植 物 分 类 学 报 45 (2): 234–238(2007) Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica
Typhonium baoshanense Z. L. Dao & H. Li, a new sp
ecies of Araceae from western Yunnan, China
DAO Zhi-Ling CHEN Shao-Tian JI Yun-Heng LI Heng*
(Kunming Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650204, China)
Abstract Typhonium baoshanense Z. L. Dao & H. Li (Araceae: Areae), a new species from western Yunnan, China, is described and illustrated. This species differs mainly from other species of Typhonium by the presence of one to two rings of sterile male flowers above the fertile male flowers, and from T. blumei Nicolson & Sivadasan by a conic female part of the spadix, the appendix not being truncate at its base, and by the angustate limb of the spathe. The chromosome number of Typhonium blumei, which occurs in same area, is 2n=52, while the chromosome number of the new species is 2n=10. The chromosome number of the new species is the lowest in the family Araceae. Key words Typhonium, Typhonium baoshanense Z. L. Dao & H. Li, Araceae, new species, Yunnan, China. Typhonium Schott (Araceae: Areae) is a genus containing about 60 (44) species (Schott, 1832; Sriboonma et al., 1994; Hay, 1997; Mayo et al., 1997; Hetterscheid & Boyce, 2000; Hetterscheid & Nguyen, 2001; Hetterscheid et al., 2001; Wang et al., 2002), excluding Sauromatum Schott species which were moved into Typhonium by Hetterscheid and Boyce (2000). The genus Typhonium is generally distributed in south, southeast and east Asia, and extends throughout the Pacific area to Australasia. Some species are weeds and have become naturalized in various parts of the world outside Asia. There are 16 species reported in northern and southern provinces of China except Jilin and Xinjiang (Li, 1979; Li & Liu, 1983; Li & Long, 1998; Wang et al., 2002). In the summer of 2003, during an expedition in the Baihualing, Baoshan, Yunnan Province, we encountered an unusual population of Typhonium. After having carefully examined the relevant herbarium specimens, reviewed the relevant literatures, and investigated the chromosome number, we provide here the morphological and karyological evidence and conclude that these plants are sufficiently distinct to be recognized as a new species.
1 Material and methods
The morphological study was based on specimens from KUN and PE and plants cultivated in Kunming Botanical Garden. With help of keys and descriptions of Li (1979), Li and Liu (1983), Hay (1997), Hetterscheid and Boyce (2000), Hetterscheid and Nguyen (2001), Hetterscheid et al. (2001), and Wang et al. (2002), morphological features of the new species were compared with those of the closely related species. Mitotic chromosomes were investigated using root tips obtained from the holotype. These root tips were pretreated with 8-hydroxyquinoline at room temperature for 3 h, then fixed in ethyl alcohol-acid (3:1) solution at 4 ℃ for 30 min, and later hydrolysed in 1 mol/L HCl at 60 ℃ for 3–4 min. After
Received: 8 September 2005 Accepted: 31 October 2006 Supported by the National Science Foundation of U.S.A., Grant No. DEB-0103795, and The Ministry of Science and Technology of the People’s Republic of China, Grant No. 2001DEA10009. * Author for correspondence. E-mail: email@example.com; Tel.: 86-871-5223533; Fax: 86-871-5223533.
DAO et al.: Typhonium baoshanense, a new species of Araceae from China
being rinsed in distilled water 3 times, they were stained in Carbol Fuchsin solution for 1 h and then flattened for light microscopy.
The chromosomes were counted in 12 somatic cells. The new species has 10 chromosomes which were easy to group into five pairs (Fig. 1), so it is a diploid species and the basic chromosome number is 5.
Mitotic metaphase chromosomes in somatic cells of Typhonium baoshanense.
Typhonium baoshanense is a unique species in Typhonium by the presence of sterile male flowers in more or less two rings above the fertile male flowers. Compared with other species in this genus, it is closely similar to T. blumei Nicolson & Sivadasan (1981) but differs by the conic female part of the spadix (cylindric in T. blumei), the lower number of sterile flowers between the female and male flowers, the appendix which is non-truncate at its base and by the much narrower limb of the spathe. The chromosome numbers in Typhonium are 2n=10, 16, 18, 20, 26, 36, 52, 54, 65, >100 (Mayo et al., 1997; Wang et al., 2002). The lowest diploid number so far known in the genus and the family Araceae is 2n=10, which was first observed in T. jinpingense Z. L. Wang, H. Li & F. H. Bian (Wang et al., 2002). T. baoshanense shares the lowest basic chromosome number in the family Araceae with T. jinpingense, but is distinguished from the latter by leaf blade deeply cordate at base, and margins and upper part of spathe limb pale green.
Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica
4 Taxonomical treatment
Typhonium baoshanense Z. L. Dao & H. Li, sp. nov. Fig. 2 保山犁头尖 Typhonium baoshanense ab omnibus speciebus ceteris generis Typhonii spadice prope basin staminodiis subglobosis in verticillum dispositis differt; Typhonio blumei Nicolson & Sivadasan simile, sed inflorescentia pistillata conica, appendicis basi cylindrica spathae, limbo angustato, et chromosomato numero 2n=10 (non 2n=52) recedit. Perennial herb, displaying seasonal dormancy. Young rhizome subcylindric, 2–3 cm long, 1–1.5 cm in diam.; old rhizome irregularly depressed globose, ca. 3 cm in diam., developing several small globose offsets with leaves and numerous roots. Leaves 2–3; petiole greenish, smooth, 8–14 cm long, sheath 3–4.5 cm long; blade green above, pale green below, cordate-oblong, ovate, or hastate-oblong when on young plants, and cordate-sagittate on the flowering plant, slightly trifid, deeply cordate at base, apex acute, terminal lobe ovate, 6 cm long and 5 cm wide, lateral lobes ovate-oblong, 4.5 cm long and 3 cm wide. Inflorescence appearing with the leaves; peduncle hidden in the soil, whitish, 1.3–4.5 cm long; spathe 18 cm long, tube pale green, 2 cm long and 1.5 cm in diam.; spathe limb purple on both surfaces, margins and upper part pale green, long-lanceolate, to 15 cm long and ca. 3 cm wide, convolute at first and opening later, not recurved, above medium flagelliform, incurved. Spadix sessile, as long as spathe or slightly longer, 18–20 cm long in total; female zone yellowish, short-conic, 5 mm long and 7 mm in diam., separated from male zone by a whitish axis to 2.5 cm length, covered only in the basal part with sterile flowers, male zone cylindric, yellow, 5 mm long and 3 mm in diam., densely flowered, appendix dark purple, 14.5 cm long and 0.3 cm (base) in diam., distally mouse-tailed, suberect, with two verticils of dysfunctional stamens (staminodes) near the base of appendix. Male flowers: stamens yellow, free, anthers subsessile, connective slender, anthers dehiscent by apical pores. Staminodes subglobose or muscle-like, without pollen, anthers yellow, connective purple. Sterile flowers: above female flowers, ca. 14, verticillate, subcylindric, acute or obtuse, yellow, 3–4 mm long and 1 mm. in diam. Female flowers: ovary yellowish, ovoid, stigma punctate, brown. Flowering period June to July. Chromosome number: 2n=10
China. Yunnan (云南): Baoshan (保山), east slope of Gaoligong Mountains, Baihualing (百花岭), Hanlong Village (汉龙村), 98?48′11″ E, 25?17′44.7″ N, alt. 1650 m, growing under Castanea mollissima Bl. plantation with Juglans regia L. and concomitant species of Lindera communis Hemsl., Phoebe puwenensis Cheng etc. 2003-06-15, Z. L. Dao & H. Li (刀志灵, 李恒) 101 (holotype, KUN).
Distribution: China. Yunnan ( 云 南 ): Baoshan ( 保 山 ), east slope of Gaoligong Mountains. Habitat: Typhonium plants usually are found in warm temperate, subtropical and tropical humid area and seasonal forests, secondary forest, farming land, among rocks, wet sites, stream sides, and grass land at alt. below 1000 m. In China T. diversifolium Wall. grows in alpine grass plain at alt. 3300–3700 m (Xizang, Yunnan, Sichuan); T. alpinum C. Y. Wu ex H. Li et al., endemic to Yunnan, was collected from wet grass land of 3350–4000 m. T. trifoliatum Wang & Lo ex H. Li et al. is distributed in northern China (Hebei, Shanxi, Shaanxi and Nei Mongol) (Li, 1979). Typhonium baoshanense is described from western Yunnan at alt. 1650 m in plantations. It grows with T. blumei which has chromosome number 2n=52. Etymology: The new species is named after its type locality. Note: The living tuber of the type is cultivated in Kunming Botanical Garden. The leaves wilt in September. At the end of October, the tuber divides into 5 small tubers about 7×4 mm with young shoots.
DAO et al.: Typhonium baoshanense, a new species of Araceae from China
Fig. 2. Typhonium baoshanense Z. L. Dao & H. Li. A, flowering plant with tuber; B, young plant; C, inflorescence; D, male flowers and sterile male flowers (staminodes) above the fertile male flowers; E, staminode; F, sterile flowers above female zone; G, female flowers. Drawn by X. L. Wu from Z. L. Dao & H. Li 101.
Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica
Acknowledgements The authors are grateful to Dr. Josef BOGNER (Augsburger Strasse 43a, D-86368 Gersthofen, Germany), and Dr. Bruce BARTHOLOMEW (California Academy of Science, U.S.A.) for reviewing our manuscript. We also wish to thank Mr. WU Xi-Lin (Kunming Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences) for preparing the illustration. References
Hay A. 1997. Two new species and a new combination in Australian Typhonium (Araceae tribe Areae). Edinburgh Journal of Botany 54: 329–336. Hetterscheid W L A, Boyce P C. 2000. A reclassification of Sauromatum Schott and new species of Typhonium Schott (Araceae). Aroideana 23: 48–55. Hetterscheid W L A, Nguyen V D. 2001. Three new species of Typhonium (Araceae) from Vietnam. Aroideana 24: 24–29. Hetterscheid W L A, Sookchaloem D, Murata J. 2001. Typhonium (Araceae) of Thailand: New species and a revised Key. Aroideana 24: 33–55. Li H (李恒). 1979. Araceae. In: Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinica (中国植物志). Beijing: Science Press. 13 (2): 101–115. Li H (李恒), Liu Z-Q (刘振乾). 1983. A new species of Typhonium (Araceae) from Hunan. Bulletin of Botanical Research (植物研究) 3 (1): 155–158. Li H, Long C-L. 1998. A preliminary revision of Araceae in China. Acta Botanica Yunnanica (云南植物研究) (Suppl. X): 12–23. Mayo S, Bogner J, Boyce P C. 1997. The Genera of Araceae. Royal Botanical Garden, Kew. 260–263. Nicolson D H, Sivadasan M. 1981. Four frequently confused species of Typhonium Schott (Araceae). Blumea 27: 483–497. Schott H W. 1832. Araceae. In: Schott H W, Endlicher S eds. Meletemata Botanica. C. Gerold. Vienna: 16–22. Sriboonma D, Murata J, Iwatsuki K. 1994. A revision of Typhonium (Araceae). Journal of the Faculty of Science, the University of Tokyo, Section 3, Botany 15: 255–313. Wang Z-L, Li H, Bian F-H. 2002. Typhonium jinpingense, a new species from Yunnan, China, with the lowest diploid chromosome number in Araceae. Novon 12: 286–289.
刀志灵 陈绍田 纪运恒 李 恒*
(中国科学院昆明植物研究所 昆明 650204)
摘要 描述了天南星科Araceae南星族Areae犁头尖属Typhonium Schott一新种——保山犁头尖Typhonium baoshanense Z. L. Dao & H. Li, 它的叶形和佛焰苞形态与犁头尖T. blumei Nicolson & Sivadasan相似, 但 附属器下部, 雄花序之上, 有1–2轮不育雄花(退化雄蕊), 雌花序圆锥形, 附属器基部截形和佛焰苞檐 部狭窄而易于区别。同域分布的犁头尖染色体数目为2n=52, 本种染色体数目为2n=10, 为天南星科的 最低染色体基数。 关键词 犁头尖属; 保山犁头尖; 天南星科; 新种; 云南; 中国