Which part serves as subject in each sentence?
1. You are a student. 2. Smoking is bad for you. 3. To find your way can be a problem. 4. “How do yo
u do?” is a greeting. 5 .What she said is not yet known. 6. That we shall be late is certain. 7. It is certain that we shall be late.
A sentence serving as subject is called Subject Clause.
How the book will sell depends on its author. That he is the best student in the class is obvious.
从属连词: that, whether； 连接代词: who (whoever), whom, whose, what (whatever) which (whichever)； 连接副词: when, where, how ,why。
that 引导主语从句只起引导作用，本身无实 际意义，在主语从句中不充当任何成分，但 不能省略。
That he will win is certain.他肯定会赢。 Whether he’ll come here isn’t clear. 他是否会来这里还不清楚。
注意: 由that 引导的主语从句有时为了使句
子结构平衡, 避免 “头重脚轻” *it为形式主语
1. That he will refuse this piece of advice is impossible.
It is impossible that he will refuse this piece of advice.
2.That they should like each other is natural. It is natural that they should like each other.
这样就构成了下面一些常用句型: 1) It is + n. +从句 It is a pity/shame that... 遗憾的是…… It is a surprise that…令人惊奇的是… It is a fact that… …是事实 It is common knowledge that… …是常识 It is a pity that 很遗憾)we lost the match. *_______________(
It is a fact that 这是事实)he cheated in the *______________( exam.
2) It is + adj. +从句 It’s certain that… 肯定… It is possible that... 很可能…… It is unlikely that... 不可能…… It is obvious that… 很明显… It is necessary \important \natural\... that… +(should) +do… It is possible that 很可能)she will come *_________________( back tomorrow. It is obvious that 很明显)this measure is *_________________( effective.
3) It +不及物动词+从句 It happened that... 碰巧…… It occurred to me that…我突然想起…
It happened that 刚好)I came into the office *________________( at that time.
*____________________( It occurred to me that 我突然想起)I forget to sent the letter.
4) It + be +过去分词+从句
It is said that... 据说…… It is known to all that... 众所周知…… It is reported that... 据报道…… It is believed that...据信……;人们相信…… It is suggested that + (should）do... 建议…… It must be admitted that…必须承认…… It cannot be denied that… 不可否认…… It must be pointed out that…需指出的是……
It is reported that 据报道)20 people were *___________________( killed in the accident. *______________________( It is suggested that 建议)we should eat more vegetable and do more exercise.
?1.主语从句位于句首时必须由连接词引导。 ?2. 主语从句位于句末时引导词that可省略。 ?3. 主语从句位于句首时,不能用if引导。 ?4.主语从句位于句末时, 可以用if引导。
1）主语从句在句首时，必须由连接词引 导，不能省略这些连接词；但是如果用it 做形式主语，而把主语从句放在句末时， 从属连词that可以省略。
误：They should like each other is natural. 正：That they should like each other is natural. 正：It is natural (that) they should like each other.
2)如果主语从句放在句首，不能用if引 导，但是如果用it 做形式主语，而把主 语从句放在句末时，也可以用if引导， 或把if 改为whether
误：If Mary really heard him is really doubtful. 正：It was doubtful if Mary really heard him. 正: Whether Mary really heard him is really doubtful.
2.连接代词what, who, which, whatever, whichever, whoever
What many scientists believe is that the earth is round … Who will take part in the meeting has not been decided. Which student will win is uncertain.
连接代词whatever, whichever, whoever
(Who, whom, which, what可以和ever构成合 成词，和what一样引导从句，ever起到强调作 用。此类主语从句不能用形式主语it引导，它们 在句子中担任成分，不能省略，语序为陈述语 序)
Whoever breaks the law will be punished. Whatever was said here must be kept secret. 这里说的话都应当保密。 Whoever makes mistakes must correct them. 凡犯了错误的人都必须改正。
Whatever and whoever
Whatever ＝ anything that
Whoever ＝ anyone who
Whoever breaks the law should be punished。
＝Anyone who breaks the law should be punished.
3. 连接副词when，where， how， why等。
Why they suddenly disappeared still remains a mystery.
When they will leave is not decided. Where she is from is unknown. How we will paint the house has not been decided.
Complete the sentences using what, whether, where, when， who, why, how or that.
Whatis needed for success) is your hard work. 1.(_____ When/How 2.(______ they will arrive )has been told to the teacher. Where/whether 3.(_____ we will go tomorrow )hasn’t been decided yet.
4.(______ Who can join in the sport meet) is decided by the teach 5.(________ Whether it will rain or not) is not clear.
主语从句的规律： 找出下列句子中的错误，并总结规律 例1.When will he come is not known.
正：When he will come is not known. 规律一、主语从句一律用陈述语序， 即主语在前，谓语在后。
例2. He will not come to the meeting this evening is true. 正：That he will not come to the meeting this evening is true.
规律二、连词that 在从句中无实际意义， 但不能省略。
主语从句的规律： 例3. If the meeting will be put off
has not been decided yet. 正： Whether the meeting will be put off has not been decided yet.
规律三、whether 可以引导主语从句， 放在句首，但if不能
主语从句的规律： 例4. That whether he will help others
is a fact.
正：That he will help others is a fact. 规律四、主语从句中的连词不能重叠使用。
例5. When he will come are a puzzle. 正：When he will come is a puzzle. 规律五、含主语从句的主句谓语动词多用 单数第三人称形式。
1. What he needs is that book.
2. What he needs are some books.
规律六、what 引导的主语从句，可根据 表语决定主句动词的单复数形式。
That the earth turns around the sun is known to all.
It is known to all that the earth turns around the sun.
规律七、主语从句为了避免头重脚轻现象， 用 it 做形式主语，而把从句放在后面。
How he became a great scientist is known to us all.
Is what you told me really true?
不 能 省 略 关 联 词
谓 语 动 词 多 用 单 数
从 句 用 陈 述 语 序
1、无论他说什么都不重要。 Whatever he says is of no importance. 2、无论谁说这话都不对。 Whoever says this is wrong．
但谓语动词用单数还是复数，不可一概而论，而要视句子的意义而 定。 What I need is money. What I need are books.
找出错误，并给出理由： 1.Where shall we spend the holiday isn’t decided. we shall 2.You have made a mistake is a fact. That you have 3. If the policeman will come is not certain. Whether
4. That is certain that we can win. It
5. It is ordered we should leave at once. that 6. Where he comes from are a is mystery. 7. What whether he likes the job is not clear. 8. Who he is and where he is from is are important. 9.What he saw is the stars in the sky.
Make a sentence
the cat do made cry
What the cat did made the baby cry.
Make a sentence
the use of cell phone
What they are talking about is the use of cell phone.
Make a sentence
report , get the highest points, match
It is reported that Yao Ming got the highest points in the match.
Make a sentence
Don’t know the answer
It makes the teacher angry that the child doesn’t know the answer.
1. D has helped to save the drowning girl is worth praising. A.Who B.The one C.Anyone D.Whoever 2.It was A he said disappointed me.
A.what ;that B.that; that C.what;what D.that;what 3. B we’ll go camping tomorrow depends on the weather.
A.If B.Whether C.That D.Where
4. A he said at the meeting surprised everybody present. A.What B. That C.The fact D.The matter
B was to return to school.
A.That really interested him B.What really interested him C.Which really interested him D.That interest him really 6. C makes mistakes must correct them. A.What B.That C.Whoever D.Whatever 7. A your men have been on my land without permission. A.It seems that B.There seems to be C.That seems D.It seems for 8.It has always puzzled me B the old man lied a red silk ribbon on the young tree.
11.___ he made an important speech at the meeting was true.
A. That B. Why C. What D. How 12. ___we’ll go camping tomorrow depends on the weather . A If B Whether C That D Where
13.___ is known to us all that America is a developed country . A Which B As C What D It
14. It’s known to us all ___ a form of energy .
A. water is C. is water B. that water is D. that water to
15. It worried her a bit ___ her hair was turning gray. A. whether B. that C. what D. when
16.What I say and think ___ none of your business. A. is B. are C. has D have
. ____makes this shop different is that it offers more personal services. A What B Who C Whatever D Whoever
18. These wild flowers are so special that I would do____ I can to save them. A whatever B that C which D whichever
19. _____ made the school proud was
____ more than 90% of the students had been admitted to key universities. A. What; because C. That; what B. What; that D. That; because
20. ______ he referred to in his article
was unknown to the general reader.
A. That C. Whether B. What D. Where
parents say and do has a lifelong effect on their children.
C they are most interested in is how 22．______ they can produce more and better cars. A. That B. What C. What D. That B 23．______ we’ll go camping tomorrow depends on the weather. A. If B. Whether C. That D. Where C 24. ________ makes mistakes must correct them. A. What B. That C. Whoever D. Whatever B 25. ______ surprised me most was that such a little boy of seven could play the violin so well.. A. That B. What C. That D. When
? 26. ________ we go swimming every day ________ us D ? a lot of good. ? A. If…do B. That…do C. If…does D. That…does
? ? ? ?
27. It ________ Bob drives badly. D A. thinks that B. is thought what C. thought that D. is thought that 28. It‘s uncertain(不确定）C ________ the exhibition will be hold in Shanghai. ? A. if B. that C. whether D. how ? 29. ________ the boy didn't take medicine made A his mother angry. ? A. That B. What C. How D. Which
? 30 A ____ we can't have seems better than that we have. ? A. What B. Who C. That D. whose
? 31. ____ you don't like him is none of my business. B B. Who C. That D. Whether ? A. What ? 32. ____ we'll go camping tomorrow depends on the weather. ? A. If . DB. Whether C. That D. Where ? 33. _________is going to do the job will be decided by the CEO. ? A. That B. Why C. How D. Who
A ? 34. _______ we'll finish translating the book depends on the time. ? A. When B. Why C. What D. That C ? 35. _______ makes mistakes must correct
them. ? A. Who B. Anyone ? C. Whoever D. Anybody
A team will win the match is ? 36. _______ none of my business. ? A. Which B. That C. If D. How
worried her a bit ___ her hair was turning gray. B. that
38.What I say and think ___ none of your business. A. is B. are C. has D have
1. That _____ you don’t like him is none of my business. 2. What _____ he said at the meeting astonished everybody present 3.Whether ________ the 2000 Olympic Games will be held in Beijing is not known yet. 4.Whether ________ we’ll go camping tomorrow depends on the weather. 5.Whoever ________ leaves the room last ought to turn off the lights.
请用恰当的主语从句连词填空: What ,it ,that , whether, whoever
Correct or not?
*When the meeting will be held haven’t been known yet.
……………………………. be held hasn’t been known yet.
Correct or not? * If we will have a meeting hasn’t been
Whether we will…………………………. decided yet. Pay attention:放在名词性从句句首，表示 “是否”，只能用whether, 不能用if
Correct or not? *That she wants to know is when the party will be held .
What she wants to know is…….
Pay attention:此主语从句缺少成分-宾语， 故用作成分的what来引导，而不用that。
Correct or not?
*He will give up his job surprises all of us.
That he will give up………
Pay attention:由that引导的主语从句放在句 首，that 不能省略。