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2010年考研英语模拟试题及答案


2010 年考研英语模拟试题及答案 二) 年考研英语模拟试题及答案(二
发表时间:2009-08-27 编辑:白雪 来源: 考试吧 编者按:2010 年考研英语模拟试题及答案(二)

Section Ⅰ Use of English Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s

) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points) There is growing interest in East Japan Railway Co., one of the six companies, created out of the 1 national railway system. In an industry lacking exciting growth 2, its plan to use real-estate assets in and around train stations 3 is drawing interest. In a plan called “Station Renaissance”(英文符号)that it 4 in November, JR East said that it would 5 using its commercial spaces for shops and restaurants, extending them to 6 more suitable for the information age. It wants train stations as pick-up 7 for such goods as books, flowers and groceries purchased 8 the Internet. In a country 9 urbanites depend heavily on trains 10 commuting, about 16 million people a day go to its train stations anyway, the company 11. So, picking up purchases at train stations spare 12 extra travel and missed home deliveries. JR East already has been using its station 13 stores for this purpose, but it plans to create 14 spaces for the delivery of Internet goods. The company also plans to introduce 15 cards—(破折号)known in Japan as IC cards because they use integrated 16 for holding information 17 train tickets and commuter passes 18 the magnetic ones used today, integrating them into a single pass. This will save the company money, because 19 for IC cards are much less expensive than magnetic systems. Increased use of IC cards should also 20 the space needed for ticket vending. 1. [A] privatized [B] individualized [C] personalized [D] characterized 2. [A] prospects [B] outlooks [C] expectations [D] spectacles 3. [A] articulately [B] originally [C] reluctantly [D] creatively 4. [A] unveiled [B] concealed [C] demonstrated [D] displayed

5. [A] come round [B] go beyond [C] take over [D] went out 6. [A] endeavours [B] enterprises [C] functions [D] performances 7. [A] locations [B] entrances [C] vicinities [D] districts 8. [A] form [B] above [C] over [D] in 9. [A] when [B] where [C] which [D] that 10. [A] of [B] in [C] about [D] for 11. [A] figures [B] speculates [C] exhibits [D] convinces 12. [A] clients [B] consumers [C] merchants [D] businesses 13. [A] conjunction [B] ornament [C] expenditure [D] convenience 14. [A] dedicated [B] devoted [C] designated [D] destined 15. [A] clever [B] intelligent [C] ingenious [D] smart 16. [A] chorus [B] circus [C] circumference [D] circuit 17. [A] as [B] for [C] with [D] of 18. [A] as well as [B] instead of [C] more than [D] but for 19. [A] devices [B] instruments [C] readers [D] examiners 20. [A] shrink [B] narrow [C] descend [D] reduce Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension Part A Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points) Text 1

The inclusion of all children and youth is part of a general integrative trend that has accelerated since World War II. It relates to some newer developments as well. Concern for the earth’s endangered environment has become central, emphasizing in both intellectual and social life the need for cooperation rather than competition, the importance of understanding interrelationships of the ecosystem, and the idea that ecology can be used as an organizing concept. In a different vein, the rapid development of microelectronics, particularly the use of computers for multiple functions in education, goes for beyond possibilities of earlier technological advances. Although technology is thought of by some as antagonistic to humanistic concerns, others argue that it makes communication and comprehension available to a wider population and encourages “system thinking,” both ultimately integrative effects. The polarization of opinion on technology’s effects and most other important issues is a problem in educational policy determination. In addition to the difficulties of governing increasingly large and diverse education systems, as well as those of meeting the never-ending demands of expanding education, the chronic lack of consensus makes the system unable to respond satisfactorily to public criticism and unable to plan for substantive long-range development. The political and administrative responses so far have been to attend to short-run efficiency by improving management techniques and to adopt polar responses to accommodate polar criticisms. Thus, community and community schools have been emphasized along with central control and standardization, and institutional alternatives have been opened, while the structure of main institutions has become more articulated. For example, the focus of attention has been placed on the transition stages, which earlier were virtually ignored: from home to school from primary to secondary to upper secondary, from school to work. Tertiary institutions have been reconceived as part of a unified level; testing has become more sophisticated and credentials have become more differentiated either by certificate or by transcript. Alternative teaching strategies have been encouraged in theory, but basic, curriculum uniformity has effectively restricted the practice of new methods. General education is still mainly abstract, and subject matter, though internally more dynamic, still rests on language, mathematics, and science. There has been an increasing reliance on the construction of subject matter to guide the method of teaching. Teachers are entrusted with a greater variety of tasks, but they are less trusted with knowledge, leading political authorities to call for upgrading of teacher training, teacher in?service training, and regular assessment of teacher performance.

Recent reform efforts have been focused on integrating general and vocational education and on encouraging lifelong or recurrent education to meet changing individual and social needs. Thus, not only has the number of students and institutions increased, as a result of inclusion policies, but the scope of education has also expanded. This tremendous growth, however, has raised new questions about the proper functions of the school and the effectiveness for life, work, or intellectual advancement of present programs and means of instruction. 21. The passage is mainly about. [A] major difficulties in education [B] effects of modem technology on education [C] major trends and problems in education [D] the tremendous growth of education 22. From the passage we can infer that. [A] the rapid development of modem technology [B] some modem developments relating to the inclusion policies [C] the inclusion policies of education [D] concern for the earth’s endangered environments 23. The second passage is mainly about. [A] the polarization of opinion on some important issues about educational policy [B] the rapid development of education [C] the difficulties in meeting the demands of expanding education [D] the political and administrative measures taken to further expand education 24. The author uses the example of transition of stage in school to show. [A] school life is important for families in a community

[B] schooling is important for students to go to work [C] disciplines are emphasized in community school [D] all levels of schools are unified 25. According to this passage, which of the following is FALSE? [A] Various teaching methodologies have not been widely adopted in general education. [B] Focusing on subject matter is still an obvious feature of general education. [C] The transition from school to work has never been overlooked. [D] The professional quality of the major, of teachers has not been considerably enhanced. Text 2 The evolution of intelligence among early large mammals of the grasslands was due in great measure to the interaction between two ecologically synchronized groups of these animals, the hunting carnivores and the herbivores that they hunted. The interaction resulting from the differences between predator and prey led to a general improvement in brain functions; however, certain components of intelligence were improved far more than others. The kind of intelligence favored by the interplay of increasingly smarter catchers and increasingly keener escapers is defined by attention—that aspect of mind carrying consciousness forward from one moment to the next. It ranges from a passive free?floating awareness to a highly focused, active fixation. the range through these states is mediated by the arousal system, a network of tracts converging from sensory systems to integrating centers in the brain stem. From the more relaxed to the more vigorous levels sensitivity to novelty is increased. The organism is more awake more vigilant; this increased vigilance results in the apprehension of ever more subtle signals as the organism becomes more sensitive to its surroundings. The processes of arousal and concentration give attention to its direction. Arousal is at first general with a flooding of impulses in the brain stem; then gradually the activation is channeled. Thus begins concentration, the holding of consistent images. One meaning of intelligence is the way in thigh these images and other alertly searched information are used in the context of

previous experience. Consciousness links past attention to the present and permits the integration of details with perceived ends purposes. The elements of intelligence and consciousness come together marvelously to produce different styles in predator and prey. Herbivores and carnivores develop different kinds of attention related to escaping or chasing. Although in both kinds of animal arousal stimulates the production of adrenaline and nor epinephrine by the adrenal glands the effect in herbivores is primarily fear, whereas in carnivores the effect is primarily aggression. For both, arousal attunes the animal to what is ahead. Perhaps it does not experience forethought as we know it but the animal does experience something like it. The predator is searchingly aggressive inner?directed, used by the nervous system and the adrenal hormones, but aware in a sense closer to human consciousness than, say, a hungry lizard’s instinctive snap at a passing beetle. Using past events as a framework. The large mammal predator is working out a relationship between movement and food, sensitive to possibilities in cold trails and distant sounds?and yesterday’s unforgotten lessons. The herbivore bray is of a different mind. Its mood of wariness rather than searching and its attitude of general expectancy instead of anticipating are silk?thin veils of tranquility over an explosive endocrine system. 26. The author is primarily concerned with . [A] disproving the view that herbivores are less intelligent than carnivores [B] describing a relationship between animals’ intelligence and their ecological roles [C] establishing a direct link between early large mammals and their modern counterparts [D] analyzing the ecological basis for the dominance of some carnivores over other carnivores 27. According to the passage, as the process of arousal in an organism continues, all of the following may occur EXCEPT. [A] the production of adrenaline [B] the production of norepinephrine [C] a heightening of sensitivity to stimulate

[D] an expansion of the range of states mediated by the brain stem 28. According to the passage, improvement in brain function among early large mammals resulted primarily from which of the following? [A] Interplay of predator and prey. [B] Persistence of free floating awareness in animals of the grasslands. [C] Gradual dominance of warm blooded mammals over cold blooded reptiles. [D] Interaction of early large mammals with less intelligent species. 29. The author refers to a hungry lizard (last paragraph) primarily in order to. [A] demonstrate the similarity between the hunting methods of mammals and those of no mammals [B] broaden the application of his argument by including an insectivore as an example [C] make a distinction between higher and lower levels of consciousness [D] provide an additional illustration of the brutality characteristic of predators 30. The author’s attitude toward the mammals discussed in the passage is best described as . [A] superior condescending [B] lighthearted and jocular [C] apologetic and conciliatory [D] respectful and admiring Text 3 Great emotional and intellectual resources are demanded in quarrels; stamina helps, as does a capacity for obsession. But no one is born a good quarreler, the craft must be learned. There are two generally recognized apprenticeships. First, and universally preferred, is likely to grow up failing to understand that quarrels, unlike arguments, are not about anything, least of all the pursuit of truth. The apparent subject of a quarrel is a mere pretext; the real business is the quarrel itself.

Essentially, adversaries in a quarrel age out to establish or rescue their dignity. Hence the elementary principle: anything may be said. The unschooled, may spend an hour with knocking heart, sifting the consequences of calling this old acquaintance a lying fraud. Those who miss their first apprenticeship may care to enroll in the second, the bad marriage. This can be perilous for the neophyte; the mutual intimacy of spouses makes them at once more vulnerable and more dangerous in attack. Once sex is involved, the stakes are higher all round. And there is an unspoken rule that those who love, or have loved, one another are granted a license for unlimited beastliness such as is denied to mere sworn enemies. For all that some of our most tenacious black belt quarrelers have come to it late in life and mastered every throw. A quarrel may last years. Among brooding types with time on their hands, like writers, half a lifetime is not uncommon. In its most refined form, a quarrel may consist of the participants not talking to each other. They will need to scheme laboriously to appear in public together to register their silence. Brief, violent quarrels are also known as rows. In all cases the essential ingredient remains the same; the original cause must be forgotten as possible. From here on, dignity, pride, self?esteem, honor is quarrelling, like jealousy, is an ail?consuming business, virtually a profession. For the quarreler’s very self?hood is on the line. To lose an argument is a brief disappointment, much like losing a game of tennis; but to be crushed in a quarrel rather bite off your tongue and spread it at your opponent’s feet. 31. According to the passage, which is false? [A] It is a good way to establish or rescue one’s dignity through quarrel. [B] Quarrel is very different from argument. [C] Spouses can benefit little from quarrel. [D] Quarrel is not an instinct of human being. 32. What does the expression “rainy afternoon” (2nd paragraph) mean about brothers and sisters? [A] Had to play at home. [B] Felt depressed. [C] Were quarrelling. [D] Got the only chance to stay together.

33. The author implies that. [A] an excellent quarreler must be trained through two phrases [B] in people’s whole life, there are two periods full of quarreling [C] quarrel is much like argument [D] all people like quarreling 34.Which is the difference between a quarrel and an argument? [A] A quarrel involves individual pride. [B] A quarrel concerns strong points of view. [C] An argument has well?established rules. [D] An argument concerns trivial issues. 35. The author’s opinion is. [A] objective [B] subjective [C] progressive [D] conservative Text 4 Islamic law is a particularly instructive example of “sacred law”. Islamic law is a phenomenon so different from all other forms of law?notwithstanding, of course, a considerable and inevitable number of coincidences with one or the other of them as far as subject matter and positive enactments are concerned that its study is indispensable in order to appreciate adequately the full range of possible legal phenomena. Even the two other representatives of sacred law that are historically and geographically nearest to it, Jewish law and Roman Catholic canon law, are perceptibly different. Both Jewish law and canon law are more uniform than Islamic law. Though historically there is a discernible break between Jewish law of the sovereign state of ancient Israel and of the Diaspora (the dispersion of Jewish people after the conquest of Israel), the spirit of the legal matter in later parts of the Old Testament is very close to that of the Talmud, one of the primary codifications(诠释) of Jewish law in the Diaspora. Islam, on the other hand, represented a radical breakaway from the Arab paganism(信仰) that preceded it; Islamic law is the result of an examination, from a religious angle, of legal subject matter that was

far from uniform, comprising as it did the various components of the laws of pre?Islamic Arabia and numerous legal elements taken over from the non?Arab peoples of the conquered territories. All this was unified by being subjected to the same kind of religious scrutiny, the impact of which varied greatly, being almost nonexistent in some fields, and in others originating novel institutions. This central duality of legal subject matter and religious norm is additional to the variety of legal ethical and ritual rules that is typical of sacred law. In its relation to the secular state, Islamic law differed from both Jewish and canon law. Jewish law was buttressed by the cohesion of the community, reinforced by pressure from outside: its rules are the direct expression of this feeling of cohesion, tending toward the accommodation of dissent. Canon and Islamic law, on the contrary, were dominated by the dualism of religion and state, where the state was not, in contrast with Judaism, an alien power but the political expression of the same religion. But the conflict between state and religion took different forms; in Christianity it appeared as the struggle for political power on the part of a tightly organized ecclesiastical hierarchy, and canon law was one of its political weapons. Islamic law, on the other hand, was never supported by and organized institution; consequently there never developed an overt trial of strength. There merely existed discordance between application of the sacred law and many of the regulations framed by Islamic states; this antagonism varied according to place and time. 36. According to the author, which of the following is not true? [A] Islamic law is rarely different from Jewish law and canon law. [B] Islamic law is especially instructive example of scared law. [C] Jewish law is the same as canon law. [D] Islamic law is more uniform than both Jewish law and canon law. 37. The word “it” (in Line 7, Para 2) most probably refers to. [A] the Old Testament [B] Islamic law [C] canon law [D] legal subject matter 38. The word“ buttress ” (in Line 2,Para 3) means. [A] buttonhole [B] distress [C] support [D] hinder

39. Islamic law never developed an overt trial of strength, because. [A] it was never supported by an organized institute [B] it was dominated by the dualism of religion and state [C] it was reinforced by pressure from outside [D] it was supported by an organized institution 40. The best title for this passage could be. [A] Scared Law [B] Islamic Law [C] Islamic Law, Jewish Law and Canon Law [D] All Kinds of Laws Part B Sample One Directions: In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A?G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points) In Europe and Asia the first “medium of exchange” or “standard of value” was not gold or silver, but cattle (the Spanish words relating to cattle, pecuario, and to money, pecuniario, both have the same root). In other parts of the world, however, such different commodities as salt, shells, stones and cocoa beans were all used as “money”. They all offered advantages over the barter system (the direct exchange of goods), but none of them was perfect. (41). The invention of coins appears to have occurred almost simultaneously but quite independently in ancient Greece and in China in about 700 B.C. (42). In Greece, a natural alloy of gold and silver called “electrun” occurred in river in nugget form. The first coins were taken out of these nuggets with a tool called a punch. In order to distinguish these coins from gold ornaments, a design, or “type”, to use the technical numismatic expression, was added on one side. At first, these types were very

simple: flowers, squares or, in the case of the city of Phocaea, a seal (seal = foca Spanish). (43).Soon, inscriptions appeared, the first known one being “I am the sign of Phanes.” From Halicarnassus around 600 B.C., about 200years later, the first portraits of rulers appeared on coins. (44).Firstly, it was made of bronze. More notable, it was not circular, but in the shape of a knife! The knife had a hole pierced in the handle so that it could be suspended (for example, from a string), and, like some Greek coins, it generally bore an inscription. Other shapes included keys or spades, but what they had in common was the pierced hole. It was probably around 250 B.C. that the first Chinese money we would recognize as coins appeared, and, subsequently, the famous Ming Mint produced a round coin with a square hole in it. This particular coin bore the inscription, “Knife of Ming,” but later the knife itself disappeared. It was from this coin that the famous “cash” developed. The Chinese word, “cash”, means “a small unit of currency.” Although Chinese coins often had inscriptions, they virtually never had portraits, or types of any kind, until the nineteenth century when were influenced by western models. (45). In the thirteenth century A.D. Marco Polo brought stories of such money to Europe, but the concept did not inspire the Europeans of his time. In fact, the true ancestors of modern paper money were the billets printed in France in 1716 by the Scottish financier, John Law. So the English word “cash” comes from a Chinese word, and the Spanish word billeted comes from a Scotsman in France. Money certainly seems to make the word go round! [A] Some were too heavy, some could not be divided into small enough parts (How much of a cow would you need to buy a piece of cheese?), some were not permanent enough. The solution was money as we know it, that is, money in the form of coins. [B] As for paper money, that was a Chinese invention, too. [C] Meanwhile, in another part of Greece, circular silver coins were made, and these quickly became more common everywhere in Greece than the electrun ones. [D] The reason why historians believe the development was independent is because of the notable difference in the two systems. [E] Checks have largely replaced money as a means of exchange, for they are widely accepted everywhere. [F] The first money to appear in China was very different.

[G] Though this is very convenient for both buyer and seller, it should not be forgotten that checks are not real money: they are quite valueless in themselves. Sample Two Directions: The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41?45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A-G to fill in each numbered box. The first and the last paragraphs have been placed for you in Boxes. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points) [A] It is also used to help students gain transition skills: Students with autism or developmental delay can visit a virtual supermarket, take public transportation, cross the street, or organize his or her day. Students in wheelchairs can learn how to navigate buildings. And the beauty is, these students can make any number of mistakes without endangering themselves. [B] For example, virtual reality has been used effectively to assess students’ depth perception, with the results being quite different from those obtained from traditional paper and pencil tests. [C] Then we gradually begin shrinking the sign and adding other environmental elements. Once the student has mastered this virtually, he or she transfers the knowledge to the real world. In the end, this is the most important function of virtual reality programs for special students. [D] Virtual reality even allows us to tailor the world to meet a child’s needs. Let’s say we’re teaching a child to cross the street by paying attention to traffic signs. Educators have found that it is often difficult for the child to locate the traffic sign in a busy environment. With virtual reality, we can blow up the “walk sign” so the student knows what it looks like. [E] And it is expected that future teachers will be exposed to virtual classes, complete with “difficult students” to help them master behavior management techniques. [F] In fact, one of the biggest virtues of virtual reality is that it allows students to learn in a safe environment, and this holds true for students with behavior disorders. After a student has learned an appropriate behavior or way of controlling his or her anger, the

student is put in progressively more difficult virtual social situations where he or she can practice the new technique. [G] Some of today’s most cutting-edge technology is now being used to help students with special needs. No longer just the province of games for “video needs,” virtual reality has come into its own as a tool for special education teachers and therapists. As such, it is used for assessment, teaching, and practice, according to Skip Rizzo, research assistant/professor at the University of Southern California. Order: G→ 41?→ 42?→ 43?→ 44?→ 45?→ C Sample Three Directions: You are going to read a text about Olympic Games, followed by a list of explanations. Choose the best explanation from the list A-F for each numbered subheading (41-45). There is one extra explanation which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points) Olympic Games (modern), international sports competition, held every four years at a different site, in which athletes from different nations compete against each other in a variety of sports. There are two types of Olympics, the Summer Olympics and the Winter Olympics. Through 1992 they were held in the same year, but beginning in 1994 they were rescheduled so that they are held in alternate even?numbered years. (41) Modern Olympic Games?from past to present

The modern Olympic Games began in Athens, Greece, in 1896, two years after French educator and thinker Pierre de Coubertin proposed that the Olympic Games of ancient Greece be revived to promote a more peaceful world. (42) International Olympic Committee The Olympic Games are administered by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), which is headquartered in Lausanne, Switzerland. (43) Awarding the Games In order to host the Olympics, a city must submit a proposal to the IOC. After all proposals have been submitted, the IOC votes. (44) Athletes and eligibility Although the Olympic Charter, the official constitution of the Olympic movement, proclaims that the Olympics are contests among individuals and not among nations, the IOC assigns to the various NOCs the task of selecting national Olympic teams. (45) Ceremonies The Olympic Games have always included a number of ceremonies, many of which emphasize the themes of international friendship and peaceful cooperation. [A] Although they were founded as part of a vision of world peace, once the modern Olympic Games became a truly important international event they also became a stage for political disputes. The most controversial Olympics were the Berlin Games of 1936. [B] From the start of the modern Olympic Games, male amateur athletes of every race, religion, and nationality have been eligible to participate. Although Coubertin opposed the participation of women in the Olympics and no women competed in 1896, a few female golfers and tennis players were allowed to participate in the 1900 Games. Female swimmers and divers were admitted to the 1912 Games, and female gymnasts and track?and?field athletes first competed at the 1928 Games. Women’s Olympic sports have grown significantly since then, and currently women account for approximately half of the members of teams. [C] Typically the Games are awarded several years in advance, allowing the winning city time to prepare for the Games. In selecting the site of the Olympic Games, the IOC considers a number of factors, chief among them which city has, or promises to build, the

best facilities, and which organizing committee seems most likely to stage the Games effectively. The IOC also considers which parts of the world have not yet hosted the Games. [D] The program for the 1896 Games, including only summer events (the Winter Olympics were not established until 1924), included about 300 athletes from fewer than 15 countries competing in 43 events in nine different sports. In contrast, the program 100 years later for the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia, included more than 10,000 athletes from more than 190 countries competing in 271 events in 29 different sports. [E] IOC members are officially considered to be representatives from the IOC to their own nations, not delegates from their own countries to the IOC. Most members are elected to the IOC after serving on the National Olympic Committees (NOCs) of their own countries. [F] The opening ceremony has always included the parade of nations, in which the teams from each nation enter the main stadium as part of a procession. The Greek team always enters first, to commemorate the ancient origins of the modern Games, and the team of the host nation always enters last. The opening ceremony has evolved over the years into a complex extravaganza, with music, speeches, and pageantry. It is eagerly anticipated and well attended. Sample Four Directions: You are going to read a list of brands and a table about world 8 Brands. Choose the most suitable brand from the list A-G for each numbered description (41-45). There are two extra brands which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points) [A] McDonald’s [B] Motorola [C] Coca?Cola [D] Disney [E] Microsoft

[F] Nokia [G] Toyota The Global Brand Scoreboard Brand2003 brand value ($ billion) Country of ownership Description 41.70.45U.S.New variations such as Vanilla Coke and a lemon?flavored diet drink helped the soft drink icon remain bubbly. 42.65.17U.S. The software giant shifted its advertising to build the band, not just sell products, at a time when most rivals were suffering. IBM51.77U.S.Big Blue gained recognition in new markets, partly thanks to an $800 million marketing campaign pushing e-business on demand. GE42.34U.S. Getting double?digit growth is harder, but in tough times, the brand that Edison built held its own. Intel31.11U.S. With Intel Inside and Wi?Fi out to take over the world, the chipmaker’s Centrino wireless notebook package delivered a powerful punch. 43.29.44FinlandStill the World’s leading mobile?phone maker, it faced stiff challenges form fast?riser Samsung and a growing crop of operator?branded phones. 44.28.04U.S. Not the Happiest Place on Earth as its stores were up for sale, ABC overhauled prime time, and travel woes sapped theme parks. 45.24.70U.S.Mixed-up orders and dirty restaurants hurt the band. Now business is recovering somewhat behind a renewed focus on service and salads. Part C Directions: Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points) This line of inquiry did not begin until earlier this month— more than three months after the accident— because there were “too many emotions, too many egos,” said retired Adm. Harold Gehman, chairman of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board.

Testifying before the Senate Commerce Committee, Gehman said this part of his inquiry was in its earliest stages, starting just 10 days ago.(46)But Gehman said he already has concluded it is “inconceivable” that NASA would have been unable or unwilling to attempt a rescue for astronauts in orbit if senior shuttle managers and administrators had known there was fatal damage to Columbia’s left wing. Gehman told reporters after the hearing that answers to these important questions could have enormous impact, since they could place in a different context NASA’s decisions against more aggressively checking possible wing damage in the days before Columbia’s fatal return. (47)Investigators believe breakaway insulating foam damaged part of Columbia’s wing shortly after liftoff, allowing superheated air to penetrate the wing during its fiery re?entry on FeB. 1 and melt it from the inside. (48)Among those decisions was the choice by NASA’s senior shuttle managers and administrators to reject offers of satellite images of possible damage to Columbia’s left wing before the accident. The subject dominated the early part of Wednesday’s hearing. Gehman complained that managers and administrators “missed signals” when they rejected those offers for images, a pointedly harsh assessment of the space agency’s inaction during the 16?day shuttle mission. “We will attempt to pin this issue down in our report, but there were a number of bureaucratic and administrative missed signals here,” Gehman told senators.“We’re not quite so happy with the process.” (49)The investigative board already had recommended that NASA push for better coordination between the space agency and military offices in charge of satellites and telescopes. The U.S. National Imagery and Mapping Agency in March agreed to regularly capture detailed satellite images of space shuttles in orbit. (50)Still, Gehman said it was unclear whether even images from America’s most sophisticated spy satellites might have detected on Columbia’s wing any damage, which Gehman said could have been as small as two inches square. The precise capabilities of such satellites was a sensitive topic during the Senate hearing. Section Ⅲ Writing Part A

51. Directions: You get the information from the newspaper that XX Company is employing an English interpreter. You should write an letter for the job. Your personal information is as follows: 1) Age,30;height,1.80m; health condition,well; hobbies,swimming, singing, dancing. 2) Resume: graduated from Peking University in 1994,worked in Nantong Middle School. 3) Specialty:good at English,especially spoken English,translated many Chinese books into English,understand Japanese. 4)Tel:3654731 You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use “Li Ming” instead. (10 points) Part B 52. Directions: Study the following charts carefully and write an article. In your article, you should cover the following points: 1. Describe the picture. 2. Deduce the purpose of the drawer of the picture. 3. Suggest your counter–measures. You should write about(160-200)words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (20 points) 英语模拟试题(二)参考答案及解析 Section Ⅰ Use of English 1.[答案]A 本题考查形容词词义辨析。

[解析]privatized“私有化的”;individualized“各自化”;personalized “个人化或和个性 化”;characterized “特色化,个人化”根据上下文,此处的意思是私有化的国家铁路,所以答 案应该选 A。 2. [答案]A 本题考查名词词义辨析。 [解析]主句的主语是计划,而表条件的介词短语部分的意思应该是“前景和美好未来”, 而四个选项中,prospects 的意思是前景,outlooks 的意思是景观和看法,expectations 是 期待的意思,spectacles 是景观或眼镜的意思,所以答案应该选择 A。 3. [答案]D 本题考查副词。 [解析]计划一般都带有前瞻性和创造未来的特性,而四个选项中只有答案 D creatively 具有创造性的意思, reluctantly 意“为不情愿的”,articulately 意为“大声地,发出声音的”, originally 的意思是“最初的,开始”。所以答案应该选择 D。 4. [答案]A 本题考查前后语义的固定搭配。 [解析]根据句子的最初语义,计划的推出和实施只能是一个固定的搭配结构 unveil a plan,在这个句子中用的是一个倒装结构 plan is unveiled;选项中 B concealed 的意思是隐 藏和掩盖。 选项 C “demonstrated”和 D “displayed”相差更远。 所以答案应该选择 A unveiled。 5. [答案]B 本题考查短语用法。 [解析]在第 6 题的前面有一个单词 more,既然是较多的,则前面所表达的意思一定是计 划的适用范围增大,同时这个题又考查了短语的语义,come round 是终于……;go beyond 是超越了……;take over 意为接管,went out 意为出去,所以答案应该选择 B。 6. [答案]C 本题考查名词词义辨析。 [解析]这个题是考查前后照应的语义逻辑关系, 5 题选择了 go beyond,则根据 6 空前 第 面的 more,则表明要填入的应该是功能或作用的增加,所以答案应该是 functions。 7. [答案]A 本题考查固定搭配。 [解析]火车站作为货物的中转站或中转场所所以答案应该选择 A locations,从而构成固 定的短语,pick?up locations,而其他的选项 B entrances 意为入口,C vicinities 意为邻近 地区,D districts 意为行政区,所以答案应该是 A。 8. [答案]C 本题考查固定搭配。

[解析]表达“在网上”通常用 over the Internet,所以答案只能选择 C。 9. [答案]B 本题考查引导词。 [解析]定语从句的引导词前面是地点词 country,所以定语从句的引导词是 where,所以 答案只能选择 B。 10. [答案]D 本题考查介词辨析。 [解析]问表示交通工具和结果之间的关系,人们依赖火车进行交通,所以只能使用 depend on...or...,所以答案只能选择 D。 11.A 本题考查名词词义辨析。 前面有 about 16 million people a day 这样的一个数量词, 则后面一定是公司估计的意思,所以答案应该选择 figures,因为只有这个词有推算和估计的 意思,而其他的选项中 B 意为投机和深深思考的意思, C 意为展览的意思,D 是令人信服 的意思。所以答案只能选择 A。 12.B 本题考查前后语义的固定搭配。给人提供更多的旅行机会,用英语中的短语只能 是 provide consumers more traveling 或者是 spare consumers extra traveling,根据四个选 项可以判断出答案只能选择 B,A 是客户的意思,B 是商人的意思。 13.D 本题考查词组。Convenience store 是个词组,意思为“便利店”,在这个考题中 A 选项的意思是连接,B 选项的语义是点缀或装饰,C 选项的语义是支出或开支,所以这个考 题的答案只能选择 D。 14.A 本题考查动词词义辨析。根据原文中的意思中转站专用于网络货物的转送,所以 答案应该是 dedicated space,而 B devoted 表示奉献的意思,C designated 是指定或指派 的意思,D destined 是注定或最终达到,所以答案只能是 A dedicated. 15.D 本题考查近义词辨析。 智能卡只能是 smart cards,选项 B intelligent 的意思是智力 的,智商的。选项 C ingenious 是天才的。所以答案只能选择 D。 16.D 本题考查名短语语义的固定搭配。表示集成电路在英语中的固定表达只能是 integrated circuit,其中选项 A chorus 的意思是合唱,B circus 是团或连的意思,如马戏团, 而选项 C circumference 的意思是周长、范围的意思。 17.A 本题考查前后语义的固定搭配关系,表示把……用作……,所用的结构只能是 use...as...;所以答案只能选择 A。

18.B 本题考查短语辨析。表示用空前而不用空后,则表明的意思是对空前的肯定而对 空后的否定,所以要用 instead of,选项 A 表示前后的并列,所以前后都用,选项 D 表示的 意思是空后语义是产生空前语义的条件,选项 C 的语义相差更远,所以答案只能选择 B。 19.C 本题考查名词词义辨析。 根据句子的本意, 这个题是考查对各种不同卡的识别器, 选项 A 和 B 所表示都是工具或器具的意思,而 C 表示的识别器或识读器,选项 D 所表示的 是监测器的意思,所以答案只能选择 C。 20.D 本题考查动词词义辨析。四个选项中,shrink 表示缩水或减少体积,narrow 选项 是压缩距离,descend 选项时数量或高度的下降和减少,reduce 选项是减少大小、数量、 空间和范围等。所以答案应该选择 D。 译文 人们对东日本铁路公司的兴趣越来越大了, 这个公司是将国家铁路系统私有化之后的六 个公司之一。 在一个没有高速增长的行业内, 创造性地提出利用铁路周边的房地产的方案吸 引了不少人的注意。 在十一月公布的一个叫做铁路复兴的计划中, 东日本铁路公司说它们将把商业空间用于 除了商店和餐馆之外更适合信息时代的其他用途。 公司希望将火车站变成货品提取处, 例如 在网上订购的书籍、花和杂货。它估计在这个城市居民严重依赖铁路交通的国家,每天大约 有 1600 万人使用铁路。所以,在铁路提取货品可以帮人们省去额外的旅途,货品也不会寄 不到家了。 东日本铁路公司已经将车站的方便商店用于这个用途, 但它还计划设立专卖空间用于网 上货物的寄送。 公司还计划引入一种在日本称作 IC 卡的智能卡,因为这种卡使用集成电路储存信息, 例如车票和线路,而不是使用现在使用的磁性卡。这一举措会帮公司节省资金,因为 IC 卡 的读卡器比磁卡系统的便宜得多。随着 IC 卡使用的增加,用于销售车票的空间会减少。 Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension Part A Text 1 21.A 本题是主旨考题。通读全文,选项 A 是正确答案,其他三项过于狭窄,仅是文章 的一个方面,从文中可以知道人们遭受痛苦的原因是他们只对猎取游戏感兴趣。其中的 D 选项是他们认为游手好闲更痛苦,选项 C 是他们不能找到消磨时光的方法,选项 B 表明他 们发现工作很无聊,所以 D 答非所问,B、C 也与原文不符。

22.C 本题是难句理解考题。A 不对,本文不是讲科技的发展;B 表述太过狭窄;D 错在文 章不是讲环境保护问题。 23.C 本题是局部主旨考题。考查第二段的核心语义,第二段并非讲分歧观点、教育的 发展和政治及行政措施,而着重讲述了一些困难,C 选项正好讨论的是对教育的看法及管理 方面的错误。 24.C 本题是观点例证考题。A、B 虽然有理,都强调了学校生活的重要性,但与题干不 符,D 选项是谈论不同学校的统一,显然与文义不符,所以答案只能选择 C,表达的语义是 在社区学校中对纪律约束的强调。 25.C 本题是正误判断考题。从原文第二段 For example 一句中可以知道此项错误。A 选项的意思是不同的教学方法在普通教育中还没有采纳。 表明的是科目设置问题仍然是大 B 众教育的核心问题, C 选项表明的意思是从学校到工作岗位的转换从未停止过,D 选项表 明的是专业素质,所以答案只能选择 C。 译文 从二次世界大战以来, 对所有孩子和青年的考虑已成为一种综合趋势。 它关系到新的发 展。在学术和社会生活中,对地球有危险的环境已变为一个中心,强调合作而非竞争,对生 态系统相互关系和生态学的重要性的认识可以作为组织观念。 在不同的层面, 微电子学的快 速发展,尤其是多功能计算机的应用于教育,远远超出了早期的技术进步。尽管技术被认为 不利于人文主义关心的问题,另一部分人认为它使更多的人交流和了解,并鼓励系统思考的 最终综合效应。 对技术效应和多数重要问题的不同观点是教育政策确定的问题。 除越来越难管理和不同 的教育体系, 以及永远满足不了日益扩大的教育需求外, 缺乏共识使得该系统不能满意地回 答公众的批评,也不能制定长期的发展目标。 政治和管理的响应只限于短期效应, 通过改进管理技术, 对不同的批评采取不同的反应。 因此,社区与社区学校强调中心管理与标准化,并开放了供选方案,同时,主要机构结构更加 明显。例如,把注意重点放在转换期, 转换期在以前从家庭到小学,中学,从学校到工作都 被忽视。 高等院校被视为整体水平的一部分;测试也更加复杂,无论是征书还是记录差别都 更大。 理论上鼓励替代性的教学策略, 但基础课程一致性有效地限制了新方法的实践。 普通教 育依然主要为抽象与主体, 尽管内部更加有动感,还是局限于语言,数学和科学。越来越依靠 于主题来指导教学法。向老师委托大量的工作,但授予较少的知识, 领导部门要求改进教师 的培训, 改进教师的在职培训以及对教师的教学进行定期的评估。

近来的改革措施的重点放在普通与职业教育,鼓励终身或再\[继续\]教育,以满足个人 与社会的不断增长的需要。这样一来,由于这些政策,无论是学生和学校的数量都增加了, 但教育范围也随之扩大了。然而,快速增加又引起了有关学校适当功能,生活,工作,或当 前计划成就与教学方法的新问题。 Text 2 26.B 本题是主旨考题。根据文章的首段我们可以看出,文章讲了在草原上的早期哺乳 动物由于所处的地位不同从而使其智力的进化分成了不同的方向, 文章的末段讲了哺乳动物 的发展和猎食是由神经系统决定的, 所以结合起来讲的是动物的智力和发展环境间的关系论 述,此题应该选择 B。 27.D 本题是正误判断考题。根据文中第二段的意思,我们可以知道脑干的作用范围是 固定的,与刺激大小无关,只有 D 选项的语义表达和文中的语义相关所以答案应该选择 D, 而其他几项都会发生变化。 28.A 这是因果逻辑考题。我们可以看出文章通篇讲述了食肉动物与食草动物的相互作 用是导致智力进化的根源,根据文章第三段和第四段,我们不难发现选项 A 表达的语义正 是对文中语义的替换和表达,所以应该选择 A 选项。 29.C 这是段落主旨考题。即是一种局部主旨考题。在最后一段中,通过 but 一词,我 们可以看出高级动物与低级动物的区别,即低级动物是靠本能,而高级动物则不是,从而进 一步论证了文章的主题,而 C 选项正好反映了这样的一个差异。 30.D 本题是态度考题。 本文是一篇科普性质的文章, 所以作者的态度不可能是谦虚的, 也不可能是诙谐的, 诙谐不能用来形容态度。 同时也不是道歉的, 而是带着一种欣赏的态度。 译文 草原上早期哺乳动物智力的发展主要是由于两个生态同步的动物群间的交往, 即食肉动 物和食草动物。由于猎食者和猎物之间的区别而产生的互动导致了大脑功能的改进;不过, 智力的某些组成部分的改进远远超过了别的部分。 越来越聪明的猎食者和越来越机敏的逃跑者之间互动所影响的智力主要是在注意力方 面——大脑中将意识从这一刻运送到下一刻的方面。这种注意力在被动的、放松的意识和高 度集中的精力之间变化。 这一范围内的变化由脑干中从感觉系统到综合中心的纤维束网络来 调节。从放松状态到紧张状态,感觉的灵敏度也随之增强。生物体更清醒更警觉;当生物体 对环境更敏感时, 不断增强的警惕感会造成对微弱的信号也有反应。 警觉和集中注意力的过 程中方向很重要。警觉是一种由大堆脑干中的冲动造成的大体的感觉;这种活跃逐渐传送。 开始集中注意力, 产生连续的图像。 智力的一个含义是图像和其他小心寻找的信息在从前经

验的指导下被使用的方法。 意识将以前的注意力和现在的相连, 并且按照目的来综合所得到 的细节。 智力和意识的成分在一起很奇妙地产生了猎食者和猎物之间不同的特性。 食草动物和食 肉动物各自发展了与逃跑或追赶相关的注意力。 尽管在两种动物中警觉刺激肾上腺产生肾上 腺素,在食草动物中的效果主要是恐惧,而在食肉动物中产生的效果主要是攻击性。对于两 者,警觉都使它们与要发生的事情协调一致。也许它们不会有像我们一样的事先的思考,但 动物也会经历类似的东西。 猎食者是由神经系统和肾上腺荷尔蒙内在驱动的, 具有攻击性, 但它的意识比饥饿的蜥 蜴在看见爬过的甲虫时的本能更接近人的意识。 大型的哺乳动物能够理解行动和食物之间的 关系, 对踪迹和遥远的声响——以及还未忘记的昨天的经验比较敏感。 食草动物则不同。 它 十分警觉而不是四处觅食, 它平静地等待而不是热切期待。 这种如丝般薄的冷静之下隐藏的 是强劲的消化系统。 Text 3 31.A 本题是难句理解考题。从第四段我们可以知道,人们会因为吵架而不顾体面和尊 严,所以吵架并不能带给人们尊严。 32.C 本题是词汇考题。从上下文可以推断出 rainy afternoon 是一种阴沉沉的天气,它 表明了是一种心情的变化,好的天气表明的是好的心情,不好的天气则是坏的心情。 33.B 本题是推断考题。考研英语中的推断考题主要有三种:一是归纳推断;其次是演绎 推断,第三种方法是等值替换推断。作者着重讲了人生两个阶段生活中的吵架,表明是普遍 现象,这是从日常的生活推出到普遍的生活特点,所以是一种归纳推断。 34.C 本题是推断考题。这是两者之间的比较考题。从第四段第一句话可以知道,人们 吵架有时会丢掉尊严;从第三段得知,吵架并不在于追求真理,仅仅在于其本身;文章最后一 段说明了 argument 像比赛。 35.A 本题是态度考题。态度考题的判断主要有三种方法,一靠文章的宏观结构,其次 是文章的用词特点,还有就是依靠文章的结尾段的语义转换。考查作者的态度,通读全文可 以得知,作者是以一种客观的态度将吵架看作是一种社会技能和现象。 译文 吵架需要情绪和智力; 耐力会起作用,如同顽固的观念一样。但没有一个人是天生的爱 吵架者, 也必须要学习。

一般有两种学习方法。 首先, 普遍喜欢一直长大就不能理解什么是吵架, 它不同于争论, 实际上也不为什么,更谈不上是为了追求事实。吵架的显然主题就是找个借口;真正的目的就 是吵架。 实际上就是从吵架的对方处找回尊严。其基本原理:可谈论任何一件事。未受过训人可 用一个小时来细分将老同事称为说谎骗人的后果。 错过第一个实习的人可进入第二个项目——不圆满的婚姻。 这对新信徒来说是很危险的; 夫妻间的感情更容易使他们立即易受攻击。一旦性别被卷入的话,事情会变得更糟糕。对所 爱的人或被爱的人而言有一个未说出口的规矩, 相互赋有无限制的兽性, 它不用于不共戴天 的敌人。有些顽强的黑人吵架者在晚年会这样做,并掌握了这一切。 吵架可能延续数年。在他们手中的沉思的类型中, 例如作家, 半辈子是很平凡的。在最 纯美的形态中,吵架有相互不说话的参加者。他们需用精细计划,以在公众面前表现他们的 克制。 简言之,凶狠的吵架被称为嚎叫。在所有情况下,主要东西均是相同的; 应忘记吵架的 最初原因。从现在起,尊严、自负,如同嫉妒一样, 均是一件折磨人的事,实质上也是一种 职业,吵架者以自我为中心。争论失败是一种简单的失望,如同输掉了一场网球比赛; 不能 在吵架中大打出手,而是忍着不说,让你的对手去说。 Text 4 36.B 本题是典型的首段首末句考题。 根据首段首句伊斯兰教是神圣法律的说明性例子, 选项 B 讲的是伊斯兰教的神圣性,因此 B 为正确答案。 37.B 本题是典型的复指关系考题。根据对 it 所在句子的分析,考指代关系。 38.C 本题是词汇推断考题。buttress 本意是支撑架,意思是支持,根据上下文可推断 其含义是支持的意思。 39.D 本题是因果逻辑考题。根据第三段 consequently 定位,前半句是原因,后半句是 结果。 40.C 本题是典型的主旨考题。本文的首段讲了伊斯兰教法规,末段讲了其他的法规, 主旨考题遵循一个概括性综合性和归纳性特点, 选项 C 包含了选项 A 和 B 综合语义。 所以, 答案 C 为正确答案。 译文

伊斯兰法是一个很有启迪意义的“神圣法律”。 尽管在一些主题和法律规定上不可避免地 与其他的法律有相似之处, 伊斯兰法律还是很不同。 要想完整地理解这套法律必须对其做一 番研究。即使是犹太法和罗马天主教教会法,这两个在历史上和地理上与它最接近的法律, 也与它不相同。 与伊斯兰法相比, 犹太法和教会法更统一。 尽管从历史来看, 古以色列城邦和大流散(以 色列被征服后,犹太人被迫流散)的法律有所不同,但是在旧约中的法律精神与犹太教法典 非常相近。 犹太教法典是对大流速时期犹太法律的最初的解释。 而伊斯兰教彻底颠覆了在它 之前的阿拉伯信仰;伊斯兰法律是从宗教的角度研究法律问题的结果,它很不统一,包含了 前伊斯兰时期的阿拉伯法律和许多被征服地区的非阿拉伯人的法律成分。 所有的这些成分都 以宗教的眼光加以审视。其影响也各不相同,在有的领域几乎不存在,而在有些领域创造出 了新的制度。神圣法律的特点除了法律和仪式的规定之外,还有法律和宗教的双重性。 在与世俗国家的关系上, 伊斯兰法律也与犹太法和教会法不同。 犹太法由社会的凝聚力 支撑,由外部得到巩固:它的规定是凝聚感的直接体现,趋向于包容不同意见。与此相反, 教会法和伊斯兰法由宗教和国家的双重性占主导,在这里,与犹太教不同的是,国家不是外 部力量,而是宗教在政治上的体现。国家与宗教之间的斗争采取了不同形式;在基督教内体 现为,有严密组织结构的等级争取政治权力,而教会法就是他们的政治武器。在另一方面, 伊斯兰法从来没有得到政府的支持;于是,它不具有公开的约束力。神圣法律的运用与伊斯 兰国家所制定的规定之间存在不一致;这种矛盾的程度依地点和时间而不同。 Part B Sample One: 41.A 42.D 43.C 44.F 45.B 解析 这篇文章讲的是货币的起源。 第一段讲金银之前各种货币的缺陷, 第二段讲硬币起源于 欧洲和中国。接着三段分别讲欧洲硬币的发展、中国硬币的发展和纸币的发展。从备选项中 找出与各段主题相对应的选项。 译文 在欧洲和亚洲, 第一个“交换媒介”或者“价值标准”并不是金或银, 而是牲畜(西班牙语里 的牲畜这个词“pecuario”和钱这个词“pecuniario”的词根相同)。不过,在世界上的其他地方, 不同的商品,如盐、贝壳、石头和可可豆都被当作“货币”。它们都比以物易物方便,但也都 存在缺陷。有的太重,有的不能切分(买一个奶酪需要几分之几头奶牛?),有的不能长期贮 存。解决的办法就是使用硬币。

硬币几乎同时但又是各自独立地于大约公元前 700 年出现在希腊和中国。历史学家认 为它们是独立发展的,是因为两个系统有显著的不同。 在希腊,河里有一种被称为“electrun”的天然金银合金。用一种打孔器从这种天然合金 上获得了最初的硬币。为了将硬币与金的装饰物相区别,在硬币的一侧加上了图案。最初, 这些图案很简单:花、广场、在 Phocaea 城图案是海豹。同时,在希腊的其他地方,制造 了圆形的银币。 很快, 在希腊的各地这些银币变得比金币更普遍。 不久, 硬币上出现了字样。 已知的最早的字样是“我是 Phanes 的标记”。大约 200 年后,公元前 600 年前后,统治者的 画像第一次出现在硬币上。 中国最早的货币出现的情况与此不同。首先,货币是青铜制造的。更显著的不同是,它 不是圆形的,而是刀形的!刀柄上有个孔,所以它可以挂起来(例如,挂在一根绳子上),与 希腊银币相同的是,它上面也有字样。还有的是钥匙或锹的形状,但它们都有孔。在大约公 元前 250 年前后,我们所认为的硬币首次在中国出现了。 于是著名的“明”造币厂生产了圆形 方孔的硬币。这种特殊的硬币上的字样是“明之刀”,不过后来刀本身却消失了。钱从这种硬 币上发展起来了。中文的“钱”这个字意思是“一个很小的货币单位”。尽管中国的硬币经常有 字样,但是画像直到 19 世纪中国受到西方影响之后才出现。 纸币也是中国发明的。在 13 世纪,马可波罗把纸币的故事带到了欧洲,但纸币的观念 没有引起当时欧洲人的注意。事实上,现代纸币的祖先是苏格兰金融界 John Law 于 1716 年在法国制造的 billet。所以,英文中的钱这个词来自中国,而西班牙语的“billeted”则是来 自一个在法国的苏格兰人。看来钱的确能玩转地球! Sample Two: 41. B 42. A 43. F 44.E 45. D 解析 这几段文字是对虚拟现实好处的举例, 注意各段之间层层递进的联系, 特别是每段的第 一句话。 译文 现在人们正在使用一些当代最前沿的技术帮助有特殊需要的学生。虚拟现实不再只是 “图像迷”游戏的地盘,它已经声名鹊起,开始流行,成为从事特殊教育的教师和治疗师们使 用的工具。南加利福尼亚大学的教授兼研究助理斯基普?里佐说,虚拟现实就其本身而言,可 以用来进行评估、教学、练习等活动。

例如,虚拟现实已经用于对学生的纵深觉察能力进行评估,而且效果显著,通过该方法 取得的结果与用传统的纸笔测试得到的结果截然不同。 虚拟现实还用来帮学生掌握向普通人生活过渡的技巧: 患孤独症的学生或发展迟滞的学 生可以去虚拟超市、乘坐公交汽车、过马路、或者安排自己一天的活动。坐轮椅的学生能学 会如何在建筑群里穿行。最妙的是,学生们无论犯多少错误都不会威胁到自身的安全。 事实上, 虚拟现实最大的好处在于它使学生在安全的环境中学习, 而这一点对于那些行 为失调的学生同样适合。 学生学会某种适当的行为举止或者学会控制自己的情绪之后, 就会 置身于难度越来越大的虚拟社交场合,练习自己学会的新技巧。 在未来, 教师有望接触有“难对付的学生”的虚拟课堂, 通过这种方式掌握行为管理技巧。 虚拟现实甚至还能让我们改变周围的世界以满足孩子的需求。 比如, 我们教孩子过马路 时要注意看交通信号灯。教育者们发现,孩子通常很难在乱糟糟的环境下找到交通信号灯; 但是借助于虚拟现实我们可以放大“行走信号”,让学生知道它是什么样子,然后逐渐将其缩 小并添加周围的景物。 一旦学生确实掌握了这一虚拟世界的法则, 他或她就会将之用于现实 世界,而这也是虚拟现实课程对于有特殊需要的学生来说最重要的功能所在。 Sample Three: 41. D 42. E 43. C 44. B 45. F 解析 这篇文章从历史、奥委会、运动会的举办、运动员参赛资格和仪式五个方面介绍了奥林 匹克运动。注意正确的选项中有与每段标题相对应的文字。 译文 现代奥林匹克运动会是国际体育盛会, 每四年在不同地点举办, 来自不同国家的运动员 在不同的体育项目中竞争。有两类奥运会,夏季奥运会和冬季奥运会。1992 年,它们是在 同一年举行的,不过从 1994 年开始它们间隔一年举行一个。 现代奥运会——从过去到现在 现代奥运会开始于 1896 年希腊雅典,是在法国的教育家、思想家皮埃尔顾拜旦提议复 兴古代奥运会来促进世界和平之后两年。 1896 年奥运会只有夏季项目(冬季奥运会直到 1924 年才建立)。来自少于 15 个国家的约 300 名运动员参加了 9 个大项中的 43 个小项。与此形 成对比的是, 100 年后的 1996 年亚特兰大奥运会有来自超过 190 个国家的超过 1 万名运动 员参加了 29 个大项中的 271 个小项。

国际奥林匹克委员会 奥运会由国际奥林匹克委员会负责管理, 委员会的总部设在瑞士洛桑。 国际奥委会的成 员被认为是奥委会派往各国的代表, 而不是各国派到奥委会的代表。 大多数成员都是在本国 的奥委会工作过后被选入国际奥委会。 奖励运动会 为了举办奥运会, 申办城市必须向国际奥委会递交申请提案。 在所有的提案都被提交了 之后,国际奥委会举行投票。一般来说,会提前数年决定举办国,使举办国有时间做准备。 在选择举办国时, 国际奥委会会考虑许多因素, 主要包括哪个城市承诺或已经建造了最好的 设施以及哪个组织委员会最有可能高效地举办奥运会。 国际奥委会还考虑世界上哪些地区没 有举办过奥运会。 运动员的参赛资格 尽管奥林匹克宪章这部奥林匹克运动的官方文献宣称奥运会是个人而不是国家之间的 竞争, 国际奥委会把选拔各国奥运代表团的任务交给了各国的奥委会。 从现代奥运会一开始, 属于任何种族、宗教和国籍的业余男运动员都可以参赛。尽管顾拜旦反对女性参加奥运会, 而且 1896 年的奥运会没有女性参加,有一些女性高尔夫球和网球的选手参加了 1900 年奥 运会。1912 年的奥运会允许女性游泳和跳水选手参加,1928 年首次允许女性体操和田径运 动员参加。从那时开始,女性奥林匹克运动有了长足的发展,现在女性运动员大约占各代表 队人数的一半。 仪式 奥运会总是有一些仪式,它们大多强调全世界友谊、和平合作的主题。开幕式总是包括 各国代表队入场式,每个国家的代表队都进入主体育场。希腊队总是第一个入场的,这是为 了纪念现代奥运会的起源,主办国代表队总是最后一个入场。数年来,开幕式已经演变成了 一个盛会,有音乐、演说和表演。开幕式很受人瞩目而且参加的人很多。 Sample Four: 41. C 42. E 43. F 44. D 45. A 解析 通过每段描述可以知道各品牌所在的行业。第 43 题,注意所在国是芬兰,这样就可以 将 Nokia 与 Motorola 相区别。 译文

世界品牌排行榜 品牌 2003 年品牌价值 (单位十亿美元)国家描述 可口可乐 70.45 美国新品种,如 Vanilla 可乐和柠檬味的健康饮料使软饮料大亨状况良 好。 微软 65.17 美国 软件巨头通过广告来塑造品牌,并不仅仅是销售商品,而此时它的竞 争对手都处于艰难时期。 IBM (国际商业机器)51.77 美国它在新的领域也获得了认可,这部分是归功于一个高达 八亿美元的市场营销计划推动了电子商务的需求。 GE (通用电气)42.34 美国 在经济困难时期获得两位数的增长是很难的,但爱迪生创立 的这个品牌做到了。 Intel (英特尔)31.11 美国 拥有英特尔芯片和 Wi?Fi 技术在全球占领市场,芯片制造 商的 Centrino 无线笔记本也来势汹汹。 Nokia (诺基亚)29.44 芬兰仍然是世界上顶尖的移动电话制造商。它现在面临着来自快 速成长的三星等厂家的挑战。 迪斯尼 28.04 美国 现在并非地球上最快乐的地方,因为它的商店被卖,ABC 修改了黄 金时段,而且旅行的不幸遭遇使主体公园的吸引力大减。 麦当劳 24.70 美国混合定单和不清洁餐厅损坏了这个品牌。 现在, 当中心放到服务和沙 拉上之后,生意有所恢复。 Part C 46.但是 Gehman 说他已经做出了一个结论:如果说宇航局的高级管理官员们知道了哥 伦比亚宇宙飞船的左翼有致命的故障存在, 而美国航空航天总署却不愿或不能对进入轨道的 宇航员采取营救行动,这是不能令人信服的。 47.调察人员认为飞船起飞后不久隔热泡沫从飞船的破损处流失,这导致了二月一日飞 船返航时过热的空气穿过飞船的侧翼引起大火并在内部融化了飞船的事故。 48.在这些决定中包括宇航局管理官员拒绝接受所给的关于哥伦比亚飞船左翼的隐患的 卫星照片的决定。

49.调查委员会曾建议航空航天总署促成宇航局和掌管卫星和望远镜的军方部门间更好 的合作。 50.来自于美国军方最先进的间谍卫星的照片是否能检测出哥伦比亚飞船侧翼上的两英 寸大小的破损,Gehman 对此仍旧不敢肯定。 Section Ⅲ Writing Part A 51. Dear manager, I learned from the newspaper that your company wanted to hire an English translator. I’m interested in this job very much. I’d like to get this job. Now I’d like to introduce myself to you. My name is Li Ming. I’m 30 years old and 180 cm tall. I’m healthy. I like swimming, singing and dancing in my spare time. I graduated from Peking University in 1994. Then, I went to work in Nantong Middle School. In 1996, I began to work in Suzhou Middle School and I have worked there until now. I work hard and I can get along well with others. I’m good at English and especially my spoken English is very good. I’ve translated many Chinese books into English. I can understand Japanese and I can talk to foreigners in Japanese freely. If I can be the lucky one to be admitted, I’ll work hard and try to be a good translator. Your prompt response would be kindly appreciated. I live at No.1 Renmin Road, Suzhou city. My telephone number is 3654731. Yours truly, Li Ming Part B 52. In this picture a man rudely opens a garbage can and violently throws all kinds of waste into it. However, the box is not an ordinary trash can, but is, as a matter of fact, the Earth. It is where survive, breed, and prosper. But as the drawing indicates, Earth does not receive an equal repayment. Quite the contrary, one of the biggest “gifts” humans return to Earth is an unbelievable amount of trash.

The picture purposefully points out a kind of pollution that arouses little public attention, that is, garbage. The past century has witnessed an unprecedented increase in garbage output, most of it technological products that are difficult to be decomposed through natural processes, such as plastics and glass. Furthermore, a recent report released that several major Chinese cities are already surrounded by circles of trash in the suburban areas, polluting air, water, and earth. Hence, the issue of waste pollution needs to be addressed as one of the priorities that demand social efforts. Only through a holistic system of trash disposal can this problem be fully solved. Moreover, we should advocate a more frugal lifestyle so as to reduce the growing scale of waste pollution.


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