turns out, the policeman had told Tim that the only way he was getting out of the ticket was if he sang part of one of our songs over the loudspeaker in the police car. Seconds later, Tim started screaming into the receiver. The policeman enjoyed the performance, and sent us on our way without a ticket. 56．The policeman stopped the boys to A．put them into prison C．enjoy their performance questions 57．The policeman became friendly to the boys when he knew they A．had long been at the band loved C．were driving for a show performance 【实战演练练习三】 （06 江西卷 B 篇） Buster Biown was a thief——and a good one, too, he thought. He’d never been caught by the police because he never took chances. He was always prepared for any unforeseenf D ． promised him a . . B．give them a ticket D ． ask some band
B． played the music he
event or emergency. Confidently, he stood outside the house of his intended victim(受害者) and read the sign on the front gate owner!” of the house. “Don’ worry the dog—be aware of the t
it said. Buster smiled and found his way in.
The house looked quite normal outside, but inside it was very exotic with fascinating objects on display. As he began putting them into his bag, a dog came into the room. It stopped when it saw Buster, then wagged its tail madly and went over to him, licking his outstretched hand. “Good boy,” Buster whispered. “What a great guard dog you are—trying to lick me to death.” Satisfied he’d made friends with the dog, Buster began to wander round the house, choosing items to put in his bag. His skilled eye picked out only the best antiques (古董): a pair of silver candle holders, a silver tea-and-coffce service, etc . His new friend, the dog , sat and watched, as if wondering what was happening. “Well, boy,” Buster whispered finally. “That might do. Any more and I won’ t be able to carry it ! ” Her swung the heavy bag onto his shouiders, just as the
lights came on, nearly blinding him . He shielded his eyes with his hand. “You’ re a very silly person,” the figure in the doorway said, his voice dry as dust. As the man came closer, Bustor could see he was well dressed. His face seemed familiar, but Buster couldn’t quite sure where he had seen him before. “You should have taken more notice of the sign outside.” The man rasped, “I knew about this attempted robbery Iast week and I also know you will end up behind bars for 20 years. Fancy trying to rob the house of fortune-teller!” 60． Why was Buster so confident? A. He was not afraid of dogs. B. He knew the owner of the house lived alone. C. He had never been caught by the police. D. The house had no security alarm. 61． Which of the definitions id closest in meaning to the word “exoticc” in the 3rd paragraph? the world’ s greatest
A. Messy and untidy. C. Comfortable and calming
B. Rich and expenaive. D. Foreign and unusual
62． How did Buster decide wlich objects to take? A. He took those the were easy to carry in his bag. B. He took only the best antiques. C. He took those that he knew he could sell easily. D. He looked for silver objects. 63． What punishment waits for Buster Brown? A. A prison sentence with hard labour. B. A long prison sentence. C. A heavy fine D.Community service for 20 years.
第二节 猜测词义题解题技巧 在阅读中我们经常会遇到许多生词。 这时许多同学立即翻阅词典， 查找词义。 这样做不但费时费力，而且影响阅读速度、影响对语篇的整体把握。事实上，阅 读材料中的每个词与它前后的词语或句子甚至段落都有联系。 我们可以利用语境 （各种已知信息）推测、判断某些生词的词义。近年来全国统一高考中加大了对 考生猜词义能力的考查，因此，掌握一定的猜词技巧，对突破高考阅读理解、提 高我们的英语语言能力都有非常重要的意义。 这种题常见的提问方式有： The word “?” in paragraph ? can best be replaced by ? ?. The underlined word “?” most probably means ?. By saying “?”, the author means ? The expression “?” is closest to ? According to the passage, the phrase “?” suggests ? The underlined part “? ?” (in Para. ? ) means ?..
做这种类型的题，要根据词、词组、句子所在的语境来判断其意义。因此熟 练掌握一些猜词技巧是做好这类题的关键。 命题者在出这类题时惯用常规词义来
麻痹考生，我们要特别注意熟词生义，切不可脱离语境想当然。 猜测词义时，一般可利用以下三个方面的线索： 一． 针对性的解释
针对性解释是作者为了更好的表达思想，在文章中对一些重要的概念、难懂 的术语或高深的词汇等所做的通俗化的解释。这些解释提供的信息明确具体，所 使用的语言通俗易懂，利用它们来猜测词义就非常简单。 1． 根据定义（definition）猜测词义
如果生词有一个句子或段落来定义， 那么理解这个句子或段落本身就是推断 词义。 定义常用的谓语动词多为：be, mean, deal with, be considered, to be, be called, define, represent, refer to, signify 等。 例如： （05 湖北卷 A 段） you know what a “territory” is ? A territory is an Do area that an animal ,usually the male, claims（声称）as its own. 由定义可推知，这里 territory 指的是： “动物的地盘” 。 （04 浙江卷 B 段）Green building means “reducing the impact (影响) of the building on the land”. 由定义我们可以推断这里 Green building 指的是什么。 2．根据复述推测词义 虽然复述不如定义那样严谨、详细，但是它提供的信息可以为阅读者猜测词 义提供 依据，至少读者可以根据复述猜测生词的大致“义域” （意义范围） 。复述部 分可以是词、短语、或从句。 同位语复述： 在复述中构成同位关系的两部分之间常用逗号连接，有时也使 用破折号， 冒号， 分号， 引号和括号等。 同位语前常有 or, similarly, that is to say, in other words, namely, or other, say, i.e. 等。 例如： （05 浙江卷 B 段）In fact, only about 80 ocelots, an endangered wild cat, exist in the U.S. today． 由同位语 an endangered wild cat 我们很快猜出生词 ocelots 的义域： 一种濒临 灭绝野猫。
定语从句复述： 例如： （04 福建卷 E 段） Here is The Pines ,whose cook has developed a special way of mixing foreign food such as caribou ,wild boar ,and reindeer with surprising sauces . According the passage, The Pines is a .
A．place in which you can see many mobile homes B．mountain where you can get a good view of the valley C．town which happens to be near the Banff National Park D．restaurant where you can ask for some special kinds of food 通过 whose 引导的定语从句，我们可以推测到：The Pines 是一家餐馆的名 字，由此不难推出理解题的答案为：D。 2． 根据举例猜测词义
恰当的举例能够提供猜测生词的重要线索。 例如： （04 辽宁卷 C 段）The course gives you chances to know great power polities between nation states. It will provide more space to study particular issues such as relationship among countries in the European Union, third world debt, local and international disagreement, and the work of such international bodies as the United Nations, the European Union, NATO, and the World Bank. 根据 such as 后面列举的一系列例子，我们应该能推断出句中的 issue 是指 “议题” 。 二． 内在逻辑关系
根据内在逻辑关系推测词义是指应用语言知识分析和判断相关信息之间存 在的逻辑关系，然后根据逻辑联系推断生词词义或大致义域。 1． 根据对比关系猜测词义
在一个句子或段落中， 有对两个事物或现象进行对比性的描述，我们可以根 据生词的反义词猜测其词义。 表示对比关系的词汇和短语主要有： unlike, not, but, however, despite, in spite of, in contrast 等。 表示对比关系的句子结构： while 引 导的并列句。 例如： NMET 2002 E 篇） child’ birthday party doesn’ have to be a hassle; （ A s t it can be a basket of fun.
What does the underlined word “hassle” (paragraph 1) probably mean? A. B. C. D. a party designed by specialists a plan requiring careful thought a situation causing difficulty or trouble a demand made by guests
根据对比关系，这里 hassle 和 a basket of fun 是相反的意义，很容易判断 理解题的答案为 C。 2． 根据比较关系猜测词义
同对比关系相反， 比较关系表示意义上的相似关系。表示比较关系的词和短 语主要有：similarly, like, just as, also, as well as 等。 例如：Green loves to talk, and his brothers are similarly loquacious. 该句中副词 similarly 表明短语 loves to talk 和 loquacious 之间的比较关系， 其意义相近。由此我们可推断出 loquacious 的意思是“健谈的” 。 3． 根据因果关系猜测词义
在句子或段落中， 若两个事物现象之间构成因果关系，我们可以根据这种逻 辑关系推测生词词义。 例如： （05 上海卷 B 段）I feel that since you are my superior , it would be presumptuous of me to tell you what to do .” The word “presumptuous” in the middle of the passage is closest in meaning to “ ”. A．full of respect rude C．lacking in experience D．too shy and quiet B．too confident and
根据 since 引导的原因状语从句的内容（ “既然你是我的上司”，我们可以 ） 推断这里 presumptuous 的意思是： “冒失的，放肆的”意思，后半句的意思是： 我告诉你怎么做会是一种放肆/冒失的行为。对应的理解题答案为：B。 （05 江西卷 D 段）Pruning is important because it encourages the growth of tender shoots, or young leaves. 根据原因状语从句的内容，我们可以判断 Pruning 的意思是： “修剪（树枝
等） ”的意思。 4． 根据同义、近义、并列、替代、说明等关系猜测词义
在句子或段落中， 我们可以利用熟悉的词语，根据语言环境所表示的关系推 断生词词义。 例如： （05 江苏卷 E 段）William Shakespeare said. “The web of our life is of a mingled yarn（纱线） ，good and ill together.” The underlined word “ mingled ” in the last paragraph most probably means . A．simple B．mixed C．sad D．happy
句中 good and ill together 更具体地说明了 a mingled yarn 的意义，据此我们 不难推测 mingled 的意思是： “混合的，交织的” ，答案是：B。 （04 湖北卷 C 段） it possible to beat high blood pressure without drugs ? The Is answer is “yes”, according to the researchers at Johns Hopkins and three other medical centers. 根据 and three other medical centers 这种并列关系， 我们很容易推断出： Johns Hopkins 是一家医疗中心。 三． 通过构词法
在猜测词义过程中， 我们还可以依靠构词法方面的知识，从生词本身猜测词 义。 1． 根据前缀猜测词义
例如： （05 江西卷 E 段）Do you have any strong opinion on co-educational or single-sex schools? 根据词根 educational （教育的） ，结合前缀 co-（共同，一起） ，我们便可以 猜出 co-educational 的意思是： “男女同校教育的”意思。 2． 根据后缀猜测词义
例如： （05 广东卷 E 段）It's a quiet, comfortable hotel overlooking (俯瞰) the bay in an uncommercialized Cornish fishing village on England's most southerly point． 后缀 -ise/ize 意思是“使成为?；使?化” ，结合词根 commercial（商业的） ，
不难猜出 uncommercialized 的意思是： “未被商业化的” 。 3． 根据复合词的各部分猜测词义
例如： （05 北京卷 B 段）Good tool design is important in the prevention of overuse injuries. Well – designed tools and equipment will require less force to operate them and prevent awkward（别扭的）hand positions. Well-designed 或许是个生词，但我们分析该词的结构后，就能推测出其含 义。它由 well （好，优秀）和 design （设计）两部分组成，合在一起便是“设 计精巧的”意思。 （04 浙江卷 D 段）We live in a technological society where most goods are mass-produced by unskilled labor. Because of this, most people that craft (手艺) no longer exists. 根据合成词中的 mass （大量的）和 produce （生产） ，我们可以推测 mass-produce 的意思是： “大批量生产；规模生产”的意思。 综上所述，利用各种已知的信息推测判断生词词义是一项重要的阅读技能。 在阅读中我们可以根据实际灵活应用上面提到的几种猜词技巧，排除生词的干 扰，理解文章的思想，提高阅读速度，同时，提高我们在高考阅读理解中的得分 率。 【实战演练练习四】 （04 广东卷 B 篇） One-third of the people in the village are children, and only 60 are over the age of 65． Just under half of the married women in the village have access to modem equipments. 62． The underlined part “have access to” (in Para. 4) means_____. A. use B. buy C. produce D. try
【实战演练练习五】 （04 湖北卷 D 篇） Who is there among us who hasn’t dreamed of having his or her own small (maybe , several years later , even big ) business , and having wonderful freedom , both from a boss and from the time clock ; the freedom to make up our own rules for our work , and our own plans —arranging our own hours of work ? That way work would be both painless and fun . Or , so we imagine . Well, in fact it isn’ quite as simple as that . Yes , it is true that being the boss has t
its satisfactions and that you can arrange your working hours freely if you own your own small business . But in those early years of starting your own business, you shouldn’t think of a free day , not to mention flying off for a month’s vacation . It is not unusual for new business owners to work seventy or eighty hours a week , and if there is a day off , that day might need to be devoted to accounting (算账). But this negative picture doesn’t destroy the beautiful hopes. The possibility of getting something wonderful in return—both material and mental—continues to drive that large number of people who start up small businesses each year in the United States . 70 ． The expression “ negative picture ” “ ”. A．a terrible experience C．limited freedom situations B．a poor picture D ． unpleasant most probably means