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英语语法分析:动词不定式全接触
动词不定式是英语学习中非常活跃的部分, 也是英语考试中常考的知 识点。它分为带 to 和不带 to 两种形式,其作用相当于名词、形容词 或副词,通常在句中作主语、宾语、表语、定语、状语和宾语补足语。 这样看来,动词不定式的能量可真不小,让我们全面接触一下它吧!

一、作宾语的不定式

1.不定式的一

般式作宾语,一般表示未来的动作。不定式常在下 列 动 词 后 面 作 宾 语 , 即 :

afford,agree,attempt,consent,decide,desire,expect,endure,fear,fail,intend, manage, mean,plan,prefer,pretend,promise,propose,

refuse,regret,remember,seek,want 等。例如:

1)M r.Johnson preferred to be given heavier work to do.

2)There's a m an at the reception desk who seem s very angry and I think he means to make trouble.

2.不定式作宾语时,也可以用先行词 it 作形式宾语,而作真正宾 语的不定式短语后置。可接形式宾语的常见动词有: consider,feel,find,judge,suppose,think 等。例如:

1)I found it impossible to get to the classroom in time.

2)He considered it a great honor to be here at the party.

3.不定式前加一个连接代(副)词构成特殊的不定式短语,常在某 些 动 词 后面 作宾语 。 常 见的 可以接 这 种 不定 式短语 的 动 词有 : advise,consider,find out,forget,imagine,

know,learn,remember,see,tell,think,under- stand,wonder 等。例如:

Everyone had an application form in his hand,but no one knew to which office room to send it.(1993.12)

二、作定语的不定式

1.不定式要放在所修饰的名词或代词后面,作后置定语,常见的 后 接 不 定 式 作 定 语 的 名 词 有 : agreement, attempt, decision, plan, pressure, promise, project, intention, need, opportunity,time 等等。例如:

1)The pressure to compete causes Americans to be energetic, but it also puts them under a constant emotional strain.

2)If the building project to be completed by the end of this month is delayed,the construction company will be fined.

2. 不定式作定语与被修饰的名词或代词之间在逻辑上有主谓关 系、动宾关系、同位关系等。(值得注意的是在不定式与其所修饰的 名词有动宾关系时,根据需要在不定式后加适当的介词。)例如:

1)The next plane to arrive is from Shanghai.(主谓关系)

2)The beautiful girl couldn't resist the temptation to buy the gold neck- lace.(同位关系)

3)I'm looking for m y dormitory to live in.(动宾关系)

三、作状语的不定式

1.不定式可用来作状语,修饰动词,表示行为的目的、结果或原 因。例如:

1)To become a teacher in a university,it is necessary to have at least a m aster's degree.(目的)

2)He hurried to the railway station,only to find that the train had left.(结果)

3)We jumped with joy to hear the good news.(原因)

2.不定式也可用在作表语的形容词(或过去分词)后面作状语,说 明产生这种情况的原因或在哪方面存在谓语所表示的情况。例如:

Jim is sorry to have been so impolite to your guest last Saturday.

四、作宾补的不定式

不定式常跟在下列动词之后作宾语补足语,常见的有: advise, allow, ask, cause, command, direct, enable, encourage, expect, have, hear, invite, make, order, perm it, press, remind, tell, urge, warm 等(有些动词 后的不定式符号 to 可以省略)。例如:

1)I have heard both teachers and students speak well of him .

2)With the development in science and technology m an can make various flowers bloom before their time.

五、不定式几种形式的说明

1.不定式的一般式,通常表示未来的动作。

2.不定式的完成式表示不定式的动作在谓语所表示的动作(状态) 之前完成。

3.不定式的进行式表示谓语动词的动作发生时,不定式所表示的 动作正在进行或同时发生。

4.不定式的被动式表示不定式与其逻辑主语之间是被动关系。

动词不定式攻关练习:

1.He asked _______ since he had been chairman for seven years.

A)not to have been reelected

B)to be not re-elected

C)not to be re-elected

D)to have not been re-elected

2.Mrs.Brown is supposed _______ for Italy last week.

A)to have left B)to be leaving

C)to leave D)to have been left

3.The Greens _______ here ,but not any m ore.

A)were used to living

B)had lived

C)used to live

D)had been living

4.It is not unusual for workers in that region _______.

A)to be paid m ore than a month late

B)to be paid later than more a month

C)to pay later than a month m ore

D)to pay late m ore than a month

5.Sir Dennis,who is 78,has made it known that much of his collection _______ to the nation.

A)has left B)is to leave

C)leaves D)is to be left

6.I'd rather read than watch television;the programs seem _______ all the time.

A)got worse

B)to be getting worse

C)have got worse

D)getting worse

7.The bank is reported in the local newspaper _______ in broad daylight yesterday.

A)being robbed

B)having been robbed

C)to have been robbed

D)robbing

8.Irish weddings are almost certain to _______ in this way for generations.

A)have celebrating

B)be celebrated

C)have celebrated

D)have been celebrated

9.The Italian football team played so successfully _______ the Brazilians.

A)as not to defeat

B)as to defeat

C)in order not to defeat

D)for the purpose defeat

10.It isn't cold enough for there _______ a frost tonight,so I can leave Jim 's car out quite safely.

A)would be B)being

C)was D)to be

Key:1-5 C)A)C)A)D) 6-10 B)C)D)B)D)

(文/天津武警医学院崔学军;英语通大学英语六级考试版 2003 年第 11 期;版权归英语辅导报社所有,独家网络合作伙伴新浪教育, 未经许可,不得以任何形式进行转载。)

动词不定式全接触

动词不定式是英语学习中非常活跃的部分, 也是英语考试中常考 的知识点。它分为带 to 和不带 to 两种形式,其作用相当于名词、形 容词或副词,通常在句中作主语、宾语、表语、定语、状语和宾语补 足语。这样看来,动词不定式的能量可真不小,让我们全面接触一下 它吧!

一、作宾语的不定式

1.不定式的一般式作宾语,一般表示未来的动作。不定式常在下 列动词后面作宾语,即:afford, agree, attempt, consent, decide, desire, expect, endure, fear, fail, intend, manage, mean, plan, prefer, pretend, promise, propose, refuse, regret, remember, seek, want 等。例如:

1)M r.Johnson preferred to be given heavier work to do.

2)There's a m an at the reception desk who seem s very angry and I

think he means to make trouble.

2.不定式作宾语时,也可以用先行词 it 作形式宾语,而作真正宾 语的不定式短语后置。可接形式宾语的常见动词有: consider,feel,find,judge,suppose,think 等。例如:

1)I found it impossible to get to the classroom in time.

2)He considered it a great honor to be here at the party.

3.不定式前加一个连接代(副)词构成特殊的不定式短语,常在某 些动词后面作宾语。常见的可以接这种不定式短语的动词有:advise, consider, find out, forget, imagine, know, learn, remember, see, tell, think, under- stand, wonder 等。例如:

Everyone had an application form in his hand ,but no one knew to which office room to send it.(1993.12)

二、作定语的不定式

1.不定式要放在所修饰的名词或代词后面,作后置定语,常见的 后 接 不 定 式 作 定 语 的 名 词 有 : agreement,attempt,decision,plan,

pressure,promise,project,intention,need,opportunity,time 等等。例如:

1)The pressure to compete causes Americans to be energetic, but it also puts them under a constant emotional strain.

2)If the building project to be completed by the end of this month is delayed,the construction company will be fined.

2. 不定式作定语与被修饰的名词或代词之间在逻辑上有主谓关 系、动宾关系、同位关系等。(值得注意的是在不定式与其所修饰的 名词有动宾关系时,根据需要在不定式后加适当的介词。)例如:

1)The next plane to arrive is from Shanghai.(主谓关系)

2)The beautiful girl couldn't resist the temptation to buy the gold neck- lace.(同位关系)

3)I'm looking for m y dormitory to live in.(动宾关系)

三、作状语的不定式

1.不定式可用来作状语,修饰动词,表示行为的目的、结果或原

因。例如:

1)To become a teacher in a university,it is necessary to have at least a m aster's degree.(目的)

2)He hurried to the railway station,only to find that the train had left.(结果)

3)We jumped with joy to hear the good news.(原因)

2.不定式也可用在作表语的形容词(或过去分词)后面作状语,说 明产生这种情况的原因或在哪方面存在谓语所表示的情况。例如:

Jim is sorry to have been so impolite to your guest last Saturday.

四、作宾补的不定式

不定式常跟在下列动词之后作宾语补足语,常见的有: advise, allow, ask, cause, command, direct, enable, encourage, expect, have, hear, invite, make, order, perm it, press, remind, tell, urge, warm 等(有些动词 后的不定式符号 to 可以省略)。例如:

1)I have heard both teachers and students speak well of him .

2)With the development in science and technology m an can make various flowers bloom before their time.

五、不定式几种形式的说明

1.不定式的一般式,通常表示未来的动作。

2.不定式的完成式表示不定式的动作在谓语所表示的动作(状态) 之前完成。

3.不定式的进行式表示谓语动词的动作发生时,不定式所表示的 动作正在进行或同时发生。

4.不定式的被动式表示不定式与其逻辑主语之间是被动关系。

动词不定式攻关练习:

1.He asked _______ since he had been chairman for seven years.

A)not to have been reelected

B)to be not re-elected

C)not to be re-elected

D)to have not been re-elected

2.Mrs.Brown is supposed _______ for Italy last week.

A)to have left B)to be leaving

C)to leave D)to have been left

3.The Greens _______ here ,but not any m ore.

A)were used to living

B)had lived

C)used to live

D)had been living

4.It is not unusual for workers in that region _______.

A)to be paid m ore than a month late

B)to be paid later than more a month

C)to pay later than a month m ore

D)to pay late m ore than a month

5.Sir Dennis,who is 78,has made it known that much of his collection _______ to the nation.

A)has left B)is to leave

C)leaves D)is to be left

6.I'd rather read than watch television;the programs seem _______ all the time.

A)got worse

B)to be getting worse

C)have got worse

D)getting worse

7.The bank is reported in the local newspaper _______ in broad daylight yesterday.

A)being robbed

B)having been robbed

C)to have been robbed

D)robbing

8.Irish weddings are almost certain to _______ in this way for generations.

A)have celebrating

B)be celebrated

C)have celebrated

D)have been celebrated

9.The Italian football team played so successfully _______ the Brazilians.

A)as not to defeat

B)as to defeat

C)in order not to defeat

D)for the purpose defeat

10.It isn't cold enough for there _______ a frost tonight,so I can leave Jim 's car out quite safely.

A)would be B)being

C)was D)to be

Key:1-5 C)A)C)A)D) 6-10 B)C)D)B)D)


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