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人教版高中英语知识点梳理


高中课本知识分布
必修一 1. 共有三个单元 2. 各单元知识点 第一单元:一般现在时,现在进行时,be going to 第二单元:一般过去时,过去进行时,现在完成时 第三单元:被动语态,情态动词 3. 全书单词数量为:204 个 词组数量为:44 个

必修二 1. 共有三个单元 2. 各单元知识点 第四单元:一般将来时 will 和 be go

ing to 的区别,真实条件句和虚拟条件句,让步状语从 句 第五单元:原因、结果、目的状语从句 第六单元:表示时间、地点、动作的介词,定语从句,冠词 3. 全书单词数量为:229 个 词组数量为:23 个

必修三 1. 共有三个单元 2. 各单元知识点 第七单元:关系副词,介词+which 引导的定语从句,形容词的比较级 第八单元:限制性和非限制性定语从句,静态动词和动态动词 第九单元:现在完成进行时态,现在完成时态和现在完成进行时态 3. 全书单词数量为:262 个 词组数量为:40 个

必修四 1. 共有三个单元 2. 各单元知识点 第十单元:不定代词和动词不定式 第十一单元:被动语态,动名词作主语,宾语,表语,定语 第十二单元:跟动名词或不定式作宾语的动词,现在分词作副词,作表语,定语,宾语补 足语 3. 全书单词数量为:330 个 词组数量为:24 个

高一共计单词 1025,词组 131
必修五 1. 共有三个单元 2. 各单元知识点 第十三单元:过去分词在句中可作形容词或副词用,修饰名词,在句中作定语,宾语补足

语或表语 第十四单元:情态动词表示推测 第十五单元:虚拟语气 3. 全书单词数量为:313 个 词组数量为:25 个

选修六 1. 共有三个单元 2. 各单元知识点 第十六单元:过去完成时 第十七单元:过去完成进行时 1 第十八单元:过去完成进行时 2 3. 全书单词数量为:245 个 词组数量为:31 个

选修七 1. 共有三个单元 2. 各单元知识点 第十九单元:名词性从句 第二十单元:将来完成时和将来进行时 第二十一单元:混合虚拟条件句和情态动词 3. 全书单词数量为:340 个 词组数量为:13 个

选修八 1. 共有三个单元 2. 各单元知识点 第二十二单元:被动态和表示报道的表达 第二十三单元:强调句和各种完成时的形态(将来完成时,现在完成时,过去完成时,现 在完成进行时,现在分词的完成时及情态动词加完成时的用法) 第二十四单元:劝说的表达 3. 全书单词数量为:375 个 词组数量为:61 个

高二共计单词 1273,词组 130 个 高中共计单词 2298,词组 261

北师大版高中英语语法总结(必修一 — 选修八)
必修一 一、present simple and present continuous 一般现在是和现在进行时 1,present simple: 反复进行的,经常性的动作(惯例习惯) Eg, He watches soap operas. 及状态 I live in Budapest. 一般现在时常和下列时间状语连用:always, usually, from, time to time, twice a week, rarely,

seldom, once a month, never. 2,现在进行时:说话时正在进行的动作(现在,此刻) 一定时间段内经常进行的动作 和现在进行时连用的时间状语有 just, now, at the moment, at present. 二、future:arrangements and intentions 将来的安排和打算 1、be going to 表示打算要做的事情。 2、现在进行时表示已经确定或安排好事情。 Eg, I‘m getting married in June. 3、一般现在是表示不可改变的官方活动或时间表 The summer term begins on the 15th of February. 三、past simple and past continues 1,psat simple :一般过去时,表示过去完成的动作或过去的情境和习惯。 Eg: She climb the stairs and went to her room. 用一般过去时要在规则动词词尾加-ed,或用不规则动词的过去式,一般过去式的疑问句和否 定句用 did 和 didn‘t 加动词原形。 2、past continuous 过去进行时:过去某段时间正在进行的动作形成某些事件发生的情境动作。 Eg, It was raining during the whole match. 当过去进行时和一般过去时出现在同一个句子中时,过去进行时描述故事发生的背景,儿一 般过去时则报道该事件。 Eg, We driving along a country lane when, suddenly a car drove past us. Form: 过去进行时的结构是:主语+was /were +动词-ing 形式。 Eg, The driver was sitting behind the wheel. 四、present perfect and past simple。现在完成时和一般过去式,现在完成时表示发生在过去的 事情对现在依然有明显的影响 发生在过去的动作但是不知道动作发生的时间或对动作发生的确切时间不感兴趣。 现在完成时经常和下列时间状语连用: Before, ever, never, already, and , yet. already 用于肯定句,yet 用于疑问句和否定句。 Venus and Serena have played each other before.(重要的事他们过去进行了比赛,但是何时比赛 并不重要—现在完成时) Venus and Serena have played each other in June 1999.( 我们知道此事发生的确切时间—一般 过去时) 五、The passive 被动语态 在下列情况下使用被动语态: 1、不知道耶不需要知道谁做的这件事。 2、动作的执行者―显而易见‖ 3、动作本身比动作执行者更重要或不想指出谁做的这件事。 4、在书面语特别是在科技报告、报刊文章中被动语态比主动语态更正式。 Form: Tense 时态 form 形式 +past 一般现在时 am/is/are +past participle 过去分词 现在进行时 am/is/are being +pp 现在完成时 have/has been +pp 一般过去时 was/were +pp 过去进行时 was/were being +pp 六、have to/not have to, can/can‘t, ought to/ought not to uses 用法: have to 用来表示义务责任,You have to pass your test before you can drive. Don‘t have to 表达不必:We don‘t have to wear uniforms at our school. Can 用来表示允许或请求许可或者表示某事可能发生。

You can buy CDs at the market. Can‘t 表示禁止或不可能:You can‘t go out tonight. Ought to 表示应该做某事。You ought to visit your grandparents this weekend. Ought not to 表示不应该做某事 You ought not to walk alone at night. Form 形式 can/can‘t, have to/not have to 及 ought to/ought not to 后用动词原形。 现在完成时,一般现在时,一般过去时 很多语言都有现在完成时态,因此常将它和一般现在时混淆,在英语中,用现在完成时描述 发生在过去但对现在又影响的事件。如果涉及到过去某时间,则要用一般过去时。 如果过去事件的确切时间或日期不重要,也可以用现在完成时。

必修二 一、will 和 be going to 表示推测揣想 1、Will+动词原形表示依据直觉知识经验等做出的揣测。 二、first conditional 真实条件句 A 表示依据其他将来事件将来有可能发生的事件。 If the rain stops, the match will begin. 句型是: if clause main clause if +present simple will/won‘t +infinitive/without to 也可能用其他句型,特别是使用情态动词时: If you have time, we can go for a walk this evening. B 建议或命令某人做某事,提出建议或请求: If you feel sleepy, go to bed. 句型是 If clause main clause If +present simple imperative( 祈使句) 三.second conditional 虚拟条件句 A 虚拟条件句(1)表示想象的将来不可能发生的事 If I become an MP, I‘d fight for animals rights. 2)现在不可能存在的状态 If I lived closer to school, I wouldn‘t have to get up so early. 句型是 If clause main clause If +past simple would /could /might +infinitive/without to 虚拟语气用法详解 英语中的语气分为陈述语气、祈使语气、虚拟语气三类。在表示虚假的、与事实相反的 或难以实现的情况时用虚拟语气,表示主观愿望或某种强烈情感时,也用虚拟语气。即当一 个人说话时欲强调其所说的话是基于自己的主观想法,愿望,假想,猜测,怀疑或建议,而 不是根据客观实际,就用虚拟语气 一、 条件句中的虚拟语气 1. 条件句中虚拟语气的形式 从句中提出一种与客观现实不相符或根本不可能存在的条件,主句会产生的一种不可能获得 的结果。条件句中的虚拟语气根据不同的时间有三种不同的形式。 时间 从句谓语形式 主句谓语形式 动词过去式(be 用 were) 将来 should + 动词原形 would / should / might / could + 动

现在 过去

were to + 动词原形 动词过去式(be 用 were) had +动词过去分词

词原形 would / should / might / could + 动 词原形 would / should / might / could have + 动词过去分词

2. 条件中的虚拟语气的举例 (1) 将来时的条件句中的虚拟语气。如: If he should go to Qing Hua University, he would make full use of his time. 如果他要上清华大学 的话,他就会充分利用他的时间了。 If he were to come here, he would tell us about it. 如果他要来的话,他会通知我们一声。 (2) 现在时的条件句中的虚拟语气。如: If he were free, he would help us. 要是他有空的话,它会帮助我们的。 If he studied at this school, he would know you well. 如果他在这所学校学习的话,它会对你很 熟悉。 (3) 过去时的条件句中的虚拟语气。如: If I had seen the film, I would have told you about it. 我如果看过这场电影,我会把电影内容告 诉你了。 If I had got there earlier, I would have met Mr. Li. 如果我早点到那儿,我就会会到了李先生。 3. 运用条件句中的虚拟语气时,须注意的几个问题 (1) 当从句的主语为第三人称单数时,谓语动词若是系动词 be 时,可用 was 代替 were。但在 倒装虚拟结构及 if I were you, as it were 中,只能用 were。如: Were I ten years younger, I would study abroad. 要是我还年轻十岁的话,我会去国外学习。 If I were you, I would try my best to grasp the chance. 要是我是你的话,我要尽力抓住这次机 会。 (2) 有时,虚拟条件句中,主、从句的动作若不是同时发生时,须区别对待。 ① 从句的动作与过去事实相反,而主句的动作与现在或现在正在发生的事实不符。如: If I had worked hard at school, I would be an engineer, too. 如果我在学校学习刻苦的话,我现在 也会使工程师了 If they had informed us, we would not come here now. 如果他们通知过我们的话, 我们现在就不 会来这里了。 ② 从句的动作与现在事实相反,而主句的动作与过去事实不符。如: If he were free today, we would have sent him to Beijing. 如果他今天有空的话, 我们会已经派他 去北京了。 If he knew her, he would have greeted her. 要是他认识她的话,他肯定会去问候她了。 ③ 从句的动作与过去发生的情况相反,而主句的动作与现在正在发生的情况相反。如: If it had not been raining too much, the crops would be growing much better. 如果天不下太多的 雨的话,庄家会长得更好。 If he had been working hard, he would be working in the office now. 要是他工作一直努力的话, 他现在已进了办公室了。 (3) 当虚拟条件句的谓语动词含有 were, should, had 时, if 可省略, 而将 were, should, had 等词 置于句首。如: Should he agree to go there, we would send him there. 要是他答应去的话,我们就派他去。 Were she here, she would agree with us. 如果她在这儿的话,她会同意我们的。 Had he learnt about computers, we would have hired him to work here. 如果她懂一些电脑知识的 话,我们会已经聘用他来这里工作了。 (4) 有时,句子没有直接给出假设情况的条件,而须通过上下文或其他方式来判断。如: I would have come to see you, but I was too busy. 我本该来看你了,然而我太忙了。 But for his help, we would be working now. 要不是他的帮助,我们还会在工作呢。

Without your instruction, I would not have made such great progress. 要是没有你的指导,我不会 取得如此大的进步。 (5) 有时,虚拟条件句中,主、从句可以省略其中的一个,来表示说话人的一种强烈的感情。 ① 省略从句 He would have finished it. 他本该完成了。 You could have passed this exam. 你应该会通过这次考试了。 ② 省略主句 If I were at home now. 要是我现在在家里该多好啊。 If only I had got it. 要是我得到它了该多好啊。 二、其他状语从句的虚拟语气 1. 目的状语从句中的虚拟语气 (1) 在 for fear that, in case, lest 引导的目的状语从句中, 若用虚拟语气时, 从句谓语为: should + 动词原形。并且 should 不能省略 She examined the door again for fear that a thief should come in. 她又把门检查了一遍, 以防盗贼 的进入。 He started out earlier lest he should be late. 他很早就出发了以防迟到。 (2) 在 so that, in order that 所引导的目的状语从句中,从句中的谓语为: can / may / could / might / will / would / should + 动词原形。如(from www.yygrammar.com): He goes closer to the speaker so that he can hear him clearer. 他走近说话的人以便能挺得更清 楚。 He read the letter carefully in order that he should not miss a word. 他把信读得很仔细以便不漏 掉一个单词。 2. 让步状语从句中的虚拟语气 (1) 在 even if, even though 所引导的让步状语从句中,可用虚拟语气,主句、从句的结构与 if 所引导的条件从句结构相同。如: Even if he were here himself, he should not know what to do. 即是他亲自来也不知该怎么办。 Nobody could save him even though Hua Tuo should come here. 及时华佗再世也就不了他。 (2) 在 whatever, whichever,whenever,whoever, wherever,however, no matter wh-word 等 引导的让步状语从句中,从句虚拟语气结构为: ①may +动词原形(指现在或将来)。如: We will finish it on time no matter what / whatever may happen. 不管发生什么事,我们都要按时 完成。 We will find him wherever / no matter where he may be. 无论他在哪里,我们都要找到他。 I will wait for him no matter how late he may come. 不管他来的多么晚,我都会等他。 ②may +完成式(指过去) ,主句结构不限。如: You mustn‘t be proud whatever / no matter what great progress you may have made. 不管你取得 了多么大的进步,你也不能骄傲。 We must respect him no matter what / whatever mistakes he may have made. 不管他翻过什么错 误,我们必须尊敬他。 (3) 在 though, although 等引导的让步状语从句中,从句虚拟语气结构为 should +动词原形, 主句结构不限。如: Although / Though he should often be late, he is a good student. 尽管他经常迟到,他还是个好学 生。 Although / Though he should be secretary, he must obey the rules. 尽管他是书记,他也必须遵守 规定。 3. 方式状语从句中的虚拟语气 as if, as though 引导的方式状语从句常用虚拟语气。虚拟语气的结构为: 表示所发生的时间 虚拟语气结构

发生在主句动作之前 had + 过去分词 与主句动作同时发生 过去时(be 用 were ) 发生在主句动作之后 would / could / might / should+原形动词 例如: They began to talk warmly as if they had known each other for long. 他们开始热烈的谈论起来就 好像他们已相互认识很久了。 He coughed twice as if someone should come. 他咳嗽两声就好像有人要来了。 4. 原因状语从句中的虚拟语气 amazed, angry, annoyed, astonished, disappointed, frightened, happy, pleased, proud, sorry, surprised, upset 等后面的状语从句中常用虚拟语气。其虚拟语气的结构为: ①should + 原形动词(指现在或将来)。如: He was angry that you should call him by name. 他很生气,你竟然对他直呼其名。 I was astonished that he should not answer such an easy question. 我很惊讶他竟答不出如此简单 的问题。 ②should + 完成式, 指过去。如: I‘m very sorry that you should have failed the exam. 我很遗憾,你这次考试竟然失败了。 I was very surprised that Father should have known what I did yesterday. 我很吃惊,父亲竟指导 我昨天所作的事情。 三、宾语从句中的虚拟语气 1.英语中,如:advise, ask, demand, desire, decide, insist(坚决要求) , order, propose, request, suggest(建议) 表示请求、要求、命令或建议等意义的动词所接的宾语从句一般用虚拟语气, 起虚拟语气的结构为:(should) + 原形动词。如: The teacher advised that we should make good use of every minute here. 老师劝我们要好好地利 用在这儿的每一分钟。 The Party asked that we should serve the people with our heart and soul. 党要求我们要全心全意 地为人民服务。 但是,当 insist 的意思为:坚决认为,坚持说;suggest 的意思为:表明,暗含,暗示等时, 宾语从句一般不用虚拟语气。如: Tom insisted that he hadn‘t stolen the watch. 汤姆坚持说他没有偷那块手表。 His smile suggested that he had succeeded in this exam. 他的微笑表明他在考试中成功了。 2. believe, expect, suspect, think, imagine 等动词的否定句或疑问句中的宾语从句常用虚拟语 气。其虚拟语气的结构为: should + 原形动词。如: Can you believe that he should kill a tiger? 你能相信他竟杀死了一只老虎? Can you imagine that he should take the first place in the long jump contest? 你能想象得到他在 跳远比赛中竟获得了第一名? 3. 英语中,wish 之后的宾语从句,表示一种没有实现或根本不可能实现的愿望,常用虚拟语 气。其虚拟语气的结构为 表示所发生的时间 虚拟语气结构 发生在主句动作之前 (1)had + 过去分词; (2)would / could / might / should + have + 过去 分词 与主句动作同时发生 过去时(be 用 were ) 发生在主句动作之后 would / could / might / should + 原形动词 例如: I wish I learnt English well. 我希望我已学好了英语。 I wish I had been there with them last week. 我希望上周跟他们一起在那儿。 He wishes we could go and play games with him. 他希望我们能去跟他做游戏。 4. 英语中,would rather, had rather, would sooner 等之后的宾语从句常表示与客观事实不相符

的一种愿望,故使用虚拟语气。起虚拟语气的结构为: 表示所发生的时间 虚拟语气结构 过去 had + 过去分词; 现在 过去时(be 用 were ) 将来 过去时(be 用 were ) 例如: I‘d rather you had seen the film yesterday. 我倒想你昨天看过了这场电影。 I‘d rather you were here now. 我倒想你现在在这儿。 We‘d rather you went here tomorrow. 我么倒想你明天去那儿。 四、主语从句中的虚拟语气 在表达惊异、惋惜、遗憾、理应如此等意义的主语从句中常使用虚拟语气,其虚拟语其的结 构为: should + 动词原形,主句中的谓语动词形式不限。 句型: (1) It is admirable / dreadful / extraordinary / odd / remarkable / sad / advisable / annoying / disappointing / surprising / upsetting / frightening / better / best / curious / desirable / important / strange / peculiar / proper / necessary / natural …that… (2) It is a pity / a shame / no wonder…. that… (3) It is suggested / requested / desired / proposed /…. that … (4) It worries me that… 如: It is important that we should do well in our lessons first. 我们先把功课学好很重要。 It is strange that he should not come. 很奇怪,他竟没有来。 It is a pity that we should not meet last night. 真遗憾我们昨天晚上没有见过面。 It worries me that we should be blamed for that. 我们竟要受责备真让人烦恼。 五、表语从句及同位语从句中虚拟语气 英语中, 表示请求、 要求、 命令、 建议等名词 advice, desire, decision, idea, instruction, order, plan, proposal, recommendation, request, requirement, suggestion, wish 充当句子的主语而后面接表语 从句或它们后面接同位语时,表语从表面上看几屗及同位语从句都须用虚拟语气。其虚拟语 气的结构为:(should) + 动词原形。如: We followed his advice that we should ask our teacher for help. 我们接受了他的建议:我们应该 请求老师的帮助(from www.yygrammar.com)。 He told us his idea that he should go to university. 他告诉了我们他的想法:他想上大学。 His suggestion is that we should do our work more carefully. 他的建议就是我们的工作要更细心 些。 Their plan is that they should build a new factory in their hometown. 他们的计划就是在家乡建一 座新工厂。 六、定语从句中的虚拟语气 英语中,表示:―早该做某事了‖时,定语从句中的谓语动词须用虚拟语气,其虚拟语气的结 构为:It is (high / about) time that + 主语+ 动词的过去式/ should + 动词原形。如: It is time that I went to pick up my daughter at school. 我该去学校接我的女儿了。 It is high time you should go to work. 你早该上班了。 七. 简单句中的虚拟语气 1. 说话时,为了表示客气、谦虚、委婉而有礼貌,言语常使用虚拟语气。其虚拟语气的结构 形式常为:would / could / might / should + 原形动词。如: Would you mind my shutting the door? 我把门关起来你介意吗? You should always learn this lesson by heart. 你要把这个教训牢记于心。 I should agree with you. 我应该同意你的观点。 2. 表示―祝愿‖时,常用―may + 主语 + 动词原形 + 其他‖。如:

May you have a good journey! 祝你一路顺风。 May your youth last for ever! 祝你青春永驻。 3. 表示强烈的―愿望‖、―祝愿‖时,常用动词原形。如: Long live the Communist Party of China. 中国共产党万岁。 God bless us. 上帝保佑。 4. 习惯表达中常用的虚拟语气。 (1) 提出请求或邀请。如: Would you like to have a talk with us this evening? 今天晚上来跟我们聊天好吗? Could I use your bike now? 我可以用一下你的单车吗? (2) 陈述自己的观点或看法。如: I should glad to meet you. 见到你我会很高兴。 I would try my best to help you. 我会尽力帮助你。 (3) 提出劝告或建议。如: You‘d better ask your father first. 你最好先问一问你的父亲。 You should make a full investigation of it first. 你应该先全面调查一番。 (4) 提出问题。如: Do you think he could get here on time? 你认为他能按时来吗? Do you expect he would tell us the truth? 你期望他会告诉我们真相吗? (5) 表示对过去情况的责备时,常用虚拟语气。其虚拟语气的结构为:―情态动词 + have + 过 去分词‖。如 You should have got here earlier. 你应该早就到这里了。 You should have returned it to him. 你应该把他还给他了。 四、sudden decision, time clause referring to the future adverbial clause. 突然决定,表示将来的 时间状语;状语从句;让步状语从句。 说话瞬间突然做出决定,用 will +动词原形表示。 表示将来的时间状语从句,在 when, as soon as, after, before 引导的时间状语从句中用一般现 在时表将来。 Adverbial clause of concession 让步状语从句 Although 和 though 可以引导让步状语从句 Although she doesn‘t enjoy her job, she works hard.. 五、Adverbial clause (2)cause, result and purpose 状语从句二原因、结果、目的状语从句 1. as, since, because 等连词可以引导原因状语从句 As I haven‘t studied, I won‘t pass this exam 2.so that 可以引导目的状语从句 He is studying hard so that he can become a doctor. 3.so …that 或 such+(an) +名词+that 可引导结果状语从句。 It is so cold that the lake has frozen over. 4.在 many, much, few, little 前用 so 而不用 such. Famous film stars earn so much money nowadays that they can choose who to work for. 用 so lovely a boy 可代替 such a lovely boy. 六、prepositions of time, place and movement 表示时间,地点和动作的介词 Time :时间 after lunch, at midnight, at night, at the movement, before Christmas, during the break in 1999, in April, in the morning, on Sunday, on 1st April. Place 地点 at home /the bank /the seaside /above the lake/ below the clouds, behind the tree, between the bank and the park., in Bake street, in the box, in the picture, on the table/bus/first floor, under the bridge, over the table. Movement 动作: across the park\, along the river, in to the building, to/from Warsaw 七、Relative Clause 定语从句 1

定语从句可用来修饰,限定正在谈论的人或物 Students who go to this school 没有定语从句就不知道所谈的和人或何物。 在定语从句中门要用下列关系代词: Who (有时用 that )用来指人,that 用来指代动物。 Which (that)用来指代物地点等 The park that is in the center of the town has beautiful big trees. Where 用来指代位置和地点,whose 用来表示所属关系。 若关系代词 which,that 或 who 在定语从句中作宾语,而不做主语时, 可以省略。 The girl (who) you meet is Peter‘s sister. 八、language problem-solving ,a, an ,the 在下列情况下用 a/an 1,所谈论的事那个人或物并不重要时 2) ,所谈论的是一类人或物时,3,第一次谈论某人或物时, 2,单词首字母为辅音前用 a ,而首字母为元音或以元音发音的名词前用 an 3, 在下列情况下用 the 1)所谈论的人或物是读者或听者已知晓的且易于辨认的。 2)当所谈论的人或物时世界上独一无二的 用或不用冠词的短语 英语有许多短语中冠词的使用很难解释清楚,所以需要牢记 No article:零冠词 at home, at school, go to work, go to bed, have breakfast /lunch, in hospital, 和 the 连用的短语:at the station, to the cinema, play the piano, in the morning/ evening . 和 a 连用的短语:have a bath /shower, have a rest, have a cake, have a drink. 在国家和城镇名称前不用 the 但在河流,海洋和山脉名称前要用 the。 必修三 一、Relative Clause with where, when and why, where, when, why 引导的定语从句 关系副词 where, when 引导的定语从句可提供时间和地点的信息, 在 reason 后可用 why 引导 的定语从句。 介词+ which /whom 引导的定语从句 关系代词可做介词的宾语,通常在 which 和 whom 前加介词即介词+which/whom 结构 This is the book for which he is looking. 可以根据定语从句所修饰的名词或代词来选介词,也可以依据从句的相关动词来选用。但在 日常英语中,通常是吧介词放在从句句末,省略关系代词 which 和 whom The train(which /that) I‘m travelling on is for Shanghai. 二、形容词和副词的比较 More and more 越来越… Less /the least 不如/最不… The …the …越…就越… The less I worried, the better I worked. 三、修饰形容词比较级 Much, a lot, slightly, a little, almost, a bit, far, even, still, twice/ three times …more than/twice as much/many as/twice the +n +of …比…多/是… 的两倍/三倍。 四、状态或动作动词 英语中动词分为两类:动作动词和状态动词。动作动词描述动作,可用于一般时态和进行时 态;状态动词描述状态,一般不用于进行时态。 状态动词 表达思维活动的动词:admit, believe, know, mean, prefer, realize, remember, think, understand,

want, 表达情感的动词:adore,care, like, dislike, love, hate, hope 表达拥有和存在的动词:appear, be, belong, contain, have, include, need, seem, possess, own. 感官动词 feel, hear, look, see, smell, sound, taste,有些状态动词也可以表示动作,在此意义上, 这些动词可用于现在时。 How are you feeling? 感官动词后用形容词修饰二不用副词。 The roses look and smell beautiful. 四、定语从句:defining and non-defining 限制性和非限制性定语从句 Ⅰ . 概念: (1) 定语从句:在主从复合句中用作定语的从句叫定语从句。定语从句一般紧接在先行词 (antecedent)后面。 (2) 先行词:被定语从句修饰的成份。先行词可以为一个词,短语,或整个主句。 (3) 引导定语从句的词叫关系词,分为关系代词和关系副词。 关系词的作用: 1) 引导定语从句,连接主句和从句,相当于一个连词; 2) 必在从句中作某个句子成份(可以做主语,宾语,表语,定语,状语) 常用的关系代词 : that 、 which 、 who 、 whom 、 whose 、 as 、 but ( 文语 , 置于否定词之后 =that/who…not…, "没有……不……", 在从句中作主语,宾语) 常用的关系副词(在从句中只作状语): when、why、 where The student who answered the question was John. I know the reason why he was so angry. The boy (whom) you are talking to is my brother. I'd like a room whose window looks out over the sea. 定语从句三步: 第一找出先行词; 第二看先行词在定语从句中的语法功能(做主语、宾语或状语) ; 第三选择合适的关系词。 Ⅱ . 几个关系代词的基本用法: ●that: 可指人或物;在定语从句中作主语,宾语,表语。(指人时,相当于 who 或 whom;指 物时,相当于 which)(一般不用于非限制性定语从句; 不可置于介词后作宾语) 如: 1. A letter that/which is written in pencil is difficult to read. (主语) 2. Do you know the gentleman that/who spoke just now? 3. You can take anything ( that) you like. (宾语) 4. What is the question (that/which) they are talking about? 5. Here is the man ( who/whom/that ) you want to see. 6. She's no longer the girl ( that) she used to be before.(表语) 7. Our hometown is no longer the one (that) it used to be. = Our hometown is not the same as it used to be. = Our hometown is different from what it used to be。 = Our hometown is not what it used to be. ●which: 指物;在定语从句中作主语,宾语,表语,定语。如: 1. The book which/that was on the desk was bought by my father.(主语) 2. The book (which/that) I bought yesterday is very interesting.(宾语) 3. The factory in which his father works is far from here. 4. He was proud, which his brother never was. (表语) 5. Tom spent four years in college, during which time he learned French.(定语) 6. He may be late, in which case we ought to wait for him. ●who, whom, whose:

who: 主格, 在从句中作主语,在口语或非正式用法中作宾语; 只可指人 whom: 宾格,在从句中作宾语; 只可指人 whose: 属格,在从句中作定语,可指人也可指物。 I like the students who/that work hard. (主语) All who heard the story were amazed. (代词如 he, they, any, those, all, one 等后多用 who.) Chaplin, for whom life had once been very hard, was a success as an actor. (宾语) He's a man from whom we should learn. = He's a man (whom/who/that) we should learn from. 比较:He is the student whom you think to be worthy of your praise. He is the student who you think is worth praising. A child whose parents are dead is called an orphan.(指人) I'd like a room whose window faces south. (指物) =I'd like a room of which the window faces south. =I'd like a room the window of which faces south. There is a teapot shaped like a Chinese duck, out of whose mouth tea is supposed to come 关系代词作介词宾语: 关系代词在定语从句中用作介词宾语时 , 介词可放于从句之首 , 也可放于从句之末. 但以放 于句首较为正式.(介词前置,必须注意不影响动词词组的含义。关系代词 who 和 that 用作 介词宾语时, 介词必须放在句末.) This is the book for which you asked. =This is the book (that/which) you asked for. Do you know the person with whom I shook hands?= Do you know the person (whom/who/that) I shook hands with? The beginning of agriculture was a big step in human progress with which nothing could compare until our information age. In the dark street, there wasn't a single person to whom she could turn for help. Is this the factory to which you paid a visit last week? Is this factory the one to which you paid a visit last week? This is the girl whom they are looking after. (介词 after 与 look 构成固定词组, 不可前置。 look at, look for, look after, take care of 等) ●as 的用法:(as 引导定语从句, 在定语从句中作主语、宾语、表语) ① 如为限制性的,多用于 the same …as ; the same as;such …as …; as many/much as;so …as 等结构中。如: ※ I have the same book as you (have). 我有一本和你的一样的书。 Her attitude to him was quite the same as it had always been. (关系代词 as 和指示代词 same 连 用, 在从句中用作表语, 先行词是 same.) .---Why didn't you mention that in face of the police just now? --- I thought it was such a minor detail as was hardly worth mentioning. We will only discuss such problems as have something to do with our own interests. Don't do such things as you are not sure about. There is no such place as you dream of in all this world. 比较:I live in the same house that he used to live in. I'm wearing the same shirt as you wore yesterday. 比较:Here is so big a stone as no one can lift. (定语从句) Here is so big a stone that no one can lift it.(结果状语从句) ② 如为非限制性的,多单独引导一个定语从句,这种定语从句可置于句首,句中或句尾,译 为"正如,这一点"。 (动词常为 know, see, expect, point out, etc.) As we all know, smoking is harmful to one's health . (as 作宾语)

=As is known to all, smoking is harmful to one's health . (as 作主语) =It's known to all that smoking is harmful to one's health . =Smoking is harmful to one's health , as we all know .(as 作宾语) =Smoking, as we all know, is harmful to one' health. He was a foreigner, as I knew from his accent. (宾语, 先行词是前面整个句子) Ⅲ . 关系副词引导的定语从句: ●When 指时间, 在定语从句中作时间状语。 其先行词是表时间的名词 (如: time, day, week, tear, month, etc.) He came last night when I was out. We will put off the picnic until next week, when the weather would be better. 注意:先行词为"时间名词",可用 when 引导定语从句,when 在定语从句中作状语;还可以 用 which 或 that 引导,which 或 that 在从句中作主语或宾语。 比较: I still remember the day when /on which my brother joined the army.(作状语) Next month, when you will be in your hometown, is just around the corner. I still remember the days which/that we spent together. (作宾语) Next winter which/that you'll spend in Harbin, I'm sure, will be exciting. I shall never forget the day when Shen Zhou Ⅴ was launched, which has a great effect on my life. There are occasions when joking is not permissible. ●Where 指地点,在定语从句中作地点状语。其先行词是表示地点的名词,如:place, school, factory, room, etc. This is the place where I was born. I live in the room where /in which he used to live. 注意:先行词是"地点名词",定语从句可用 where 引导,还可用 which 或 that 引导,which/that 在从句中作主语或宾语。 比较: ※ This is the factory where /in which he worked last year. (作状语) The treatment will continue until the patient reaches the point where he can walk correctly and safely. I think you have got to the point where a change is needed, or you would fail. Government reports, legal papers and most business letters are the main situations where English is used. He's got himself into a dangerous situation where he's likely to lose control of the plane. The small mountain village where we spent our holiday last month lies in what /the place which is now part of Hubei. This is the park which/that they visited last year. (作宾语) Not having been there before, he simply had no idea about the place, which everyone says is worth visiting. ●Why 指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语。先行词为 reason 时,可用 for which 指代;当关 系词在从句中作主语或宾语时,则用 which 或 that 引导。如: The reason why / for which / (that) he didn't attend the meeting was that he was ill. I don't believe the reason (that/which) he gave me. (作宾语) Have you asked him the reason that may explain his success? (作主语) Ex.) He was late .That's because he got up late. .He got up late. That's why he was late.(表语从句) (the reason) why/for which he was late. (定语从句) 当先行词为 way 时,定语从句常用 that, in which,或 how 引导,that 常可以省略。 way 后的定语从句 的引导词不用时较多。但如果关系词在句中作主语或宾语 时,则用 which 或 that 引导。如: This is the way (that) /in which I do such things.

比较: Please do the experiment in the way (that/which)I have shown you. Ⅳ . 限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别: 1. 形式上,非限制性定语从句往往用逗号隔开。 2. 语法上,非限制性定语从句一般不用 that. 3. 语义上,限制性定语从句与先行词关系紧密,起限定作用,如果去掉了这个定语从句,整 个句子就不完整或者会改变意思;而非限制性定语从句与先行词关系不是很紧密,对先行词 起补充说明或描述的作用。 This is the book I like best. 这就是我最喜欢的那本书。 Beijing, which has been China's capital for more than 800 years , is rich in cultural and historic relics. 北京是中国八百年之久的古都,它有着丰富的文化和历史遗产。 4. 翻译时,限制性定语从句可译为一句(较短的一般译为"的"字结构) ;而非限制性定语从句 可译为两句。 (见上句翻译) 比较: He has a sister, who is a musician. He has a sister who is a musician. 引导非限制性定语从句的关系代词, 指人时用 who, whom, whose , 指物时用 which , whose; 关 系副词 when,where, why, etc. 1. He studied hard at school when he was young, which leads to his success in his later life. 2. Tom's father, who arrived just now, is a famous scientist. 3. They set up a separate state of their own, where they would be free to keep Negroes as slaves. 4. He was proud, which his brother never was. Ⅴ . 几个易混淆的关系代词的比较: ●that & which: 在定语从句中,which 和 that 在指代事物时,一般可以互换使用,但并非在任何情况下都是 这样,这里介绍宜用 that, 而不宜用 which 的情况. ① 先行词为不定代词,all,much,something,everything,anything,nothing,none,the one 等, 1.We should do all that is useful to the people . 2.There's nothing that can be said about it . 3.Do you mean the one that was bought yesterday? ② 先行词被 only, any, few, little, no, just, very, one of 等词修饰时。 1.The only thing that we could do was to wait. 2.That's the very word that is wrongly used. The last place (that) we visited was the chemical works. You can take any (=whichever) seat that is free. I hope the little that I can will be of some help to them. 比较 *This is one of the best novels that were published last year. *This is the only one of the best novels that was published last year. ③ 先行词是序数词时或被序数词修饰时。 1.When we talk about Wuxi, the first that comes into mind is Tai Lake. 2.This is the third film that has been shown in our school this term. ④ 先行词是最高级或被最高级修饰时。 1.This is the best that can be done now. 2.The most important thing that should be done right now is how to stop him from going on. ⑤ 先行词既有人又有物,用 which 和 who 都不适合,这时宜用 that. 如: 1.The writer and his novel that you have just talked about is really well known . 2.The rider and his bike that had run over an old woman were held up by the police. ⑥ 被修饰词为数词时. 1.Yesterday I caught two fish and put them in a basin of water .Now you can see the two that are still alive .

⑦ 如果有两个从句,其中一个关系代词已用 which ,另一个关系代词宜用 that,以避免语言的 单调或重复。 Edison built up a factory which produced things that had never been seen before. ⑧ 疑问词是 who 或 which,关系代词宜用 that,以避免重复。 1. Which is the book that you like best? 2. Who is the man that is standing at the gate? ⑨ 主句是 There be 结构,修饰其主句的定语从句宜用 that 作关系代词. 如: 1. There is still a seat in the corner that is still free. ⑩ 被修饰成分为表语时,或者关系代词本身是定语从句的表语时,该关系代词宜用 that . 1. That's a good book that will help you a lot. 2. My home village is no longer the place ( that ) it used to be . 定语从句中宜用 which 而不宜用 that 的情况: ① 当关系代词的前面有介词时. 1.A zoo is a park in which many kinds of animals are kept for exhibition. 2.Is this the room in which Mr. White lives? ② 在非限制性定语从句中. 1.Crusoe's dog, which was are now very old, became ill and died . 2.More and more people are beginning to learn English, which is becoming very popular in our country. (which 指代主句) ③ 在一个句子中有两个定语从句, 其中一个定语从句的关系代词用了 that, 另一个宜用 which . 1. Let me show you the novel,that I borrowed from the library which was newly open to us. 2. At the station I bought some magazines that might help me to pass the time on the train and which I could pass on to others when I finished them. ④ 当关系代词后面带有插入语时. 1. Here's the English grammar which, as I have told you, will help improve your English. ⑤ 先行词本身是 that, 宜用 which . What's that which she is looking at? ⑥ 先行词是 those+复数名词. A shop should keep a stock of those goods which sell best. (B) who & that: who 和 that 指代人时,有些情况宜用 who, 而不宜用 that ① 先行词为 anyone, anybody, those, all, one, ones, they, he, people 时. 如: 1.The person I want to learn from is the one who studies hard and works well. 2.Anyone who (=Whoever) failed to come to the meeting yesterday must give his reason . 3.Those who are not fit for their work should leave office at once 4.I don't like the ones (= those ) who talk big. 5.Persons who are quarrelsome are despised. ② 在 There be 结构中,修饰主语的定语从句宜用关系代词 who 指代人. 如: 1.There is a gentleman who wants to see you . 2.There are several students in our class who are still not sure about the use of attributive clauses. ③ 当先行词有较长的后置定语时. 如: 1. I met a foreigner in the park yesterday afternoon who could speak Chinese very well. ④ 一个句子中带有两个定语从句, 其中一个定语从句的关系代词是 that ,另一个则宜用 who, 以 免重复. 如: 1. The student that was praised at yesterday's meeting is the monitor who is very modest and works very hard . ●as & which:

as & which 引导非限制性定语从句的区别: ① 位置的不同: which 引导的定语从句只置于所限制的 句子后;as 位置较灵活,也就是说 as 可置于所限制 的句子前面;插在句子中或放在句子后。如: 1. He was late again, which made his teacher very angry. 2. Jack, as you know, is an honest man. 或 Jack is an honest man , as you know. 或 As you know, Jack is an honest man. ② 先行词的不同: as 引导非限制性定语从句时,其先行词多为一个句子; which 引导非限制性定语从句时,其先行词可以是一个词,一个短语或一个句子。 He was proud, which his brother never was. (先行词是一个词) She was very patient towards the children, which her husband seldom was. He was proud, which I dislike very much.(先行词是一个句子) He is an honest man, as is known to all. He was a foreigner, as I know from his accent. ③ as 一般译为"正如""就像","这一点" as we all know; as you know; as is known to all; as you see; as we can see; as has been expected; as we have imagined. 五、现在完成进行时 present perfect continuous 用法:1.过去开始的反复或正在进行的尚未完成的动作 I‘ve been going everywhere by bike for the last two months. 2. 最近的过去开始的对现在又影响的动作。 He ?s been doing his science project all night.(that‘s why he‘s so sleepy, now.) Form:形式 Subject + have /has +been + -ing You‘ve been studying very hard. 六、Present perfect and present perfect continuous 1.我们用现在完成时谈论一个完成的动作,用现在完成进行时谈论未完成的动作。 2.现在完成时关注动作结果,尤其谈到数字或数量时,现在完成进行时关注动作本身,特别 是解释动作可见的结果时。 He has run three times He has been running for an hour. 七、现在完成时和时间状语 现在完成时使用下列时间状语:. 1.before,ever, never, seldom, sometimes often, usually, just, 这些副词一般放在 has /have 之后, 有时放在句末。 2. already 用在陈述句中(一般在 have 之后)yet 用在疑问句和否定句中(常放在句末) 3.for, since, all my life For 说明动作的时间长度,since 说明动作的起点。 八、too 加形容词,not + 形容词 + enough Too + 形容词表示某物超过我们所需。标识语 too + 形容词相反的意思用 not + 形容词 + enough 结构。 九、形容词的顺序 Quality –size/age/shape-color-origin-made of-type/usage-noun Beautiful long brown hair Metal half-moon glasses

Old French car 10、Articles 冠词 a/an 1,冠词 a/an 用在单数可数名词前,泛指某人某事,并把该人该事作为一群/一种的例子时。 2,第一次谈论某事时用冠词 a/an。 The,定冠词 1,当别人知道我们谈论的那个人那件事,并能容易地判定该人,该事时, The car is dirty. 2,谈论世上独一无二的事物。 3,河流,海洋,山脉和群岛名称前,the Nile. 4,单数名词表达整个种类时,The whale is the biggest mammal. 5,形容词谈论享有同一特征的群体时, No article 1,在表示泛指的复数名词和不可数名词前 2,在洲,城镇, 湖泊,单座山脉,单个岛屿和国家名称前,, 3,机场,车站,街道的名称前 4,在复数形式的国名和国名中含有一个普通名词的国家名称前要加 the. 必修四 一、some /any /no; a lot of /many /much; there is /are 英语名词分为可数名词和不可数名词,可 数名词有单,复数形式,而不可数名词只有单数形式。 Some, any, no, a lot of 是数量词,用在可数或不可数名词前。通常 some 用于肯定句,any 用 于否定句。 Much 和 a little 用于不可数名词前 I need some new shoes. I don‘t have any money. We haven‘t bought much sugar. There is a little milk left. Many 和 a few 用于可数复数名词前 There aren‘t many quiet place nowadays. I invited a few friends to my birthday party. A lot of 用于可数复数名词和不可数名词前。Much 和 many 主要用于否定句。 Not many people come to her party. He haven‘t got much homework tonight. 表示某处有某物时常用 there is /are 结构。 二、all none, both neither, 是限定词,all 用于复数名词或不可数名词前表示人或物种的每一个 或全部整体。 All (of) the players are fit. She ate all (of) her rice. Noun of 用于复数名词或 the +集合名词前,和 noun 连用得动词可以使单数或复数,但总是 肯定形式。表达两人或两物时,用 both of 和 neither of。 三、another,other, the other, the second. Another, other, the other , second 是限定词,another 用于单数可数名词前表示―又一个‖或另外 一个,其他一种。 Other ,用于复数名词前,表示另外的,更多的。 There are other routes to school but this is the nicest one. 四、Infinitives 不定式 不定式 to do 在句中可做主与,表语,宾语,宾语补足语,定语和状语。 It is useful to know how to drive.(宾补) The best way to learn a foreign language is to make friends with a foreigner.(定语,表语) I need to attend the meeting.(宾语) 在特定动词后,不定式可以和疑问词连用。

Verb+ who /which /how / when …+ to do 不定式的否定式是 not to do. 五、 The passive 被动语态。 1,可用于不知道或不需要强调动作执行者时, The press conference will be held in the hotel lobby. 2, 动作的执行者很明确时。 3,要强调动作本身二不是强调谁做的这件事时。 4,有时,要强调的动作执行者时(人或物)通常在句末用 by + 名词表示。 被动语态讲解 (一)、被动语态的构成形式 1. 被动语态的基本时态变化 被动语态通常为十种时态的被动形式, 被动语态由 be+过去分词构成,be 随时态的变化 而变化。以 do 为例,各种时态的被动语态形式为: 1) am/is/are +done (过去分词) 一般现在时 例 Visitors are requested not to touch the exhibits. 2) has /have been done 现在完成时 例 All the preparations for the task have been completed, and we're ready to start. 3) am/is /are being done 现在进行时 例 A new cinema is being built here. 4) was/were done 一般过去时 例 I was given ten minutes to decide whether I should reject the offer. 5) had been done 过去完成时 例 By the end of last year, another new gymnasium had been completed in Beijing. 6) was/were being done 过去进行时 例 A meeting was being held when I was there. 7) shall/will be done 一般将来时 例 Hundreds of jobs will be lost if the factory closes. 8) should/would be done 过去将来时 例 The news would be sent to the soldier's mother as soon as it arrived. 9) shall/will have been done 将来完成时(少用) 例 The project will have been completed before July. 2. 被动语态的特殊结构形式 1)带情态动词的被动结构。其形式为:情态动词+be+过去分词。 例 The baby should be taken good care of by the baby-sitter. 2) 有些动词可以有两个宾语,在用于被动结构时,可以把主动结构中的一个宾语变为主 语,另一宾语仍然保留在谓语后面。通常变为主语的是间接宾语。 例 His mother gave him a present for his birthday. 可改为 He was given a present by his mother for his birthday. 3) 当―动词+宾语+宾语补足语‖结构变为被动语态时,将宾语变为被动结构中的主语,其 余不动。 例 Someone caught the boy smoking a cigarette. 可改为 The boy was caught smoking a cigarette. 4)在使役动词 have, make, get 以及感官动词 see, watch, notice, hear, feel, observe 等后面 不定式作宾语补语时,在主动结构中不定式 to 要省略,但变为被动结构时,要加 to。 例 Someone saw a stranger walk into the building. 可改为 A stranger was seen to walk into the building. 5) 有些相当于及物动词的动词词组,如―动词+介词‖,―动词+副词‖等,也可以用于被 动结构,但要把它们看作一个整体,不能分开。其中的介词或副词也不能省略。 例 The meeting is to be put off till Friday. 3. 非谓语动词的被动语态

v.+ing 形式及不定式 to do 也有被动语态(一般时态和完成时态) 。 例 I don't like being laughed at in the public. (二)、 如何使用被动语态 学习被动语态时,不仅要知道被动语态的各种语法结构,还要知道在哪些情况中使用被 动语态。 1. 讲话者不知道动作的执行者或不必说出动作的执行者 (这时可省 by 短语)。 例 My bike was stolen last night. 2. 借助被动的动作突出动作的执行者。 例 I was given ten minutes to decide whether I should accept the offer. 3. 为了更好地安排句子。 例 The well-known person got on the bus and was immediately recognized by people. (一个 主语就够了) (三)、 It is said that+从句及其他类似句型 一些表示―据说‖或―相信‖的动词如 believe, consider, expect, report, say, suppose, think 等可 以用于句型―It+be+过去分词+that 从句‖或―主语+be+过去分词+to do sth.‖。有: It is said that… 据说,It is reported that…据报道,It is believed that…大家相信,It is hoped that…大家希望,It is well known that…众所周知,It is thought that…大家认为,It is suggested that…据建议。 例 It is said that the boy has passed the national exam. (=The boy is said to have passed the national exam. ) (四)、谓语动词的主动形式表示被动意义 1.英语中有很多动词如 break,catch,clean,drive,lock,open,sell,read,write,wash 等,当它们被用作不及物动词来描述主语特征时,常用其主动形式 表达被动意义,主语通常 是物。 例 This kind of cloth washes well. 注意:主动语态表被动强调的是主语的特征,而被动语态则强调外界作用造成的影响。 试比较:The door won't lock. (指门本身有毛病) The door won't be locked. (指不会有人来锁门, 指―门没有锁‖是人的原因) 2. 表示―发生、 进行‖的不及物动词和短语, 如: happen, last, take place, break out, come out, come about, come true, run out, give out, turn out 等以主动形式表示被动意义。 例 How do the newspapers come out? 这些报纸是如何引出来的呢? 3. 系动词没有被动形式, 但有些表示感受、感官的连系动词 feel, sound, taste, book, feel 等在主系表结构中常以主动形式表示被动意义。 例 Your reason sounds reasonable (五)、非谓语动词的主动形式表被动意义 在某些句型中可用动名词和不定式的主动形式表被动意义 。 1. 在 need,want,require, bear 等词的后面,动名词用主动形式表示被动意义,其含义 相当于动词不定式的被动形式。 例 The house needs repairing(to be repaired).这房子需要修理。 2.形容词 worth 后面跟动名词的主动形式表示被动含义, 但不能跟动词不定式; 而 worthy 后面跟动词不定式的被动形式。 例 The picture-book is well worth reading. (=The picture-book is very worthy to be read.) 3. 动词不定式在名词后面作定语,不定式和名词之间有动宾关系时,又和句中另一名词 或代词构成主谓关系, 不定式的主动形式表示被动含义。 例 I have a lot of things to do this afternoon. (to do 与 things 是动宾关系,与 I 是主谓关 系。)

试比较:I‘ll go to the post office. Do you have a letter to be posted? ( 此处用不定式的被动 语态作定语表明 you 不是 post 动作的执行者。) 4. 在某些―形容词+不定式‖做表语或宾语补足语的结构中,句子的主语或宾语又是动词 不定式的逻辑宾语时,这时常用不定式的主动形式表达被动意义。这些形容词有 nice,easy, fit,hard,difficult,important,impossible,pleasant,interesting 等。 例 This problem is difficult to work out .(可看作 to work out 省略了 for me). 5. 在 too… to…结构中,不定式前面可加逻辑主语,所以应用主动形式表示被动意义。 例 This book is too expensive (for me) to buy. 6. 在 there be…句型中,当动词不定式修饰名词作定语时,不定式用主动式作定语,重 点在人,用被动形式作定语,重点在物。 例 There is no time to lose(to be lost).(用 to lose 可看成 for us to lose;用 to be lost, 谁 lost time 不明确。) 7. 在 be to do 结构中的一些不定式通常应用主动表主动, 被动表被动。然而,由于古英语 的影响,下列动词 rent,blame,let 等仍用不定式的主动形式表示被动意义。 例 Who is to blame for starting the fire? (六)、介词 in, on, under 等+名词构成介词短语表被动意义 表示方位的介词与含动作意义的名词合用,含被动之义,其意义相当于该名词相应动词 的被动形式,名词前一般不用冠词。 1. ―under +名词‖结构,表示―某事在进行中‖。常见的有:under control(受控制), under treatment (在治疗中) , under repair (在修理中) , under discussion (在讨论中) , under construction (在施工中)。 例 The building is under construction( is being constructed). 2.―beyond+名词‖结构,―出乎……胜过……、范围、限度‖。常见的有:beyond belief (令 人难以置信), beyond one‘s reach(鞭长莫及),beyond one‘s control(无法控制),beyond our hope. 我们的成功始料不及。 例 The rumour is beyond belief(=can‘t be believed). 3.―above+名词‖结构, 表示―(品质、行为、能力等) 超过……、高于……‖。 例 His honest character is above all praise.=His honest character cannot be praised enough. 4.―for+名词‖结构,表示 ―适于……、 为着……‖。如:for sale(出售), for rent(出租)等。 例 That house is for sale. (= That house is to be sold). 5. ―in+名词‖结构 , 表示―在……过程中或范围内‖常见的有: in print (在印刷中) , in sight(在 视野范围内),等。 例 The book is not yet in print.(=is not yet printed) 6.―on+名词‖结构, 表示―在从事…… 中‖。常见的有:on sale(出售),on show(展出), on trial(受审)。 例 Today some treasures are on show in the museum (= are being showed). 7.―out of+名词‖结构 ; 表示 ―超出…… 之外―,常见的有:out of control (控制不了), out of sight (超出视线之外),out of one‘s reach(够不着), out of fashion(不流行)等。 例 The plane was out of control (can‘t be controlled). 。 8.―within+名词‖结构,―在……内、不超过……‖。 例 He took two days off within the teacher's permission. 六、gerund 动名词 动名词(ing 形式)在句中起名词的作用,可用作主语,表语,定语和宾语(用在动词或介词 后) Smoking is a terrible habit.(主语) The advertising of products and services is big business.(主语) His hobby is colleting stamps.(表语) He doesn‘t like my singing.(宾语)

We are tired from working all day. (宾语) Where is the publishing house?(定语) 注意:不要混淆介词 to 和不定式符号 to (do) 动名词用于介词后。 I‘m looking forward to getting you early. 七、verbs followed by –ing from or infinitive.跟动名词或不定式。 跟不定式作宾语的动词有: decide, refuse, learn, ask, tell, fail, choose, promise, expect, wish, intend, manage, pretend, agree, help, arrange, afford, plan, would, like/ love/prefer, persuade, seem, appear, offer, attempt. 跟动名词作宾语的动词有:can‘t help, dislike, avoid, consider, finish, suggest, deny, give up, imagine, put off, risk, mind, keep, miss, enjoy, can‘t stand, fancy, admit, delay . 即可跟不定式,也可跟动名词做宾语的有:1)begin, start, continue, intend 这些动词后可跟 不定式或动名词意义上区别不大, 可通用。 2)hate, like, love, prefer, 大部分表示喜欢或不喜欢,的动词常可跟动名词做宾语,也可跟不 定式做宾语,但有时在含以上略有区别。 3) remember, forget, regret, mean, try, stop, need/want, 这些动词后用不定时还是动名词做宾语, 含义不同。 Remember to do 记得将要做, remember doing 记得曾做过, Regret to do 做事前,感觉遗憾,惋惜。 Regret doing 做此时后,感到懊悔。 Stop to do sth 停下正在做的事,开始另一件事。 Stop doing sth 停止正在做的事 Try to do sth, 努力尽力做某事。 Try doing sth, 试着做某事,看是否达到预期效果。 八、Present Participles,现在分词,即动词-ing 形式,在句中起形容词作用或副词作用,可用作 定语,状语,表语和宾语补足语。 The crying child had a cut on his knee. 有时,现在分词短语可以替代定语或状语从句,现在分词短语还可以替代 and 或 but 连接两 个并列句。 现在分词短语作状语时,其逻辑主语也必须是句子的主语。 必修五 一、Past participles. 过去分词。过去分词在句中可做形容词或副词,修饰名词,在句中作定 语,宾语补足语或表语。在英语书面语中,过去分词短语常用来连接句子的两个部分。这些 过去分词短语可以用来在句子中代替 reason clause 原因状语从句,time clause, 时间状语从 句,conditional clause 条件状语从句。 动词的过去分词形式 动词的-ed 形式也是非谓语动词形式的一种,在句中作表语、定语、状语和宾语补足语等。 动词的-ed 形式表被动的意思,有时表示完成的动作。 Born and brought up in the countryside, he was interested in biology. One of the glasses was found broken. 二、动词的-ed 形式的用法 1.-ed 形式作表语,说明主语的状态。 She looked tired with cooking. When we got there, the shop was closed. 2.作宾语补足语 在感觉动词 see, hear, feel, notice, watch, find 使役动词 get, have, make, leave, keep 后作宾补。 We found all the rivers seriously polluted. Doris got her bad tooth pulled out in the hospital. 3.-ed 形式作定语 单个-ed 形式作前置定语。带有修饰语或其他成分的-ed 形式,作后置定语,在语法上相当于 一个定语从句。 We have read many novels written by this author. 4. -ed 形式作状语

Seen from the tower, the city looks beautiful.(= When the city is seen from the tower...) Given more time, he would be able to do better. 5. 动词的-ed 形式和它的是被动关系 (下面句中逻辑主语是哪个?) Locked up, he had no way to escape. Mary got her fingers trapped in the bicycle chain. 二、Modals verbs: must, may, may not, might, can‘t, could, Modals for guessing,表示推测的情态动词。 Must 肯定一定, may /might /could 可能,也许 May not, might nit :可能不 Can‘t 不可能 Modal + infinitive without to 情态动词 +不带 to 动词不定式,表示对现在情况的推测。 Modal + be +-ing 情态动词 +be +动词 ing Modal + have + past participles 情态动词+have+ 过去分词表示对过去情况的推测。 三、Reported speech 间接引语(1) Ask/ tell/order 某人+不定式报道请求或命令。若请求或命令式否定的,则用 ask/tell /order 某 人+not+不定式来表示。 Eg,The teacher asked the students to close their books. The doctor told them not to worry. 四、Reported speech 间接引语(2) 用法,报道某人所说的话时,间接引语中的时态要改变。 如下表: 直接引语 间接引语 Present simple 一般现在时 past simple 一般过去时 Present continuous 现在进行时 past continuous 过去进行时 Present perfect 现在完成时 past perfect 过去完成时 Present perfect continuous 现在完成进行时 past perfect continuous 过去完成进行时 Past simple 过去时 past perfect 过去完成时 Past continuous 过去进行时 past perfect continuous 过去完成进行时 Will would Be going to was/were going to First conditional second conditional Eg: We will go there if you want us to. (first conditional) They said they would go there if he wanted them to.(second conditional) 五、Third conditional 虚拟语气和过去事实相反的假设。 构成:If +过去完成时 would/could/might +不定式完成式。 Third conditional 可以表示过去非真实的场景,和对过去并未发生的事情提出假设。 六、1.wish +过去是太表示对现在情况感到懊悔遗憾。 I wish I had more free time. 2.Wish + 过去完成时表示对过去发生的情况感到懊悔。 I wish we had gone rock climbing last weekend. 3. should Should shouldn‘t + 不定式完成时表达对过去事情的懊悔(本不该) I shouldn‘t have gone to that school. 选修六 一、Past perfect 过去完成时 应用:1.过去完成时表示过去的事件之前发生的事件或存在的状态。 2.过去完成时和一般过去时用于同一个句子中表示过去的事情发生的顺序。

The police arrested the man who had broken into a jewelers. When I arrived, she left. When I arrived she had left. Form:过去完成时的构成是:主语+had+动词过去分词。 I had met him before. By + 过去时间点----过去完成时。 Before/after/until/when/引导时间状语。 Language awareness 二、to have /get something done 要别人为自己做某事:have/get something done 结构。 Form:形式 Tense have /get something done Present simple I have get my hair cut. Past simple I had get my hair cut. Present continuous I‘m having /getting my hair cut. Past continuous I was having/getting my hair cut. Present perfect I‘ve had my hair cut. Past perfect I had had/got my hair cut. Will I will have /get my hair cut. Must I must have /get my hair cut. Be going to I‘m going to have/get my hair cut. 三、Past perfect continuous 过去进行时 强调某个过去时间之前发生较长时间段内进行的动作。 She was rescued by a man who had been working in a nearby garage. 过去某个确定时间点内反复进行的动作。 We had only been driving for about fifteen minutes when Jill asked me to stop the car. 过去某个时间点还在进行的动作。 I‘d been waiting for the train for over an hour when they announced that it had been cancelled. 四、进行时态和非进行时态 在下列情况下使用进行时态。 1)动作还没有完成:The doctor was writing a note. 2)活动是暂时的而不是永久的。You‘re breathing quite heavily. 3)较长时间内的反复进行的二不是一次发生的动作。 The man was looking at his watch. 下列动词不能用于进行时:know,like, understand, belong, resemble, realize. 五、Used to and would. 用 would 和 use to 表示过去经常进行二现在不再进行的动作。 She used to have more friends than anyone else I‘ve known. Would 描述动作,used to 描述动作和状态。 We would /used to go mushroom-picking in autumn. My little sister used to be very shy. 六、Determiners 限定词 1)在下列词前用限定词。 单个可数名词前:a/an, the, another, the other. 不可数名词前:the , some, no, a lot of, much, all (of the) 复数可数名词前:the, some, any, no, many, several, a lot of, all (of the), (the) other. 2)a/an 用于下列情况: A 第一次提到某事物,B,提到某个特定的人或无关紧要,如将该人或该物作为群体或类别的

例子。C,当对方确切地知道并能够比较容易地辨认所提到的人或物时用 the. 选修七 一、Noun clause 名词从句 在句子中起名词作用的句子叫名词性从句(Noun Clauses) 。 名词性从句的功能相当于名词 词组, 它在复合句中能担任主语、宾语、表语、同位语、介词宾语等,因此根据它在句中不 同的语法功能,名词从句又可分别称为主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。 一. 主语从句 主语从句是在复合句中充当主语的从句,通常放在主句谓语动词之前或由形式主语 it 代 替,而本身放在句子末尾。 1. It 作形式主语和 it 引导强调句的比较 It 作形式主语代替主语从句,主要是为了平衡句子结构,主语从句的连接词没有变化。而 it 引导的强调句则是对句子某一部分进行强调,无论强调的是什么成分,都可用连词 that。被 强调部分指人时也可用 who/whom。例如: a) It is a pity that you didn‘t go to see the film. 你不去看那场电影真可惜。 b) It doesn‘t interest me whether you succeed or not. 我对你成功与否不感兴趣。 c) It is in the morning that the murder took place. 谋杀案是在早上发生的。 (强调句型) d) It is John that broke the window. 是 John 打碎的窗户。 (强调句型) 2. 用 it 作形式主语的结构 (1) It is + 名词 + 从句 It is a fact that … 事实是… It is an honor that …非常荣幸 It is common knowledge that …是常识 (2) It is + 形容词 + 从句 It is natural that… 很自然… It is strange that… 奇怪的是… (3) It is + 不及物动词 + 从句 It seems that… 似乎… It happened that… 碰巧… It appears that… 似乎… (4) It + 过去分词 + 从句 It is reported that… 据报道… It has been proved that… 已证实… It is said that… 据说… 3. 主语从句不可位于句首的五种情况: (1)if 引导的主语从句不可居于复合句句首。 (2)It is said /reported…结构中的主语从句不可提前。例如: 正确表达:It is said that President Jiang will visit our school next week. 错误表达:That President Jiang will visit our school next week is said. (3)It happens/occurs…结构中的主语从句不可提前。例如: 正确表达:It occurred to him that he failed in the examination. 错误表达:That he failed in the examination occurred to him. (4)It doesn‘t matter how/whether …结构中的主语从句不可提前。例如: 正确表达:It doesn‘t matter whether he is wrong or not. 错误表达:Whether he is wrong or not doesn‘t matter. (5)含主语从句的复合句是疑问句时,主语从句不可提前。例如: 正确表达:Is it likely that it will rain in the evening?

错误表达:Is that will rain in the evening likely? 4. what 与 that 在引导主语从句时的区别 what 引导主语从句时在句时在从句中充当句子成分,如主语.宾语.表语,而 that 则 不然。例如: a) What you said yesterday is right. b) That she is still alive is a consolation 二.宾语从句 宾语从句就是在复合句中作宾语的名词性从句,通常放在主句谓语动词 (及物动词) 或介词 之后。 1. 作动词的宾语 (1) 由 that 引导的宾语从句(that 通常可以省略), 例如: I heard that be joined the army. 我听说他参军了。 (2) 由 what, whether (if) 引导的宾语从句,例如: a) She did not know what had happened. 她不知道发生了什么。 b) I wonder whether you can change this note for me. 我想知道你是否能帮我改 一下笔记。 (3) 动词+间接宾语+宾语从句。例如: She told me that she would accept my invitation. 她对我说她会接受我的邀请。 2. 作介词的宾语,例如: Our success depends upon how well we can cooperate with one another. 我们的成功取决于 我们之间的合作。 3. 作形容词的宾语,例如: I am afraid (that) I‘ve made a mistake. 我恐怕我已经犯了一个错误。 注意: that 引导的从句常跟在下列形容词后作宾语: anxious, aware, certain, confident, convinced, determined, glad, proud, surprised, worried, sorry, thankful, ashamed, disappointed, annoyed, pleased, hurt, satisfied, content 等。也可以将此类词后的 that 从句的看作原因状语从句。 4. it 可以作为形式宾语 it 不仅可以作为形式主语,还可以作为形式宾语而真正的宾语 that 从句则放在句尾,特 别是在带复合宾语的句子中。例如: We heard it that she would get married next month. 我听说她下个朋就会结婚了。 5. 后边不能直接跟 that 从句的动词 这类动词有 allow, refuse, let, like, cause, force, admire, condemn, celebrate, dislike, love, help, take, forgive 等。这类词后可以用不定式或动名词作宾语,但不可以用 that 引导的宾语从 句。如: 正确表达:I admire their winning the match. 错误表达:I admire that they won the match. 6. 不可用 that 从句作直接宾语的动词 有些动词不可用于―动词+间接宾语+that 从句―结构中, 常见的有 envy, order, accuse, refuse, impress, forgive, blame, denounce, advise, congratulate 等。例如: 正确表达:He impressed the manager as an honest man. 错误表达:He impressed the manager that he was an honest man. 7. 否定的转移 若主句谓语动词为 think, consider, suppose, believe, expect, fancy, guess, imagine 等, 其后的宾语从句若含有否定意义,一般要把否定词转移到主句谓语上,从句谓语用肯定式。 例如:

I don‘t think this dress fits you well. 我认为这件衣服不适合你穿。 三. 表语从句 表语从句在复合句中作表语的名词性从句,放在系动词之后,一般结构是―主语+连系动词+ 表语从句‖。可以接表语从句的连系动词有 be, look, remain, seem 等。引导表语从句的 that 常 可省略。另外,常用的还有 the reason is that… 和 It is because 等结构。例如: 1) The question is whether we can make good preparation in such a short time. 2) This is why we can‘t get the support of the people. 3) But the fact remains that we are behind the other classes. 4) The reason he is late for school is that he missed the early bus. 四. 同位语从句 同位语从句就是在复合句中作名词的同位语的名词性从句。 1. 同位语从句的功能 同位语从句对于名词进一步解释,说明名词的具体内容,一般由 that 引导,例如: 1) The king‘s decision that the prisoner would be set free surprised all the people. 2) The order that all the soldiers should stay still is given by the general. 2. 同位语在句子中的位置 同位语从句有时可以不紧跟在它所说明的名词后面,而是被别的词隔开。例如: He got the news from Mary that the sports meeting was put off. 3. 同位语从句与定语从句的区别 (1) 定语从句中的 that 既代替先行词,同时以在从句中作某个成分(主语或宾语) ,而同位语 从句中的 that 是连词,只起连接主句与从句的作用,不充当句中任何成分。 (2) 定语从句是形容词性的,其功能是修饰先行词,对先行词加以限定,描述定的性质或特 征;同位语从句是名词性的,其功能是对名词进行补充说明。例如: 1) The news that he told me is that Tom would go abroad next year.(他告诉我的消息是汤姆明年 将出国。 ) (第一个 that 引导的从句是定语从句,that 在从句中作宾语) 2)The news that Tom would go abroad is told by him.(汤姆将出国的消息是他讲的。 ) (同位语从 句,that 在句中不作任何成分) 二、Impersonal report structures.非人称转述结构。 转述人们的一般认识或说的话时, 我们可以用 it+ 动词 (如 say, know, believe, claim, suppose, think, fear, predict)被动式结构。 It is said that dolphins are very friendly animals. It was feared that the plane would crash in to skyscraper. 也可以把有关的人和事放在句首使用这种结构。 Subject+ the passive +infinitive It was said that the minister had been involved in organized crime. The minister was said that to have been involved in organized crime. 如果转述的动作发生在转述前用完成不定式。 如果转述的动作发生于转述的同一时间,可以用一般的动词不定式。 It is claimed that police officers accept bribes. Police officers are claimed to accept bribes. Get ahead 取得成功,取得进步。 in the absence of 缺乏,不存在。 Take the form /take a form of 以…的形式出现,存在。 Stay dedicated 保持,维持。Stay 是系动词和形容词连用。

stay seated 坐着别动 hold the key to …的关键, be associated with 联系 三、The future 将来时 除了,will/may/might +不带 to 的不定式,现在进行时,be going to 结构和一般现在时之外, 可以用下列时态和动词将来: 1.Future perfect 将来完成时: 用将来完成时谈论在将来某个特定的时间之前完成的活动。 He will have written two books by next summer. 2.Future continuous: 将来进行时 用将来进行时谈论在将来某个特定的时间进行的活动。 I‘ll be working all evening so I won‘t be able to see you. 3.Time clause:时间状语从句 在 when, as soon as, until, before, 和 after 引导时间状语从句中,表示将来的时间时,不用 will 用一般现在时。 When you got home, you will receive good news. 四、Pronouns 代词 代词是句子中代替名词的词。这样反复地过于频繁地使用名词。英语中有下列代词: 人称代词:主格代词:I, you, he, she, it, we, they, 宾格代词:me, you, him, her, it, us, them. 不定代词:someone, something, anything, nobody, nothing, etc. 所有格代词:mine, yours, his, her, their, ours 反身代词:myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves. 关系代词:who, which, that, whose, whom. One VS you 泛泛谈论人物时,用 one 和 you 其意思是任何人,one 用在正式的语言中,而 you 用在非正 式语言中。 One has got (or you have got) more chance of finding an interesting job abroad nowadays. 五、Conditionals and mixed conditionals 条件句和混合条件句。条件句有四种:即:零条件句。 第一条件句,第二条件句和第三条件句。 *按习惯分为两种,真实条件句和非真实条件句。这里的前两种属于真实条件句,后两种属于 非真实条件句。 所谓混合条件句是指混合的条件句中含有不同的条件结构。用混合条件句谈论:想象的过去 事件可能对现在的影响。 If he had broken the record, he would be famous now. Form: If + past perfect, would + infinitive ,without to (as in 3rd conditional) (as in 2nd conditional) 非真实条件句常常是想象中的现在状态,可能对过去有影响。 If she didn‘t speak a few languages, she wouldn‘t have got that job. Form: If +past simple, would +perfect infinitive (as in 2nd conditional) (as in 3rd conditional) If he was/ were (2)a more skillful player, he would have second(3) more points. May/might/could/will/have to/ must/ can /need. 六、Modal verbs and Expressions 情态动词表达法。 1.情态动词用来谈论义务和需要: I had to walk ten mils to get home. 2.谈论允许和禁止: We mustn‘t disturb them. 3.谈论无必要:

We didn‘t have to pay for the beer, it was free. You needn‘t worry, everything will be all right. 4.谈论能力: My little daughter can sing and dance. I could talk when I was two. 5.谈论可能性: I can‘t go through to them, the live is busy. John couldn‘t see us in the crowd. 6.猜想和猜测: He will be cooking lunch now. They must have found out about the article. He might be Russian. He could be at the library. 7.预测: He will be late, as usual. They might win, if they try hard. 8.做决定: I will talk to Jim about it. I won‘t go there. Didn‘t need VS needn‘t Didn‘t +(不带 to 的)不定式结构表示某人不用做某事,因为没有必要。 He was so rich he didn‘t need to worry about money. Needn‘t +完成式的不定式结构表示某人做了某事尽管是不必做的。 We needn‘t have bought any food to the party –there was plenty already. 七、 Verb patterns: ―ing‖ form. And infinitive D 动词 ing 和不定式 used to, be used to and get used to . 1. 我们用 used to +不带 to 的不定式谈论过去的状态或经常进行的活动,这种状态和活动现 在已终止。 We used to go camping a lot. 2.be used to +动词 ing 形式或名词表示我们队某事很熟悉。 We‘re used to getting up early. 3.get used to + -ing form 形式或名词描述熟悉某事的过程。 We got used to eating rice when we lived in Asia.

选修八 一、Reporting 转述结构 下列词(依据所给结构)可用于报道某人所说的话。 1.Verb + that :动词+that 即:that 引导的宾语从句。 下列动词可用于此结构: Add, admit, agree, announce, believe, boast, claim, complain, deny, declare, explain, insist, remind, suggest, warn, etc. 2.verb+somebody +that: 动词+某人+that (宾语从句) They warned us that we might be stopped at the gate. 下列动词可用于此结构。warn, remind, etc. 3,verb +somebody to do something 动词+某人+不定式短语。 We advised him to change his bank. 下列动词可用于此结构:advise, beg, order, promise, etc. 4, verb +to do something :动词+不定式短语。

He threatened to take legal action. 下列动词可用于此结构:agree, offer, refuse, threaten, etc. 5.verb +-ing form 动词 +动词 ing 形式。 I suggested going to the presentation. 6.verb +if/whether :动词+动词 ing 形式。 She asked if it was possible to see the patient. 下列动词可用于此结构:inquire, ask, etc. 7.verb +preposition +ing form 动词+介词+动词 ing 形式。 下列动词可用于此结构:accuse of , succeed in, etc. 在下列情况下,在间接引语中不用改变原动词的时态。 主句动词时一般现在时时:I feel feverish – She says she feels feverish. 所报道的仍是真理时,如:一般事实。 Kangaroos live in Australia. ---- The teacher said that kangaroos live in Australia. 对进行报道那一刻而言,所报道的内容仍属于将要发生的事情时。 二、The Passive 被动语态 下列情况下使用被动语态: 不知道动作的执行者时。 要关注的事动作的本身而不是动作执行者时。 要特别关注动作执行这时, 要避免句子主语太长时。 被动语态主要用于正式的表达和书面语中,是非常典型的报刊和报道用语,除了动词时态的 被动形式外,还有其他被动形式: 不定式的被动语态: It‘s nice to be taken seriously. 动名词的被动形式:We all enjoyed being praised by the teacher. 不定式的被动完成形式:The train may have been delayed by the storm. 三、Emphatic structures: inversion and ―it‖ cleft sentences. 强调结构,倒装句和分裂句―it‖ 把否定词(如 seldom)置于句首形式倒装表示强调,即用疑问句的语序。这样的强调句通常 用于正式的书面语中。 He was never known anything like it. Never has he known anything like it. 倒装形式的强调也可以用于对过去事实进行假设的条件中。 注意形成倒装时,要将 if 去掉。这样的倒装句常见于正式和非正式的表达中。 If I had known they were in town, I would have phoned them. = Had I known they were in town, I would have phoned them. 在正式和非正式的表达中,可以用下列结构对某些词语进行强调。 It‘s money that he‘s interested. 四、表达完成的动词形式 表达完成的动词形式可以用来表达某特定时间前发生的动作。 I‘ve been staying with my family on the coast. 在下列情况下用表达完成的动词形式: 现在完成时 现在完成进行时 过去完成时 过去完成进行时 将来完成时:We will have moved out by the end of next year. 不定式完成式:They may have lost their way. 动词 ing 形式的完成式: I remembered having met the man long time ago. 五、Persuasion 说服

在正式的英语书面语及非正式的英语口语中,常用不同方式来告知人们,我们认为他们该做 什么。 英语书面语 在进行正式书面表达时,下列表达方式可以强化―建议‖ Should +不带 to 的不定式 Ought to +不带 to 的不定式 Demand/insist/suggest + (that) +subject +should do something (that) +subject +present tense (主+现在时态) +(that)+subject + subjunctive (主语+虚拟语气) (same form as infinitive) 英语口语 跟熟人交谈时,用下列表达方式可以使―建议‖听上去不那么强硬,具有试探性 If I were you , I‘d + infinitive without ―to‖ 不带 to 的不定式,是建议听上去语气略强时,用些 列结构: I think you should +不带 to 的不定式 I think you ought to +不带 to 的不定式 用下列表达方式可以强硬地对某人批评,责怪或提出建议。使用这样的表达方式的人常常具 有权威性,如教师对学生,家长对孩子。 It‘s about time +主语+一般过去时 I‘d (I would ) rather +主语+一般过去时 You‘d better (had better) + 不带 to 的不定式 You‘d better 也可以用在和朋友交谈时,表示鼓励或说服。 I‘d sooner you +一般过去时,这种表达方式现在已不多用。而改用―I‘d rather ‖ 这两种结构后 面通常用动词的否定形式。 六、Persuasion 在正式的和非正式的语言表达中,常用不同的方式来告知人们他们该做什么。 1,在正式用语中,用下列结构:ought to +不定式 Demand /insist /suggest that +主语+should /do something 一般现在时、虚拟语气(同不定式形 式) It‘s high time +主语+一般过去时(正式用法通常为权威人士使用) 2,在非正式用语中,用 if I were you, I‘d +不定式。 I‘d (would)rather +主语+一般过去时 You‘d better /had better +不带 to 的不定式 It‘s about time +主语+一般过去时 (除非用于密友或家长谈话,否则这种表达方式显得生硬粗鲁) I‘d sooner+ 主语+一般过去时(这种表达方式相当正式,说话人带有明显的偏爱) 3,在进行正式的和非正式语言表达时,用 should +不定式


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