科普知识（阅读理解）由 (2013 江苏,C)改编 If a diver surfaces too quickly,he may suffer the bends.Nitrogen(氮) dissolved(溶 解) in his blood is suddenly liberated by the reduction of pressure.T
he consequence,if the bubbles(气泡)accumulate in a joint,is sharp pain and a bent body—thus the name.If the bubbles form in his lungs or his brain,the consequence can be death.
Other air-breathing animals also suffer this decompression(减压) sickness if they surface too fast: whales,for example.And so,long ago,did ichthyosaurs.That these ancient sea animals got the bends can be seen from their bones.If bubbles of nitrogen form inside the bone they can cut off its blood supply.This kills the cells in the bone,and consequently weakens it,sometimes to the point of collapse.Fossil( 化 石)bones that have caved in on themselves are thus a sign that the animal once had the bends. Bruce Rothschild of the University of Kansas knew all this when he began a study of ichthyosaur bones to find out how widespread the problem was in the past.What he particularly wanted to investigate was how ichthyosaurs adapted to the problem of decompression over the 150 million years.To this end,he and his colleagues traveled the world’s natural-history museums,looking at hundreds of ichthyosaurs from the Triassic period and from the later Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. When he started,he assumed that signs of the bends would be rarer in younger fossils,reflecting their gradual evolution of measures to deal with
decompression.Instead,he was astonished to discover the opposite.More than 15% of Jurassic and Cretaceous ichthyosaurs had suffered the bends before they died,but not a single Triassic specimen(标本) showed evidence of that sort of injury. If ichthyosaurs did evolve an anti-decompression means,they clearly did so
quickly—and,most strangely,they lost it afterwards.But that is not what Dr Rothschild thinks happened.He suspects it was evolution in other animals that caused the change. Whales that suffer the bends often do so because they have surfaced to escape a predator(捕食动物) such as a large shark.One of the features of Jurassic oceans was an abundance of large sharks and crocodiles,both of which were fond of ichthyosaur lunches.Triassic oceans,by contrast,were mercifully shark-and crocodile-free.In the Triassic,then,ichthyosaurs were top of the food chain.In the Jurassic and Cretaceous,they were prey(猎物) as well as predator—and often had to make a speedy exit as a result. 1.Which of the following is a typical symptom of the bends?( A.A twisted body. B.A gradual decrease in blood supply. C.A sudden release of nitrogen in blood. D.A drop in blood pressure. 2.The purpose of Rothschild’s study is to see A.how often ichthyosaurs caught the bends B.how ichthyosaurs adapted to decompression C.why ichthyosaurs bent their bodies D.when ichthyosaurs broke their bones 3.Rothschild’s finding stated in Paragraph 4 A.confirmed his assumption B.speeded up his research process C.disagreed with his assumption D.changed his research objectives 4.Rothschild might have concluded that ichthyosaurs A.failed to evolve an anti-decompression means B.gradually developed measures against the bends C.died out because of large sharks and crocodiles D.evolved an anti-decompression means but soon lost it
语篇解读:本篇为科普说明文,文章主要说明了鱼龙得减压病的原因和后果。并介绍了 Dr Rothschild 通过研究,推翻了关于鱼龙进化的一些猜测。 答案 及剖析 :1.A 细 节理解 题。 由 The consequence...is sharp pain and a bent
body—thus the name 减压病的典型症状是身体弯曲,可知答案为 A 项。 2.B 推理判断题。根据...to find out how widespread the problem was in the past. 和...to investigate was how ichthyosaurs adapted to the problem of decompression... 可知答案为 B 项。 3.C 推理判断题。第四段开始说到...he assumed that signs of the bends would be rarer in younger fossils...,接下来又说 Instead,he was astonished to discover the opposite,由此见,研究结果和他开始的预测相反,故选 C 项。 4.A 推理判断题。由倒数第二段的 If ichthyosaurs did evolve an anti-decompression means...But that is not what Dr Rothschild thinks happened.可知,Dr Rothschild 并不 认可鱼龙的抗减压进化途径,故 A 项正确。 【疑难词汇解读】 evolve vt.使发展,设计,发出 Maize evolved from a wild grass in Mexico. 玉米是从墨西哥的一种野生禾本植物进化而来的。 【长难句子分析】
阅读理解。阅读下列短文, 从给的四个选项 (A、B、C 和 D) 中, 选出最佳选项。 【2014·湛江市普通高考测试一】
When you make a mistake，big or small，cherish it as it’s the most precious thing in the world. Most of us feel bad when we make mistakes，beat ourselves up about it，feel like failures，and get mad at ourselves. And that’s only natural：Most of us have been taught from a young age that mistakes are bad，and we should try to avoid mistakes.We’ve been scolded when we make mistakes—at home，school and work.Maybe not always，but probably enough times to make feeling bad about mistakes an unconscious reaction. Yet without mistakes，we could not learn or grow.If you think about it that way， mistakes should be cherished and celebrated for being one of the most amazing things in the world：They possible. By trial and error—trying things，making mistakes，and learning from those mistakes—we have figured out how to make electric lights，to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel，and to fly. Mistakes make walking possible for the smallest toddler，make speech possible，and make works of genius possible. Think about how we learn：We don’t just consume information about something and instantly know it or know how to do it.You don’t just read about painting，or writing， or computer programming，or baking，or playing the piano，and know how to do them fight away.Instead，you get information about something，from reading or from another person or from observing usually...then you construct a model in your mind...then you test it out by trying it in the real world...then you make mistakes...then you revise the model based on the results of your real world experimentation...and repeat， making mistakes，learning from those mistakes，until you’ve pretty much learned how to do something. That’s how we learn as babies and toddlers，and how we learn as adults.Mistakes are how we learn to do something new—because if you succeed in something，it’s probably something you already knew how to do.You haven’t really grown much from that success—at most it’s the last step on your journey，not the whole journey.Most of the journey is made up of mistakes，if it’s a good journey. So if you value learning，if you value growing and improving，then you should value mistakes.They are amazing things that make a world of brilliance possible. 1．Why do most of us feel bad about making mistakes?
learning possible；they make growth and improvement
A．Because mistakes make us suffer a lot. B．Because it’s a natural part in our life. C．Because we’ve been taught so from a young age. D．Because mistakes have ruined many people’s careers. 2．According to the passage，what is the right attitude to mistakes? A．We should try to avoid making mistakes. B．We should owe great inventions mainly to mistakes. C．We should treat mistakes as good chances to learn. D．We should make feeling bad about mistakes an unconscious reaction. 3．The underlined word “toddler” in Paragraph 6 probably means________. A．a small child learning to walk B．a kindergarten child learning to draw C．a primary pupil learning to read D．a school teenager learning to write 4．We can learn from the passage that________. A．most of us can really grow from success B．growing and improving are based on mistakes C．we learn to make mistakes by trial and error D．we read about something and know how to do it right away 5．The author wants to tell us________. A．what you should do when meeting with difficulties B．where you can find your mistakes C．how you can avoid making mistakes D．why you should celebrate your mistakes
语篇解读 本文是一篇说明文，主要说明错误是生活中不可避免的事情，我们应该正确对待 错误，在修正错误中不断地学习和成长。 6．解析： 细节理解题。根据第三段第一句话中“Most of us have been taught from a young age that mistakes are bad，and we should try to avoid mistakes.”可知，C 项符合题 意。 答案： C 7．解析： 推理判断题。根据文章第一段“When you make a mistake，big or small，cherish it as it’s the most precious thing in the world”以及下文的表述可推断，人们在错 误中学习和提高，故选 C 项。
答案： C 8．解析： 词义猜测题。根据该词所在句子中“walking”和“smallest”可猜测，此处 toddler 应指“蹒跚学步的孩子”。句意为：错误使幼小的孩子学会走路成为可能，使学会讲 话成为可能??故选 A 项。 答案： A 9．解析： 推理判断题。根据第八段第三句话中“ You haven’t really grown much from that success”可知，A 项与文章不符；根据第五段第一句话“By trial and error—trying things，making mistakes，and learning from those mistakes”可知，C 项与文章不符； 根据第七段第一、二句话可知，D 项与文章不符。根据第四段中“they make growth and improvement possible”可推断 B 项与文章相符。 答案： B 10．解析： 推理判断题。文章开头提出了文章的写作主旨，即我们应该珍惜错误。全文叙 述了为什么我们应该珍惜并庆祝我们的错误。 答案： D。
.阅读理解。阅读下列短文, 从给的四个选项 (A、B、C 和 D) 中, 选出最佳选项。 【2014·江西省南昌两校高三上学期第四次联考】 The American newspaper publisher Arthur Sulzberger Sr died at the age of 86.Mr Sulzberger led The New York Times for more than three decades，before passing the business to his son.He took over the paper in 1963 when it was in financial trouble， and transformed it into the heart of a multi?billion dollar media empire. His family announced he had died at his home in Southampton，New York State，after a long illness.His son，Arthur Sulzberger Jr，said in a statement that his father， whom he referred to by his childhood nickname of Punch，was “one of our industry’s most admired executives”．“Punch，the old Marine captain who never backed down from a fight，was an absolutely fierce defender of the freedom of the press，” he said. The New York Times was bought by Mr Sulzberger Sr’s grandfather Adolph Ochs in 1896.During Mr Sulzberger’s tenure，The New York Times won 31 Pulitzer prizes. Born in New York City,5 February 1926，Sr served in Marine Corps during World War Ⅱ and Korean War，joined The New York Times in 1951 after graduating from Columbia
College，took over as publisher in 1963 after his brother?in?law died suddenly， stepped down in 1997 and passed stewardship to his son，Arthur Sulzberger Jr.
He oversaw a huge circulation boost at the paper，and increased its parent company’s annual revenues (年收入) from $100m in 1963 to $1.7bn by the time he stepped down in 1997.He also led the paper through high?level clashes with the political establishment.In 1971，The Times published a series of stories saying that politicians had systematically lied over the US involvement in Vietnam.The source was thousands of leaked government documents known as the Pentagon Papers.The Nixon administration demanded that the paper stop publishing the stories on grounds of national
security.But the paper refused，and then won the subsequent court case by arguing that the First Amendment of the US Constitution (宪法) guaranteed free speech.The case is seen as a landmark in the history of free speech in the US.Mr Sulzberger said he read more than 7,000 pages of the Pentagon Papers before personally deciding to publish them. His family still holds a controlling stake (控股权) in The New York Times.He was a strong believer in family ownership of newspapers.He once joked：“My conclusion is simple.Nepotism works.”
1．When did Arthur Sulzberger Sr die? A．In 1997. C．In 1963. B．In 2012. D．In 1971.
2．Punch，the old Marine captain was actually________. A．Arthur Sulzberger Jr B．Adolph Ochs C．Arthur Sutzberger Sr’s father D．Arthur Sulzberger Sr 3．Which of the following is TRUE according to the passage? A．Arthur Sulzberger Sr took over The New York Times from his brother?in?law. B．Arthur Sulzberger Jr’s grandfather bought The New York Times. C．Arthur Sulzberger Sr resigned when The New York Times was in financial trouble. D．Arthur Sulzberger Jr took over The New York Times after graduating from Columbia College. 4．In the political case in the 1970s，Mr Sulzberger________. A．failed the case in the end B．lost the controlling stake in The New York Times C．gave in to the government D． succeeded in guarding free speech of the paper
5．What does the underlined word “Nepotism” probably refer to? A．Friendship. C．Family ownership B．Politics. D．Freedom of speech.
语篇解读 本文介绍了《纽约时报》前总裁 Arthur Sulzberger Sr 的生平。 1．解析： 考查细节理解。根据第一段第一句中的“Arthur Sulzberger Sr died at the age of 86” 和第四段第一句中的“Born in New York City,5 February 1926”可知，他出生于 1926 年，去世时 86 岁，由此可知他在 2012 年去世。 答案： B 2．解析： 考查细节理解。根据第二段中的“His son，Arthur Sulzberger Jr，said in a statement that his father，whom he referred to by his childhood nickname of Punch， was ‘one of our industry’s most admired executives’”．可知 Punch，the old Marine captain 指 Arthur Sulzberger Sr。 答案： D 3．解析： 考查细节理解。根据第四段中的“Sr served in Marine Corps...took over as publisher in 1963 after his brother?in?law died suddenly”可知，A 项正确。B 项中的 “Arthur Sulzberger Jr’s grandfather”错误；根据第一段最后一句可知 C 项错误；根据 第四段可知 D 项错误。 答案： A 4． 解析： 考查细节理解。 根据倒数第三段中的“national security.But the paper refused， and then won the subsequent court case”可知，D 项符合题意。 答案： D 5． 解析： 考查词义猜测。 根据画线词前面的“He was a strong believer in family ownership of newspapers.”可推测，画线词指的应是 family ownership。 答案：C。